Panchakarma a new look at the Indus valley script.

Daniel F. Salas. danielyogi7 – At – yahoo.com

This study looks at the Indus Valley script being used for medical purposes. The methodology I employed was first, I believed the seals dates for commerce, and than with the new findings in the Indus Valley script, discussed below, I am convinced the dates have a medical purpose. The Indus Valley script glyphs have a visually relationship with the star constellations along the ecliptic. The Indus script has an established visual relationship with the Polynesian Easter Island script. The Polynesian’s used the stars to navigate, the use of the same pictorial image of the stars points to a very old navigational system. These constellations I then matched to the old Sanskrit names for those constellations. 

jatUkarNa (g. %{gargA7di} v.l. %{jAt-}), bat-eared “‘N. of a physician (pupil of Bharadva1ja Kapisht2hala) Car. 1, 29 (v.l. %{jAtUkarN}).

gargaraka m. the fish Pimelodus Gagora Sus3r.; N. of a plant with a poisonous root ib.; (%{ikA}) f. N. of a plant and its fruit g. %{harItaky-Adi} (Ka1s3.)

gArga mfn. fr. %{gArgya} (with %{saGgha} , %{aGka} , and %{lakSaNa}) Pa1n2. 4-3, 127; (with %{ghoSa}) Va1rtt. 1; m. contemptuous metron. fr. %{gArgI}, 1 , 147 Sch. (%{gArgya} , 6 Ka1s3.) ; mf(%{I})n. composed by Garga (the astronomical Sam2hita1); m. (in music) a kind of measure ;

garga m. N. of an old sage (descendant of Bharad-va1ja and An3giras, author of the hymn RV. vi, 47); of an astronomer AV. Paris3. (called `” the old one “‘, %{vRddha-}) MBh. ix, 2132 ff. VarBr2S. ; of a physician ; of a teacher of law; of a son [Hariv. 1732 BrahmaP. 

Garga combines astronomical values for medical treatments.

The Chikitsa sthana composed by Charaka is divided into four sections (or sub-chapters). The first chapter describes several medicine preparations by means of which one can prevent and retard aging and live a longer, happier life. Chikitsa is a Sanskrit term, broadly defined as ‘therapy,’ but also understood as the application of consciousness or caring. It is a concept prominent to all major Ayurvedic texts, many of which have a Chikitsa Sthana or ‘section relating to therapy’.

cikita m. (g. %{gargA7di}) N. of a man A1s3vS3r. xii.

  cikitsita mfn. treated medically, cured W.; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} (not in Ka1s3.); n. = %{-tsA} Mn. x, 47 MBh. iii, 1460; iv, 318 Sus3r. &c.; (pl.) the chapters of the therapeutical section (of med.) Sus3r. (ifc. f. a1, I, 13, 6).

jatu n. lac, gum Kaus3. 13 MBh. i , xii Sus3r. ; (%{U4s}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1, 71 Pat.) a bat VS. xxiv , 25 and 36 AV. ix , 2 , 22 ; [cf. Lat. {bitumen} ; Germ. {Kitt}.]

mAnuSa or %{mAnuSa4} mf(%{I}) n. (fr. %{manus}) belonging to mankind, human RV. &c. &c.; favorable or propitious to men, humane RV. AV.; m. (ifc. f. %{A}) a man, human being (pl. the races of men, 5 in number) RV. &c. &c. ;(scil. %{cikitsA}), human medicine “‘, a branch of medicine, the administering of drugs (opp. to %{AsurI} and %{daivIcik-}) W.

Asura 1 mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{asura}) , spiritual , divine RV. VS. AV. ; ; a division of medicine (surgery , curing by cutting with instruments , applying the actual cautery) ;

mAnasya m. patr. fr. %{manas} g. %{gargA7di}.

mAnavya m. patr. fr. %{manu} g. %{gargA7di} ; n. w.r. for %{mANvya}.

mAnAyya m %{mAnAyyAyanI} f. g. %{gargA7di} and %{lohitA7di}.77

maNDu m N. of a Rishi S3a1n3khGr2. (cf. g. %{gargA7di} and %{mANDavya}).

mAntavya m patr. fr. %{mantu} g. %{-gargA7di}.

mAntritya m. patr. fr. %{mantrita} g. %{gargA7di}

jatUkarNa m. (g. %{gargA7di} v.l. %{jAt-}) , bat-eared “‘N. of a physician (pupil of Bharadva1ja Kapisht2hala) Car. i , 1 , 29 (v.l. %{jAtUkarN}).

jAtUkarNa m. (fr. %{jat-}? g. %{gargA7di} v.l.) N. of an ancient teacher (one of the 28 transmitters of the Pura1n2as VP. iii , 3 , 19 ; vi , 8 , 47 [%{-Nya}] Va1yuP.i , 1 , 8 ; 23 , 201[%{-Nya}] Devi1bhP. ; author of a law-book Ya1jn5. Sch. ; [%{-Nya} Pa1rGr2. Sch.] ; N. of a physician) MBh. ii , 109 Hariv. 2364 BhP. vi , 15 , 13 ; (= Agni-ves3ya) ix , 2 , 21 ; N. of S3iva ; (%{I}) f. N. of Bhava-bhu1ti’s mother Ma1latiim. i , 5/6 ; mf(%{I})n. of %{-Nya} g. %{kaNvA7di}.

jAtukarNya m. (fr. %{jatU-karNa} g. %{gargA7di}) N. of several preceptors and grammarians (see also %{-Na}) S3Br. xiv Ka1tyS3r. iv , xx , xxv VPra1t. S3a1n3khS3r. ; Sa1n3khGr2. , iv, 10, 3 AitA1r. v, 3 BrahmaP. ii, 12; pl. Ja1tu1karn2ya’s family Pravar. vi, 1 and 6.

bhaiSajya m. patr. fr. %{bhiSaj} , or %{bhiSaja} g. %{gargA7di} (Ka1s3.) ; n. creativeness, healing efficacy VS.; a partic. ceremony performed as a remedy for sickness Kaus3. ; any remedy, drug, or medicine (`” against “‘ gen.) S3Br. Sus3r. ; the administering of medicines &c. MW.

bhaiSNajya m. patr. fr. %{bhiSNaja} g. %{gargA7di} (v.l. %{bhaiSaja}

cikita m. (g. %{gargA7di}) N. of a man A1s3vS3r. xii.

cikitsita mfn. treated medically, cured W.; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} (not in Ka1s3.) ; n. = %{-tsA} Mn. x, 47 MBh. iii , 1460 ; iv , 318 Sus3r. &c. ; (pl.) the chapters of the therapeutical section (of med.) Sus3r. (ifc. f. a1, I, 13, 6).

daivahavya m. patron. fr. Deva-hu1 g. %{gargA7di}.

devahU mfn. invoking the gńgods (superl. %{-tama}) RV. VS.; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di}; f. (scil. %{dvAr}) N. of the northern aperture of the human body, i.e. of the left ear (which is turned northwards if the face is directed towards the east) BhP. iv , 25 , 51 &c. (cf. %{pitR-}).

jAtukarNya m. (fr. %{jatU-karNa} g. %{gargA7di}) N. of several preceptors and grammarians (see also %{-Na}) S3Br. xiv Ka1tyS3r. iv , xx , xxv VPra1t. S3a1n3khS3r. ; Sa1n3khGr2. , iv, 10, 3 AitA1r. v, 3 BrahmaP. ii, 12; pl. Ja1tu1karn2ya’s family Pravar. vi, 1 and 6.

kauNDinya m. patr. fr. %{kuNDina} (or metron. fr. %{kuNDinI} g. %{gargA7di}) S3Br. xiv A1s3vS3r. Pravar. MBh. ii, 111 Lalit. DivyA7v. xxxii ; N. of an old grammarian TPra1t. i , 5 and ii , 5 ff. ; (%{vyAkaraNa-}) Buddh. ; of Jaya-deva (cf. %{vidarbhI-k-} and %{AjJAta-k-}) ; mfn. coming from Kun2d2ina Prasannar.

kauNDala mfn. (fr. %{kuND-}) , furnished with rings g. %{jyotsnA7di}.

trirAtra n. sg. 3 (nights or) days S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. cf. %{azva-} , %{garga-} , %{baida-} ; (%{am}) ind. for 3 days , during 3 days Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vGr2. Mn. &c. ;

Above is a seal, when pressed into clay it becomes a mirror image, opposite of the direction above. The first is night, then day, night, day and night, altogether two and a half days or three nights “Triratra”. The word swastika comes from Sanskrit: स्वस्तिक, romanized: svastika, meaning “conducive to well-being”. In Hinduism, the right-facing symbol (卐) is called swastika, symbolizing Surya (“sun”), prosperity, and good luck, while the left-facing symbol (卍) is called sauwastika, symbolizing night or tantric aspects of Kali. In Jainism, a swastika is a symbol for Suparshvanatha – the seventh of 24 Tirthankaras (spiritual teachers and saviors), while in Buddhism it symbolizes the auspicious footprints of the Buddha.

bAhu 1 m. and (L.) f. (fr. %{bah}, %{baMh}; for 2. %{bAhu} see col. 3) the arm, (esp.) the forearm, the arm between the elbow and the wrist (opp. to %{pra-gaNDa} q.v. ; in medic. the whole upper extremity of the body, as opp. to %{sakthi}, the lower extñextremity) RV. &c. &c. ;

Graha-graha to Garga

graha; crocodile MBh. xvi , 142 (ifc. f. %{A}) R. iv f. BhP. viii ;

grAha (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 143) mf(%{I})n. ifc. seizing, holding, catching, receiving Ya1jn5. ii, 51 R. iv, 41, 38; m. a rapacious animal living in fresh or seawater, any large fish or marine animal (crocodile, shark, serpent, Gangetic alligator, water elephant, or hippopotamus) Mn. vi, 78 MBh. &c. (ifc. f. %{A}, iv, 2017; xvi R. ii); a prisoner L.; the handle (of a sword &c.) Gal. ; seizure, grasping, laying hold of Pan5cat. i , 10 , 1 (v.l. for %{graha}) ; morbid affection , disease S3Br. iii ; paralysis (of the thigh , %{Uru-grAha4} AV. xi , 9 , 12 [%{ur-} MSS.] MBh. v , 2024 and vi , 5680) ; `” mentioning “‘ see %{nAma-} ; fiction , whim Bhag. xvii, 19; conception, the notion of (in comp.) Vajracch. 6 and 9 ; (%{am}) ind. see s.v. ; (%{I}) f. a female marine animal or crocodile R. vi, 82,

hradagraha m. `” lake-monster “‘, a crocodile, alligator L.

graha (Pa1n2. 3-3 , 58 ; g. %{vRSA7di}) mfn. ifc. (iii , 2 , 9 Va1rtt. 1) seizing, laying hold of, holding BhP. iii , 15 , 35 (cf. %{aGkuza-} , %{dhanur-} , &c.) ; obtaining , v , vii ; perceiving , recognising , iv , 7 , 31 ; m. `” seizer (eclipser) “‘, Ra1hu or the dragon’s head MBh. &c. ; a planet (as seizing or influencing the destinies of men in a supernatural manner; sometimes 5 are enumerated, viz. Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn MBh. vi, 4566 f. R. I, 19, 2 Ragh. iii, 13 &c. ; also 7 i.e. the preceding with Ra1hu and Ketu MBh. vii , 5636 ; also 9 i.e. the sun [cf. S3Br. iv, 6, 5, 1, and 5 MBh. xiii, 913; xiv, 1175] and moon with the 7 preceding Ya1jn5. I, 295 MBh. iv, 48 VarBr2S.; also the polar star is called a Graha, Garg. (Jyot. 5 Sch.) ; the planets are either auspicious %{zubha-}, %{sad-}, or inauspicious %{krUra-}, %{pApa-} VarBr2S.; with Jainas they constitute one of the 5 classes of the Jyotishkas); the place of a planet in the fixed zodiac W.; the number `” nine “‘; it falls within the province of medical science to expel these demons; those who esp. seize children and cause convulsions &c. are divided into 9 classes according to the number of planets Sus3r.) MBh. &c. ; ; a crocodile MBh. xvi , 142 (ifc. f. %{A}) R. iv f. BhP. viii; any ladle or vessel employed for taking up a portion of fluid (esp. of Soma) out of a larger vessel Mn. v, 116 Ya1jn5. i, 182; N. of the 8 organs of perception (viz. the 5 organs of sense with Manas, the hands, and the voice) S3Br. xiv Nr2isUp. i , 4 , 3 , 22 ; (= %{gRha}) a house R. vii , 40 , 30 (cf. %{a-} , %{khara-} , %{-druma} and %{-pati}) ; a crocodile MBh. xvi , 142 (ifc. f. %{A}) R. iv f. BhP. viii ;

From the Johns Hopkins University on the Ayurveda; a natural system of medicine, originated in India more than 3,000 years ago. The term Ayurveda is derived from the Sanskrit words ayur (life) and veda (science or knowledge). Thus, Ayurveda translates to knowledge of life. Based on the idea that disease is due to an imbalance or stress in a person’s consciousness, Ayurveda encourages certain lifestyle interventions and natural therapies to regain a balance between the body, mind, spirit, and the environment.

Ayurveda treatment starts with an internal purification process, followed by a special diet, herbal remedies, massage therapy, yoga, and meditation.

The concepts of universal interconnectedness, the body’s constitution (prakriti), and life forces (doshas) are the primary basis of ayurvedic medicine. Goals of treatment aid the person by eliminating impurities, reducing symptoms, increasing resistance to disease, reducing worry, and increasing harmony in life. Herbs and other plants, including oils and common spices, are used extensively in Ayurvedic treatment. 

Panchakarma (“Pancha” means five and “karma” means actions) is essentially 5 karmas or actions done to detoxify the body according to Ayurveda. It includes Vaman, Virechan, Basti, Raktamokshan, and Nasya. However, some other procedures are also involved in the list of Panchakarma, and the list goes beyond 5. Outside the tradition of the Vedas, Buddhism, and Jainism also shared some ideas with the Ayurvedic texts from ancient India. 

raktamokSa m. or bloodletting, bleeding, venesection &c., Sus3r.

Virecita mfn. (fr. Caus.) purged, emptied, evacuate

Vamana the act of vomiting or ejecting from the mouth Sus3r. ; emitting, emission Ka1lid. ; `” causing vomiting “‘, an emetic Katha1s. Sus3r. &c. ; offering oblations to fire L.; pain.

Vasti       3 mf. (also written %{basti}; perh. connected with 2. %{vasti} see p. 932, col. 3) the bladder AV. &c. &c.; the lower belly &c. &c. ; the lower belly, abdomen VarBr2S. Ka1s3i1Kh. ; the pelvis MW.; an injection-syringe made of bladder or the injection itself Katha1s. Sus3r. &c. [Cf. Lat. {venter} , {vesica} ; Germ. {wanast}, {Wanst}.]

nasya mfn. belonging to or being in the nose (%{as the} breath) S3Br. ; (%{A}) f. nñnose-cord Ya1jn5. Sch. (cf. %{nAsya}) ; the nose L. ; n. the hairs in the nñnose VS.; a sternutatory, errhine MBh. R. Sus3r.

In Vajasaneyi Samhita 21.40 (Yajurveda), Varuna is called the patron deity of physicians, one who has “a hundred, a thousand remedies”. Varuna and Mitra are the gods of societal affairs including the oath and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e.g., RV 5.63.3), although they are also addressed as Devas as well (e.g., RV 7.60.12). Varuna, being the king of the Asuras, was adopted or made the change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos, imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra. 

maitra mf(%{I}) n. (fr. %{mitra}, of, which it is also the Vr2iddhi form in comp.) coming from or given by or belonging to a friend, friendly, amiable, benevolent, affectionate, kind Mn. MBh. &c.; evacuation of excrement (presided over by Mitra; %{maitraM} 1. %{kR}, to void excrement) Mn. iv, 152. 

 mUtrazakRt n. sg. du. pl. urine and excrement Mn. vi, 76; xi, 154 (cf. g. %{gavA7zvA7di}) ; %{-So7ccAra} and %{-So7sarga} m. voiding urine and excrement Cat.

In the Panchakarma, the first two divisions of five are Vaman an emetic, the night, for Varuna, and then Virechan, a purge the day, Mitra. mfn.

UbhayabhAga having a part in both (night and day); %{-hara} mfn. taking two shares or parts; applicable to two purposes; (%{am}) n. a medicine that acts in two ways (as an emetic and a purge).

doSA 1^ f. darkness, night RV. AV. &c. (%{A4m} & %{A4} [instr.; cf. g. %{svar-Adi}] ind. in the evening, at dusk, at night); Night personified

 doSa 2 m. rarely n. (%{duS}) fault, vice, deficiency, want, inconvenience, disadvantage Up. Mn. MBh. Ka1v. &c. [498,3]; badness, wickedness, sinfulness Mn. R.: offense, transgression, guilt, crime (acc. with %{R} or %{labh}, to incur guilt), SrS. Mn. MBh. &c.; alteration, affection, morbid element, disease (esp. of the 3 humors of the body, viz. %{pitta}, %{vAyu}, and %{zleSman}, 1 [cf. %{tridoSa} and %{dhAtu}], applied also to the humors themselves) Sus3r.

ubhayataHzIrSan mf(%{zIrSNI4})n. having a head towards, either way, two-headed VS. iv, 19 ; %{-zIrSa-tva4} n. the state of having two heads MaitrS. iii.

The Tigers below are facing each other.  Below urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat/bird are three arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel). adho-mārga the Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through the downward channel). Below three arrows pointing up and down 3 humors of the body, viz. %{pitta}, %{vAyu}, and %{zleSman}, 1 [cf. %{tridoSa} and %{dhAtu}

The location of the Ghaggar-Hakra River is an intermittent river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season. The river is known as Ghaggar in India, before the Ottu barrage, and as the Hakra in Pakistan, downstream of the barrage, ending in the Thar desert.

Vaman 103g, Virechan 107g, Basti 109g, Raktamokshan, and Nasya 113.6g.

The weights of the new nine copper tablets follow the order of the first line of the Kabul manuscript, starting with the written first two tablets 103 grams and 107 grams, then the Humped bull, Rhino, and the 135.8 grams. The humped bull copper tablet and the example that was given (on the right) of a random seal probably the most unique of an example was the exact writing of the third-place of the five divisions of the first line of the Kabul Manuscript.

Research Paper A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilization Authors: Vasant Shinde, Rick J Willis Abstract A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC), discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an important type not previously described.

kaMsa %{as} , %{am} m. n. (%{kam} Un2. iii, 62) , a vessel made of metal, drinking vessel, cup, goblet AV. x, 10, 5 AitBr. S3Br. &c. a metal, tutanag or white copper, brass , bell-metal ; 

kAMsya mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{kaMsa}) consisting of white-copper or bell-metal or brass Ka1tyS3r. MBh. xiii , 94 , 91 R. Mn. iv , 65 ; (%{am}) n. white copper or bell-metal or brass, queen’s metal, any amalgam of zinc and copper Mn. v , 114 ; xi , 167 ; xii , 62 Ya1jn5. i, 190 Sus3r. ; a drinking vessel of brass, goblet S3a1n3khS3r. MBh. R. ;

camasa m. (n. g. %{ardharcA7di} ; %{I} f. L. Sch. ; fr. %{cam}) a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking the Soma, ; (g. %{gargA7di}) N. of a son of R2ishabha BhP. v , xi ;

cAmasya m. patr. fr. %{camasa4} g. %{gargA7di}.32

The cup or vessel to the left of sitting Garga.

The nine copper plates above I believe to be pre-prescriptions by a physician, that is proper weight and substance. They are not seals but Print engravers, the substance is weighted by the tablet than printed on flat bark, like the Kabul manuscript.

A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC), discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an important type not previously described. The plates are significantly larger and more robust than those comprising the corpus of known copper plates or tablets, and most significantly differ in being inscribed with mirrored characters. One of the plates bears 34 characters, which is the longest known single Indus script inscription. Examination of the plates with x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrophotometry indicates metal compositions, including arsenical copper, consistent with Indus Valley technology. Microscopy of the metal surface and internal structure reveals detail such as pitting, microcrystalline structure, and corrosion, consistent with ancient cast copper artifacts. Given the relative fineness of the engraving, it is hypothesized that the copper plates were not used as seals, but have characteristics consistent with use in copper plate printing. As such, it is possible that these copper plates are by far the earliest known printing devices, being at least 4000 years old. 

https://www.ancient-asia-journal.com/articles/10.5334/aa.12317/print/

The nine copper tablets found in Pakistan first published on 08 Oct. 2014 and Lucy Zuberbuehler’s Kabul birch-bark mss. first published on July 31, 2009.

Lucy Zuber Buehler writes the comparison manuscript in 2009, prior to that the artifact was part of a 5-year-old collection. This makes a possible range around 2009 – 5 = 2004 and 2014 – 2004 = 10 years of prior knowledge.  

Below, the five forked railings, in combination with a swastika, meaning Trirata three nights, as in a prescription. The five swastikas is an artfully done seal where just the five forked glyph would have sufficed, both having the same meaning Trirata.

Body purification therapy is indicated before rasayana therapy. This treatment is intended to remove toxins and prepare the body for accepting the rasayana formulations for rejuvenation. A specific bowel cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus emblica (amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger are prescribed. After the proper evacuation of bowels, the person shall take gruel prepared with barley for three to seven days. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/25-28] After this procedure, suitable rasayana formulations can be administered. The desired benefits cannot be obtained without proper purification of body and mind. [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/38]

Above 103 g. and #5 below have the five forked railings meaning Triratra.

In all, There are thirty chapters in Chikitsa Sthana.

  • The first chapter is on Rasayana Chikitsa (rejuvenation therapy), further divided into four sections (or sub-chapters). The chapter describes a number of medicine preparations by means of which one can prevent and retard aging and live a longer, happier life. Rasayana measures promote physical and mental health and provide general immunity to prevent diseases as well as strength to the tissues to be able to fight diseases effectively. Thus this chapter highlights principles of geriatrics and old-age care as well as prevention of the aging process.

Prerequisite for rejuvenation therapy (Rasayana)

Body purification therapy is indicated before Rasayana therapy. This treatment is intended to remove toxins and prepare the body for accepting the Rasayana formulations for rejuvenation. A specific bowel cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (Vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger are prescribed. After the proper evacuation of bowels, the person shall take gruel prepared with barley for three to seven days. [Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/25-28] After this procedure, suitable Rasayana formulations can be administered. The desired benefits cannot be obtained without proper purification of body and mind. [Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/38]

 Haritaki (2 tola), Vibhitaki (1 tola) and Amalaki (1/2 tola). 

bodhana mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower), arousing, exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r. ; enlightening , teaching , instructing (cf. %{bAla-bodhinI}) ; m. the planet Mercury W.; N. of a mountain VP. ; (%{I}) f. intellect, knowledge L.; long pepper L.; = %{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP.; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ; 

bodhavAsara m. `” waking-day “‘, the 11th day in the light half of the month Ka1rttika (in which Vishn2u awakes from his sleep; cf. %{bodhanI}) SkandaP.

kAyastha`” dwelling in the body “‘, the Supreme Spirit L.; Myrobalanus Chebula L.; Emblica Officinalis Bhpr. ; Ocimum sanctum L.; a drug (commonly Ka1koli1) L.; cardamoms L. ; (%{I}) f. the wife of a Ka1yath or writer L.

Terminalia chebula (haritaki) and Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki) are from the same family Myrobalan.

Literally, the term Kaya comprehends the entire process of metabolism, rather than either anabolism as denoted by Deha or catabolism denoted by Sharira. Therefore, the word “Kaya-chikitsa” indicates medical management of diseases caused by impaired “Agni”. The medical practice of Kayachikitsa is based upon an intimate understanding of nutrition and the factors responsible for digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Chikitsa Sthana is the most important section focusing on the objectives of Ayurveda for the preservation of health and treatment of the diseased.

amala mf(%{A})n. spotless, stainless, clean, pure, shining ; (%{as}) m. crystal (cf. %{amara-ratna}) BhP.; N. of a poet; of Na1ra1yan2a L. ; (%{A}) f. N. of the goddess Lakshmi1 L. ; ( %{amarA} q.v.) the umbilical cord L.; the tree Emblica Officinalis Gaertn. L. ; the plant Saptala1 L. ; (%{am}) n. talc L.

anilasArathi [MBh.] m. `” the friend of wind “‘ N. of fire.

anala m. ( %{an}) , fire; the god of fire, digestive power, gastric juice; bile L.; wind L.; N. of Vasudeva; of a Muni; of one of the eight Vasus; of a monkey; of various plants (Plumbago Zeylanica and Rosea; Semicarpus Anacardium); the letter %{r}; the number three ; (in astron.) the fiftieth year of Br2ihaspati’s cycle; the third lunar mansion or Kr2ittika1 (?).

Anala n. (fr. %{anala}), `” belonging to Agni “‘N. of the constellation Kr2ittika1 VarBr2S.

Amalaka m. and %{I} f. (g. %{gaurA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1, 41) Emblic Myrobalan, Emblica Officinalis Gaertn. ; (%{am}) n. the fruit of the Emblic Myrobalan MBh. Sus3r. ChUp. &c. ; m. another plant, Gendarussa Vulgaris L.4

amRta (cf. Pa1n2. 6-2, 116) mfn. not dead MBh. ; immortal RV. &c. ; imperishable RV. VS.; beautiful, beloved L.; m. an immortal, a god RV. &c. ; N. of S3iva; of Vishn2u MBh. xiii; of Dhanvantari L.; the plant Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. ; the root of a plant L. ; (%{A}) f. a goddess RV. &c. ; spirituous liquor L.; Emblica Officinalis, Terminalia Citrina Roxb. , Cocculus Cordifolius, Piper Longum, Ocymum Sanctum; N. of the mother of Parikshit MBh. i, 3794; of Da1ksha1yan2i1 MatsyaP.; of a sister of Amr2itodana Buddh. ; of a river Hcat. ; of the first %{kalA} of the moon BrahmaP. ; (%{am}) n. the collective body of immortals RV.; the world of immortality, heaven, eternity RV. VS. AV. ; (also %{Ani} n. pl. RV. i, 72, 1 and iii, 38, 4); immortality RV.; final emancipation L.; the nectar (conferring immortality, produced at the churning of the ocean), ambrosia RV. (or the voice compared to itN. Ragh.) ; nectar-like food; antidote against poison Sus3r. ; N. of a medicament S3is3. ix , 36, medicament in general Buddh. ; quicksilver L.; poison L.; a particular poison L.; a ray of light Ragh. x , 59N. of a metre RPra1t. ; of a sacred place (in the north) Hariv. 14095, of various conjunctions of planets (supposed to confer long life) L.; the number, `” four “‘ L.

amRtaphala m. a pear tree L.; the plant Trichosanthes Dioeca Roxb, (%{am}) n. a pear L.; the fruit of Trichosanthes D. Roxb, ; (%{A}) f. the vine L.; the plant Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.

AmarAkSasI f. a particular remedy against dysentery.

Amarakta m. dysentery.

AmAtisAra m. dysentery or diarrhea produced by vitiated mucus in the abdomen (the excretion being mixed with hard and fetid matter) Sus3r. 

Attaining Rasayana effect through purification therapies (samshodhana)

Attaining Rasayana effect by pacifying the aggravated dosha or disease (samshamana) [Dalhana on Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 27/2]

The word virechana is used often for vamana and samshodhana as well. 

triphala mfn. having 3 fruits Ka1m. viii, 42 ; (%{A}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1, 64 Va1rtt. 3) the 3 Myrobalans (fruits of Tertminalia Chebula, Tantras Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica sudhodbhava m. `” nectar-source “‘N. of Dhanvantari (q.v.) L. ; (%{A}) f. Terminalia Chebula L.

bhUtasAra m. a species of Calosanthes Indica L. ; (%{I}) f. collective N. of the 3 myrobolans (Terminalia Chebula, TñTerminalia Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica)

bhUtasaMsAra m. the course or circuit of existence (through continuous states of being) Mn. i , 50.

bahudosha (signs of aggravated dosha), samshodhana (purification therapy), vishuddha koshtha (purified bowel),

Emblica is reported to work as an anti-oxidant at all five levels viz. suppress free radical formation, break chain initiation, break chain propagation, reconstitute membrane, and repair damage. Phyllanthus emblica (Amalaki) and Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) are proven for their immunomodulatory activity. 

Embelia ribes (vidanga)

Terminalia Bellerica,

terminalia chebula harItak

Phyllanthus Emblica

bhUtasAra m. a species of Calosanthes Indica L. ; (%{I}) f. collective N. of the 3 myrobolans (Terminalia Chebula, Terminalia Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica) L.

bhUtasaMsAra m. the course or circuit of existence (through continuous states of being) Mn. i, 50.

pittAtIsAra m. a bilious form of dysentery [627,2] ; %{-rin} mfn. suffering from it ib.

karSaphala m. Terminalia Bellerica L. ; (%{A}) f. Emblica officinalis L.

sAraNa mf(%{I})n. id. L.; cracked, split L.; having five hair-tufts on the head L.; m. dysentery, diarrhea L.; wind during the autumn L. ;

vAtAtisAra m. dysentery produced by vitiated wñwind MW.

zleSmAtisAra m. dysentery or diarrhea produced by vitiated phlegm Sus3r.

taNDulaphalA f. long pepper L.

sArataNDula m. rice in whole grains slightly boiled Ka1tyS3r. [1208,2]

citrataNDula m. Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{a}) f. id. Bhpr. v , 1 , 112.

dulA f. `” shaking “‘, one of the 7 Kr2ittikas TS. Comm.

tIkSNataNDulA f. long pepper L.

tiktataNDulA f. long pepper L.

maGgalavAsara m. `” Mars-day “‘, Tuesday L.

maGgalya mf(%{A})n. auspicious, lucky, conferring happiness Kaus3. Mn. MBh. &c. ; beautiful, pleasing, agreeable MW.; pious, pure, holy, Uttarar m. Cicer Lens Sus3r.  Acorus Calamus; bathing with the juice of all medicinal plants L.;

mRtavAsara m. the day of anyone’s death Hcat.

pUrvasara mf(%{I})n. going before, preceding Pa1n2. 3-2, 19 Bhat2t2.704

pUrvasAra mfn. going eastwards Pa1n2. 1-1ii , 2 , 19 Sch. ; %{-sArA7svAdinI} f. N. of wk.

sara mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{sR}) fluid, liquid VS.; cathartic, purgative, laxative Sus3r. Va1gbh

vAsarakRt m. `” day-maker “‘, the sun L.

sarvAvasara m. `” universal leisure “‘, midnight L. ; (%{am}) ind. on evñevery occasion Vet.

vAsarakanyakA f. `” daughter of the day “‘, night L.

vAsara mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{vasar} , 2. %{vas}) relating to or appearing in the morning, matutinal, early RV.; m. n. day (as opp. to `” night “‘), a day (in general), a week-day Gr2S. Ka1v. Katha1s. &c. 

kRttikA%{As} f. pl. (rarely sg. MBh. iii, 14464 BhP. vi, 14, 30)N. of a constellation (the Pleiads, originally the first, but in later times the third lunar mansion, having Agni as its regent; this constellation, containing six stars, is sometimes represented as a flame or as a kind of razor or knife; for their oldest names see TS. iv, 4, 5, 1; in mythology the six Kr2ittika1s are nymphs who became the nurses of the god of war, Ka1rttikeya) AV. TS. S3Br. &c. ;

The first month was autumn the ripening season for those fruits used for zodhana.

sAraNa mf(%{I})n. id. L.; cracked, split L.; having five hair-tufts on the head L.; m. dysentery, diarrhea L.; wind during the autumn L. ;

The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes Ahimsa in Jainism. The word in the middle is “ahiṃsā” (non-injury). The wheel represents the dharmachakra, which stands for the resolve to halt the saṃsāra through the relentless pursuit of Ahimsa.

dharmasArathi m. `” charioteer of Dharma “‘N. of a son of Tri-kakud BhP.

Below samsara is the circle inside the hand.

saMsAra m. going or wandering through, undergoing transmigration MaitrUp. ; course, passage, passing through a succession of states, the circuit of mundane existence, transmigration, metempsychosis, the world, secular life, worldly illusion (%{A@saMsArAt}, `” from the beginning of the world “‘) Up. Mn. MBh. &c. [1119,3] ; w.r. for %{saM-cAra} Bhartr2

Triratra

dharmasArathi m. `” charioteer of Dharma “‘N. of a son of Tri-kakud BhP.[MBh.]


kakud
%{t} f. a peak or summit (Lat. {cacumen}) ; chief , head RV. viii , 44 , 16 AV. vi , 86 , 3 TS. S3Br. ; any projecting corner or projection (as of a plough) BhP. v , 25 , 7 ; the hump on the shoulders of the Indian bullock AV. TS. BhP. &c. ; the hump (of a man) Katha1s. ; N. of a metre (= %{kaku4bh}) TS. ; an ensign or symbol of royalty (as the white parasol &c.) ; N. of a daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma ; (cf. %{tri-kakud} , %{sthUla-kakud} , &c. , where the form %{kakud} is said to be substituted for %{ka4kuda} below Pa1n2. 5-4 , 146 ; 147.)

kakundara
n. (connected with %{kakud}?) the cavities of the loins Ya1jn5. iii , 96 Bhpr.

This is the middle Panchakarma the hump an enema.

anilasArathi `” the friend of wind “‘ N. of fire.

anUrusArathi m. whose charioteer is Anu1ru i.e. the sun S3is3.

indrasArathi (%{i4ndra-}) mfn. Indra’s companion N. of Va1yu RV. iv, 46, 2 and 48, 2

sara mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{sR}) fluid, liquid VS.; cathartic, purgative, laxative Sus3r. Va1gbh. ; (ifc. f. %{I} Pa1n2. 3-2 , 18) going , moving &c. (cf. %{anu-} , %{abhi-} , %{puraH-s-}) ; m. going, motion L.; a cord, string (cf. %{prati-} , %{maNi-} , %{muktA-maNi-} , and %{mauktika-s-}) ; a short vowel (in prosody) Col. ; salt L. ; N. of Va1yu or the wind L. ; a waterfall L. ; often v.l. or w.r. for %{zara} (also in comp. %{sara-ja} &c. for %{zara@ja} &c.) ; (%{A4}) f. moving or wandering about Gal. ; a brook AV. TS.; a cascade, waterfall L. ; Paederia Foetida L. ; (%{I}) f. a cascade (cf. %{sari}) L.; n. a lake, pool (also irregularly in comp. for %{saras}) Un2. iv , 188 Sch. ; milk L.

sarvAvasara m. `” universal leisure “‘, midnight L. ; (%{am}) ind. on evñevery occasion Vet.

Sarvabhūtaguhāśaya (सर्वभूतगुहाशय).—[adjective] dwelling in the heart of all beings. bhUtasAra m. a species of Calosanthes Indica L. ; (%{I}) f. collective N. of the 3 myrobolans (Terminalia Chebula, TñTerminalia Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica). Above the Varuna seal is the night “emitic” he holds the tigers by the neck. This seal is without Embelia Ribes.

va 2 (only L.) m. air, wind; the arm; N. of Varun2a; the ocean, water; addressing; reverence; conciliation; auspiciousness; a dwelling; a tiger; cloth; the esculent root of the water-lily ; (%{A}) f. going; hurting; an arrow; weaving; a weaver (?). n. a sort of incantation or Mantra (of which the object is the deity Varun2a) ;

varuNa m. (once in the TA1r. %{varuNa4}) `” Allenveloping Sky “‘N. of an A1ditya (in the Veda commonly the night as Mitra over the day,  

Guhāśayas The flesh of animals belonging to this family is sweet, heavy, demulcent and strength-giving. It subdues the deranged Vāyu.

Vāyu-ghra

Vyāghra (व्याघ्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “tiger”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Vyāghra is part of the sub-group named prasaha, referring to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

 Vyāghra (व्याघ्र)—Sanskrit word for the animal “tiger”. This animal is from the group called Guhāśaya (‘which have a lair’, or, ‘cave-dwelling mammals’). Guhāśaya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).

 In the Guhāśaya the tiger is Vyāghra and Mriga are mentioned.

 Guhāśayas; The flesh of animals belonging to this family is sweet, heavy, demulcent, and strength-giving. It subdues the deranged Vāyu. It is heat-making in its potency and proves beneficial in diseases affecting the eyes and anus.

bhasmaka mfn. (with %{agnI}) = %{bhasmA7gni} , S3a1rn3gS. ; n. a partic. the disease of the eyes or morbid appetite from over-digestion (cf. %{bhasmA7gni}) L.; gold L.; the fruit of Embelia Ribes L.3

mrigervAruka m. a species of animal dwelling in holes or caves Sus3r.

Is one tiger the other is Vyagrha.

In the Guhāśaya tiger and Mriga are mentioned. The goat eats the tiger.

prasaha mfn. (ifc.) enduring withstanding Ka1m. ; m. endurance, resistance (see %{duS-pr-}); a beast or bird of prey Car. Sus3r. ;

guhAzaya mfn. dwelling in hiding-places or in caverns Ragh. iv, 72 Sus3r. ; being in the heart A1p. Mun2d2Up. S3vetUp. MBh. xiv BhP. (`” N. of Vishn2u “‘ L.) ; m. a tiger L.

gahvara mf(%{A} , %{I})n. (g. %{azmA7di}) deep, impervious, impenetrable TS. v Hariv. BhP.; confused (in mind) Katha1s. lxi, 39 and 41; m. an arbor, bower L.; a cave, cavern L. ; (%{A}) f. the plant Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{I}) f. a cave, cavern L.; the earth Gal. ; (%{am}) n. `” an abyss, depth “‘ (`” water “‘ Naigh. Nir.) see %{-re-STha4}; a hiding-place, thicket, wood AV. xii, 2, 53 MBh. R. &c. ; an impenetrable secret, riddle MBh. xiii, 1388 ;

citravyAghra m. `” striped tiger “‘ , a leopard L.

citrataNDula m. Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{a}) f. id. Bhpr. v , 1 , 112.

karvara 2 or %{karbara} mfn. (1. %{kRR} Un2. ii, 123) , variegated, spotted L.; m. sin L.; a Rakshas L.; a tiger L.; a particular medicament L. ; (%{I}) f. night L.; a Ra1kshasi1 L.; a tigress L.; the leaf of Asa foetida L.; N. of Durga1 L. ; (%{am}) n. red lead L. (cf. %{karbu} , %{karbura} , &c. ; %{karavI} ; %{kAravI}.)

zarvarI f. the (star-spangled) night RV.; evening, twilight L.; turmeric or Curcuma Longa L.; a woman L.; N. of the wife of Dosha and mother of S3is3u-ma1ra BhP.; pl. the spotted steeds of the Maruts RV.

 vAra 2 (fr. 1. %{vR}) m. keeping back, restraining (also mfn. ifc. = difficult to be restrained TBr. ; cf. %{dur-v-}); a turn of a day (under the regency of a planet), a day of the week (they are A1ditya-, Soma-, Man3gala-, Budha-, Guru. , S3ukra-, and S3ani-va1ra; cf. IW. 178 n. 1) Gan2it. Ya1jn5. Sch. Ka1v. &c. (cf. %{dina} and %{divasa-v-}) ;

`vara 2 inf(%{A})n. (fr. 2. %{vR}) choosing the three kinds of myrobolan “‘ ; Cocculus Cordifolius; turmeric; Embelia Ribes; a root similar to ginger ; 

varcograha m. obstruction of the feces, constipation Sus3r.

varcasya mfn. bestowing vital power or vigor VS. AV. S3a1n3khGr2. ; relating to %{varcas} Kaus3. ; acting on the excrement , S3usr. 

varcas n. ( %{ruc}) vital power, vigor, energy, activity, (esp.) the illuminating power of fire or the sun i.e. brilliance, luster, light RV. &c. &c. ; color R. BhP. [924,2] ; splendour , glory Ka1v. Pur. ; form, figure, shape L.; excrement, ordure, feces Ra1jat. Sus3r. ;

vidanga (Embelia ribes) should be collected in pusya nakshatra.

A specific bowel cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (Vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger are prescribed.

The animal Vyāghra is part of the sub-group named prasaha, referring to animals “who take their food by snatching”.

grAha(Pa1n2. 3-1 , 143) mf(%{I})n. ifc. seizing , holding , catching , receiving Ya1jn5. ii , 51 R. iv , 41 , 38 crocodile
Below the crocodile is in the center of the six seals, the tiger is bottom right side.
gRha

m. an assistant , servant RV. x , 119 , 13 ; a house , habitation , home RV. (%{mRn-ma4ya@g-} , `” house of earth “‘ , grave , vii , 89 , 1) AV. (%{adharA4d@g-} , `” the lower world “‘ , ii , 14 , 3) &c. ; (ifc. f. %{A} R. i , 5 , 9 ; %{I} Pan5cat. i , 17 , 5) ; ifc. with names of gods `” a temple “‘ (cf. %{caNDikA-} , %{devatA-}) , of plants `” a bower “‘ ;
gahvara

mf(%{A} , %{I})n. (g. %{azmA7di}) deep , impervious , impenetrable TS. v Hariv. BhP. ; confused (in mind) Katha1s. lxi , 39 and 41 ; m. an arbour , bower L. ; a cave , cavern L. ; (%{A}) f. the plant Embelia Ribes L. ;

vyAghranakha m. a tiger’s claw W. ; m.n. a root or a partic. root L. ;

Below the man bowing is Musta, he is often depicted as bowing in a tree the Indian gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica, he is looking at a tiger that is the downward channel a purge, Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki),  . The upwards channel emetic is the goat, Rhino, bird (Garuda) as jaggery, Acorus calamus (Vacha), Embelia ribes fruit, Curcuma longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger. Below the goat is bodhana mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower), arousing, exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r. ; enlightening , teaching , instructing (cf. %{bAla-bodhinI}) ; m. the planet Mercury W.; N. of a mountain VP. ; (%{I}) f. intellect, knowledge L.; 

kaTAkSam. a glance or side look , a leer MBh. BhP. Megh. &c. ; %{-kSetra} n. N. of a country ; %{-mAhAtmya} n. N. of wk. ; %{-muSTa} mfn. caught by a glance ; %{-vizikha} m. an arrow-like look of love Bhartr2. ; %{–kSA7ve7SaNa} n. casting lewd or amorous glances , ogling.
The tigers backward glance is bhutasara with Musta.

pepper L.; = %{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP.; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ;

 Musta (Cyprus rotundus): Lekhaniya, Truptighna, Kandughna, Atanyashodhana, Trushnanigrahana

The six seals top right, a crocodile in the center (graha) the tiger looking back, rhino and two domestic buffalos on top.

The goat is Wednesday and Buddha the long pepper bodhana mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower), arousing, exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r. ; enlightening , teaching , instructing (cf. %{bAla-bodhinI}) ; m. the planet Mercury W.; N. of a mountain VP. ; (%{I}) f. intellect, knowledge L.; long pepper L.; = %{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP.; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ; 
Mitra standing the day, above is Purisha samgrahaniya(fecal astringents) 11 in# ,
11 drugs it could be.
The sitting Mitra; mutra samgrahaniya(anti-diuretic), mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenter), and mutra virechaniya(diuretic).

purISasaMgrahaNIya
(standing Mitra)mfn. making the feces more solid ib.
parivas
P. %{-vasati} , (ind. p. %{pary-uSya}) , to abide , stay , remain with (instr.) Ka1tyS3r. R. &c. ; (with %{saMsargitayA}) to associate with (acc.) Kull. on Mn. xi , 190: Caus. %{vAsayati} , to let stand overnight A1s3vGr2.
pariSThA
( %{sthA}) P. A1. %{-tiSThati} , %{-te} (pf. %{-taSThau} ; fut. %{-SThAsyati} Pa1n2. 8-3 , 64. Sch. ; 3. pl. pf. %{-tasthuH} RV. Pan5c. ; aor. %{-SThAt} , %{-SThuH} RV. ; %{-SThAH} Padap. ; %{-sthAH} AV.) , to stand round , be in a person’s way , obstruct , hinder RV. &c. &c. ; to crowd from all sides Pan5c. ; (A1.) to remain , survive MBh.: Caus. %{-sthApayati} (ind. p. %{-sthApya}) , to beset , surround AV. ; to place near , cause to stay close by Katha1s.
prasthA
P. %{-tiSThati} , to stand or rise up (esp. before the gods. an altar &c.) RV. TS. VS. ; to advance towards (acc.) S3Br. S3a1n3khSr. ; (A1. ; cf. Pa1n2. i , 3 , 22) to be awake MBh
pratiSThA
( %{sthA}) P. A1. %{-tiSThati} , %{-te} , to stand , stay , abide , dwell RV. &c. &c. ; to stand still , set (as the sun) , cease MBh. BhP. ; to stand firm , be based or rest on (loc.) , be established , thrive , prosper RV. &c. &c. ; 
  1. The three arrows pointing down the tiger are a sub-purge B12 Virechanopaga
  2. #88 Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica): Kushthaghna, Virechanopaga, Kasahara, Jwarahara
  3. #85 Abhaya (Terminalia chebula): Arshoghnani, Kushthaghna, Virechanopaga, Hikka nigrahana, Kasahara, Jwarahara, Vayasthapana
  4. #152 Bibhitak (Terminalia belerica): Virechanopaga, Jwarahara

bhUtasAra m. a species of Calosanthes Indica L. ; (%{I}) f. collective N. of the 3 myrobolans (Terminalia Chebula, TñTerminalia Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica)

bhUtasaMsAra m. the course or circuit of existence (through continuous states of being) Mn. i , 50.

duHkhaloka m. `” the world of pain “‘ (= %{saMsAra}) L. [483,3]सु

The three arrows pointiing up the bird, goat. rhino, Truptighna.

The rhino above, B6 is a Nasya (Shirovirechanopaga) and a pre-purge emitic (Truptighna).

Viḍanga (Embelia ribes): Truptighna, Kushṭhaghna, Krimighna, Shirovirechanopaga

Pippali (Piper longum or long pepper): Dipaniya, Kanṭhya, Truptighna, Asthapanopaga, Hikkanigrahana, Kasahara, Shulaprashamana, Shirovirechanopaga, Sheeta prashamana

The elephant is salt ksara is above the tiger in B12 and B6.
kSAra
mf(%{A})n. (g. %{jvalA7di}) caustic , biting , corrosive , acrid , pungent , saline , converted to alkali or ashes by distillation (fr. %{kSai}?) R. Pan5cat. BhP. &c. ; sharp , keen (as the wind) Ka1vya7d. ii , 104 ; m. any corrosive or acrid or saline substance (esp. an alkali such as soda or potash) , caustic alkali (one species of cautery) Ka1ty. Ya1jn5. iii , 36 MBh. &c. ; juice , essence W. ; treacle , molasses L. ; glass L. ; (%{am}) n. any corrosive or acrid substance Katha1s. xciii , 14 ; a factitious or medicinal salt (commonly black salt , %{viD-lavaNa} and %{kRSNa-l-}) W. ; water W.

The markhor (Capra falconeri), is a large Capra species native to Central Asia, Karakoram, and the Himalayas. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened since 2015. The markhor is the national animal of Pakistan, where it is also known as the screw horn or “screw-horned goat”, mārkhor (مارخون) in Pashto and mārkhor (مارخور) in Urdu from Classical Persian. According to locals, Mar means “dead” and Khor means “eat”, as this goat is said to eat carrion and dead animals, including snakes and wolves that it has killed in self-defense.

mRta mfn. dead, deceased, deathlike, torpid, rigid RV. &c. &c.; departed, vanished (as consciousness) MBh. ; vain, useless Ka1v. ; calcined, reduced (said of metals) ib. ; n. death MBh. R.

mRga m. (prob. `” ranger “‘, `” rover “‘) a forest animal or wild beast, game of any kind, (esp.) a deer, fawn, gazelle, antelope, stag, musk-deer RV. &c. &c. ; the deer or antelope in the moon (i.e. the spots on the disk supposed to resemble those of an antelope as well as a hare); the disk or antelope in the sky (either the Nakshatra Mr2iga-s3iras or the sign of the zodiac Capricorn; also, in general, the 10th arc of 30 degrees in a circle) Su1ryas. VarBr2S. &c. 

mRgAGka m. `” deer-marked “‘, the moon Mr2icch. VarBr2. Ra1jat. ; camphor L.; the wind L. (cf. %{mRga-vAhana}); N. of a sword Katha1s. ; of a man Va1s. , Introd. ; %{-gupta} m. N. of a man Cat. ; %{-tanaya} m. N. of the planet Mercury VarBr2. Comm. 

saumya (once in AV. %{sau4mya}) mf(%{I4} later %{A} ; once in RV. %{sau4myA})n. relating or belonging to Soma (the juice or the sacrifice or the moon-god); patr. of Budha or the planet Mercury VarBr2S.; of the Vedic R2ishi Budha (author of RV. x, 1) RAnukr. ; the Nakshatra Mr2iga-s3iras Hariv. ; N. of the five stars in Orion’s head (also called %{ilvala} q.v.) W.; a species of the A1rya1 metre Col. ; N. of Durga1 Cat. ; (%{I}) f. moonshine MBh. ; (%{am}) n. the nature or condition of Soma AV.; gentleness MBh. Pan5cat. the Nakshatra Mr2iga-s3iras (presided over by the Moon) MaitrUp. Hariv. (accord. to Ni1lak. `” Wednesday “‘) ;

saumyadhAtu m. `” Soma-like element “‘, the phlegmatic humour Sus3r.

mRgaziras (%{mRga4-}) n. N. of the 3rd (or 5th) Nakshatra (q.v.) containing 3 stars (one of which is $ Orion is; it is figured by an antelope’s head) AV. Gr2S3rS. VarBr2S.; mfn. born under that Nakshatra Pa1n2. 4-3, 37 Sch. ; m. a partic. position of the hand’s Cat.

The goat Mrga lIsuSa m. a partic. taste (bitter, sweet, sour, and pungent); mfn. so tasting L.

lIsuSa = longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger that is Usna and jaggery = iSIka {As} m. pl.N. of a people (= %{aiSIka}) VP. ; (%{A}) f. (%{iSI4kA}) a reed, rush, stem, or stalk of grass used as an arrow AV. vii , 56 , 4 ; xii , 2 , 54 S3Br. Kaus3. MBh. R. Ragh. &c. ; a sort of sugarcane, Saccharum Spontaneum L. ;

iSustrikANDA (%{iSustrikANDA}) f. `” the threefold arrow “‘N. of a constellation (perhaps the girdle of Orion) AitBr.

The writing is very complex.

abhisusUS mfn. desirous of expressing Soma Juice Pa1n2. 8-3, 117 Sc

iSusAhva m. N. of a plant Hariv. 3843.

lIsuSa m. a partic. taste (bitter, sweet, sour, and pungent); mfn. so tasting L.

iSustrikANDA (%{iSustrikANDA}) f. `” the threefold arrow “‘N. of a constellation (perhaps the girdle of Orion) AitBr.

abhisusUS mfn. desirous of expressing Soma Juice Pa1n2. 8-3, 117 Sc

iSusAhva m. N. of a plant Hariv. 3843.

lIsuSa m. a partic. taste (bitter, sweet, sour, and pungent); mfn. so tasting L.

The prerequisite for Rasayana is the cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (Vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger are prescribed.

The long pepper is Piper Longum

uSaNa n. black pepper; the root of Piper Longum ; (%{A}) f. Piper Longum; Piper Chaba; dried ginger (cf. %{USaNa}.)

auSaNa n. (fr. %{uSaNa}) , pungency L.2

kaTUSaNa n. dried ginger L.; the root of long pepper (cf. %{USaNa}.)3

uSaNa n. black pepper; the root of Piper Longum ; (%{A}) f. Piper Longum; Piper Chaba; dried ginger (cf. %{USaNa}.)

uSNa mf(%{A} , rarely %{I})n. (Un2. iii, 2) hot, warm; ardent, passionate, impetuous RV. x , 4, 2 AV. vi , 68 , 1 ; viii , 9 , 17 S3Br. ChUp. Sus3r. Mn. &c. ; pungent, acrid; sharp, active L.; m. onion L. [220,2] ; N. of a man VP. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. heat, warmth, the hot season (June, July) Mn. xi, 113 S3ak. Das3. &c. 

iSu %{us} mf. an arrow RV. AV. VS. MBh. Ragh. S3ak. &c. ; (in mathematics) a versed sine; N. of a Soma ceremony Ka1tyS3r. ; the number five Sa1h. ;

iSIka %{As} m. pl.N. of a people (= %{aiSIka}) VP. ; (%{A}) f. (%{iSI4kA}) a reed, rush, stem, or stalk of grass used as an arrow AV. vii , 56 , 4 ; xii , 2 , 54 S3Br. Kaus3. MBh. R. Ragh. &c. ; a sort of sugarcane, Saccharum Spontaneum L. ;

Jaggery below is sugarcane, Saccharum Spontaneum

ikSuparNI Acorus Calamus ib.8

ikSupattra m. the grain Penicillaria Spicata L. ; (%{I}) f. Acorus Calamus Nir.

rakSohan mf(%{ghnI})n. killing or destroying RñRa1kshasas RV. VS. S3Br. ; m. a partic. spell Kaus3. (cf. %{rakSo-ghna}) ; bdellium L. ; (with %{brAhma}) N. of the author of RV. x , 162 Anukr. ; (%{ghnI}) f. Acorus Calamus L.

Below the arrows are pointing down for B12 and pointing up for B8. urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel) and adho-mārga the Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through downward channel).

adho-mārga

mRgAd m. `” animal-devourer “‘, a tiger L.

mRgarAjam. `” king of beasts “‘ , a lion MBh. R. Ragh. &c. ; the zodiacal sign Leo VarBr2S. ; a tiger MBh. ; the moon (see %{ja-lakSman}) ; N. of a poet Cat. ; %{-tA} f. dominion over the beasts Vcar. ; %{-dhArin} m. N. of S3iva Vikr. ; %{-lakSman} mfn. having the mark or name of lion or the moon Ven2is.
 urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat
vArdhrANasa. a rhinoceros (cf. next) TS. A1past. (accord. to Sch. also `” an old white he-goat “‘ or `” a kind of crane “‘).

adho-mārga the Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through downward channel).

adhobhAga the lower or lowest part , especially of the body.

adhopara. the anus.

mArga in medic. a way , passage , channel (in any part of the body , esp. the intestinal canal , anus) ; 

urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel) 

THE bottom buffalo has the arrows pointing down , like the Tiger.

ArdharAtrika. (fr. %{ardha-rAtra}) , happening at midnight , midnight Su1ryas. ; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of an astronomical school who reckoned the beginning of the motions of the planets from midnight.

pUrv-Ardha. (later n.) the front or upper part ; eastern side (opp. to %{jaghanA7rdha} , %{uttarA7rdha} &c.) TS. S3Br. Gr2S3rS. &c. ; the fore or first half (of a hemistich) S3rutab. ; (with %{dinasya}) forenoon Bhartr2. &c. ; %{-kAya} m. the front or upper part of the body MBh. ; %{-bhAga} m. the upper part , top Ragh. ; %{-lambin} mfn. having the foremost half inclined , leaning forward MW.

vArdh-rINasa also written %{-nasa}) m. (fr. %{vArdhrI} + %{nasa} for %{nAsA}) a rhinoceros (prob. so called as having a leather-like snout) Mn. Ya1jn5. (accord. to some also `” a bird with a black neck , red head , and white wings “‘) ; mfn. (fr. prec.) Gaut.

dauhitra. (fr. %{duhitR}) a daughter’s son Mn. MBh. &c. ; N. of a prince VP. (v.l. %{-trya}) ; (%{I}) f. a daughter’s dauhitra MBh. R.; n. a rhinoceros L. ;

mukhebalin m. a rhinoceros L.

mukhazuddhi f. cleansing or purifying the mouth Tithya1d.

Balin mfn. powerful, strong, mighty, stout, robust RV. &c. &c. ; m. a soldier Inscr. (cf. %{balastha}) ; N. of Vatsa-pril Ma1rkP. ; (only L) a hog bull, buffalo , camel, kind of sheep, serpent, Phaseolus Radiatus, a sort of jasmine, the N. of the phlegmatic humour a Bala-ra1ma ;

balahan mf(%{ghnI})n. one who slays or destroys armies Hariv. (v.l. %{-vat}) ; m. `” destroyer of strength “‘, phlegm, the phlegmatic humour L.3

balAsa m. (also written %{balAza}) a partic. disease, consumption, or phthisis VS. AV.; the phlegmatic humour Sus3r.

balAsakSayakara mfn. destroying the phlegmatic humour Sus3r.5

balAsavardhana mfn. increasing the phlegmatic humour Sus3r.

nAyikAf. (of %{-yaka} q.v.) a noble lady Vet. ; an inferior form or S3akti of Durgs of which there are 8 , viz. Ugra-can2d2a , Pra-can2d2a1 , Can2d2n3gra1 , Can2da-na1yika1 Ati-can2d2a1 , Ca1mun2da1 , Can2d2la , and Can2d2a-vati ; cf. %{kula-n-}) Cat. ; a class of female personifications representing illegitimate sexual love (they are called Balini1 , Ka1me7s3vari1 , Vimala1 , Arun2s , Mediui1 , Jayini1 , Sarve7s3vari1 , Kaule7s3i1) RTL. 188 ; = next L.

medin mfn. having Medas , possessing vigour or energy (= %{medasAyukta} = %{bala-vat}) Sa1y. ; m. `” one who is unctuous or sticks closc(?) “‘ , a friend , companion , partner , ally RV. AV. Br. ; (%{I}) f. see next.

medura mfn. fat S3Br. Sus3r. ; smooth, soft, bland, unctuous L.; thick, dense, thick like (comp.) Uttarar. ; thick with, full of (instr. or comp.) Ka1v. ; (%{A}) f. a partic. medicinal plant L.

medurita mfn. thickened, made dense by or with (comp.) Uttarar. ; unctuous MW.

  • Budda is the goat (Mercury) and rhino horn Purva and Garuda above it is Phalgun, together PurvaPhalgun (Jupiter).
  • The Tigers body (B12 above) spells Matra mother, the two tigers over the rhino and goat, they are daughters. vAsarakanyakAf. `” daughter of day “‘ , night a purge. body of the Rhino spells Medhya for Meda dhatu, is has dominance of prithvijala and agni mahabhuta. Medha possesses properties like unctuousness (B5 above) (snigdha) and heaviness (A11) above (guru) it becomes Garuda the snake eater. The rhino is a classification based on the form of heat. B8, Food and drinks that alleviate vata dosha and reduce kapha dosha and meda dhatu (fat).
  • The rhino as; Purvakarma
  • The word ‘snehana’ means providing unction, oleation, lubrication, rubbing or smearing with oil or unguents, being or becoming oily etc. It also shows a psychological ‘feeling of affection’. The process of unction or unction therapy is an important preparatory procedure (purvakarma) performed before purification therapies (Panchakarma). It includes internal and external administration of unctuous substances like ghee, oil etc. (sneha dravya). Besides this unction therapy (snehana) is also applied as principle treatment in various disease conditions due to vitiated vata and pitta dosha. It is one among the major six treatment modalities in Ayurveda. [Cha. Sa.Sutra Sthana Heat in moist form (snigdha): This is applied in conditions due to vitiation of vata dosha. One ingredient of unctuous is Embelia Ribes as a herbal additive. unctuous substances like ghee (ghrita), edible oil (taila), muscle fat (vasa) and marrow (majja). These substances are used in diet and various medical therapies in Ayurveda.
  • Use of prerequisite to the guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), musta (Cyperusrotundus Linn), triphala (combination of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Linn), bibhitaki(Terminalia belerica Roxb) and amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn)), takrarishta (a fermented medicinal preparation of buttermilk) and honey.

Bowel cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (Vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger is prescribed.

phaNijihvikA f. id. and Emblica Officinalis L.

mRgAd m. `” animal-devourer “‘, a tiger L.

mRtaka m.n. a dead man, a corpse MBh. BhP. Vet.; n. death, decease Ka1tyS3r. Sch. ;

a-mRta (cf. Pa1n2. 6-2, 116) mfn. not dead MBh.; immortal RV. &c. ; imperishable RV. VS. Cocculus Cordifolius, Emblica Officinalis, Terminalia Citrina Roxb. , Piper Longum,

amRtaphala m. a pear tree L.; the plant Trichosanthes Dioeca Roxb, (%{am}) n. a pear L.; the fruit of Trichosanthes D. Roxb, ; (%{A}) f. the vine L.; the plant Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.

Rasayana: with Embelia ribes
strengthens the Body; tonic to the 7 body constituents (Rasayana); regarded as preventing Old age. (Susruta)
-Diabetes related to Phlegm

bahudosha (signs of aggravated dosha).

Metaphorically the seven R2ishis may stand for the seven senses or the seven vital airs of the body VS. xxxiv S3Br. xiv Ka1tyS3r Sr. No.

The circle, the dose has an axle as Sukha ‘having a good axle hole it is opposed to duḥkha.

Karttika is the first month and the ripening season for the fruits above.

bodhana mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower), arousing, exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r. ; enlightening, teaching, instructing (cf. %{bAla-bodhinI}) ; m. the planet Mercury W.; N. of a mountain VP. ; (%{I}) f. intellect, knowledge L.; long pepper L.; = %{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP.; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ; 

bodhavAsara m. `” waking-day “‘, the 11th day in the light half of the month Ka1rttika (in which Vishn2u awakes from his sleep; cf. %{bodhanI}) SkandaP.

The square as an Indus Valley glyph is Bhasaka, Embelia Ribes, later it became a square with the curled horn of the Mrga goat on top. Monier-Williams (1964), the etymology of sukha is “said to be su [‘good’] + kha [‘aperture’] and to mean originally ‘having a good axle-hole’….” Thus, for instance, in the Rig Veda sukha denotes “running swiftly or easily” (applied, e.g., to chariots). Sukha is juxtaposed with duḥkha (Sanskrit; Pali: dukkha; often translated as “suffering”), which was established as the major motivating life principles in early Vedic religion. This theme of the centrality of dukkha was developed in later years in both Vedic and the offshoot Buddhist traditions. The elimination of dukkha is the raison d’être of early Buddhism. Sanskrit · Dev: सुख sukha. Pali · Dev: सुख sukha. Chinese, 樂 (佛教) (Pinyin: (Lè)). Japanese, 樂 (佛教) (Rōmaji: (Raku)). Khmer, សុខ (Sok). Thai · สุขา, IPA: [sukha] · 

duHkha 1 mfn. (according to grammarians properly written %{duS-kha} and said to be from %{dus} and %{kha} [cf. %{su-kha4}] ;

duh 3 mfn. (nom. %{dhuk}) milking; yielding, granting (cf. %{kAma-} , %{go-} &c.)

duhitAmAtR f. du. daughter and mother Katha1s. xcviii, 54

duhitR f. a daughter (the milker or drawing milk from her mother [cf. Zd. {dughdar} , Gk. $ , Goth. &151827[489 ,2] {dauhtar} , Lith. {dukte} , Slav. {dushti}]).

duhitRmat mfn. having a daughter, GS.

duHkhAbhijJa mfn. familiar with pain or sorrow MBh. i, 745.

duHkhabodha mfn. difficult to be understood Nya1yas. i, 1, 37.

duHkhAcAra mfn. difficult to be dealt with, hard to manage MBh. iv, 274.

duHkhaloka m. `” the world of pain “‘ (= %{saMsAra}) L. [483,3]सु

The Statue from Pakistan below reads right to left “Sukha Buddha Maha Deva” the pleasure of the city of Buddha.

Above the pyramid and the Phoenix (Phal is a fruit), The phal becomes Bala as in balAsavardhana and mukhebalin m. a rhinoceros L.

Bal for phal and Vardha for purvadha upper part of the body

phalgunIpUrvasamaya m. the time when the moon is in the NñNakshatra Pu1rva-PhñPha1guni1 MBh.

pUrvaphalgunI f. `” the first Phalguni “‘N. of the 11th Nakshatra (cf. %{uttara-phalgunI}) VP. Un2. Sch. ; %{-bhava} m. N. of Br2ihas-pati or the planet Jupiter L.

pUrvasara mf(%{I})n. going before, preceding Pa1n2. 3-2, 19 Bhat2t2.704

pUrvasAra mfn. going eastwards Pa1n2. 1-1ii , 2 , 19 Sch. ; %{-sArA7svAdinI} f.

balAsavardhana mfn. increasing the phlegmatic humor Sus3r.

balavardhana mfn. increasing power, strengthening W.; m. N. of a son of Dhr2ita-ra1shtra MBh.

balavardhin mfn. = prec. mfn. W. ; (%{inI}) a species of medicinal plant (= %{jIvaka}) L.

pUrvArdha m. (later n.) the front or upper part; eastern side (opp. to %{jaghanA7rdha} , %{uttarA7rdha} &c.) TS. S3Br. Gr2S3rS. &c. ; the fore or first half (of a hemistich) S3rutab. ; (with %{dinasya}) forenoon Bhartr2. &c. ; %{-kAya} m. the front or upper part of the body MBh. ; %{-bhAga} m. the upper part, top Ragh. ; %{-lambin} mfn. having the foremost half inclined, leaning forward MW.

vArdhrINasa (also written %{-nasa}) m. (fr. %{vArdhrI} + %{nasa} for %{nAsA}) a rhinoceros (prob. so called as having a leather-like snout) Mn. Ya1jn5.

vArdhrInasa mfn. (prob.) having streaks on the nose or snout VS. (Mahi1dh. `” having pendulous excrescences on the neck “‘) ; m. see %{vArdhrINasa}.

nasya mfn. belonging to or being in the nose (%{as the} breath) S3Br. ; (%{A}) f. nñnose-cord Ya1jn5. Sch. (cf. %{nAsya}); the nose L.; n. the hairs in the nñnose VS.; a sternutatory, errhine MBh. R. Sus3r.

Tri-khand the khand is to divide, part of the unctuous containing ghee milk as a purge. below it is the sword that lives in a sheath.

ekazuGga mfn. having but one sheath (as a bud) AV. viii, 7, 4.

Above Embilia Ribes has one solid sheath covering and flower.

ekacara mf(%{A})n. wandering or living alone, not living in company, solitary, gregarious MBh. BhP. ; (said of certain animals) Mn. v, 17 BhP. v, 8, 15 ; (N. of a thief) Katha1s. ; moving at the same time S3Br. iii, 8, 3, 17; 18; N. of S3iva-Rudra Gaut. ; of Bala-deva L.; m. a rhinoceros L.

khaNDAmalaka n. myrobalan cut up into small pieces (used as a medicine) L.

khaDgAhva`” named after a sword “‘, a rhinoceros Sus3r. i, 6, 10.

Guhāśaya (‘which have a lair’, or, ‘cave-dwelling mammals’).

gahvara mf(%{A}, %{I})n. (g. %{azmA7di}) deep, impervious, impenetrable TS. v Hariv. BhP.; confused (in mind) Katha1s. lxi, 39 and 41; m. an arbor, bower L.; a cave, cavern L. ; (%{A}) f. the plant Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{I}) f. a cave, cavern L.

khaDgadhenu f. a female rhinoceros L.; (= %{asi-dh-}) a small knife Ra1jat. viii, 3315.

dhena m. the ocean or a river L. ; (%{dhe4nA}) f. a milch cow pl. any beverage made of milk RV. ; a mare (?) , i , 101 , 10 ; v , 30 , 9 ; river L. ; speech , voice (?) , i , 2 , 3 (Sa1y. ; cf. Naigh. i , 11) ;

dhenu mfn. milch, yielding or giving milk; f. a milch cow or any cow RV. &c. &c. (ifc. of names of animals also denoting the female of any species of %{khaDga-}, %{go-}, %{vaDava-}) ;

khaDga m. (fr. %{khaD} for %{khaND}?) a sword, scimitar MBh. R. &c. (ifc. f. %{A} Katha1s.); a large sacrificial knife W.; a rhinoceros MaitrS. iii , 14 , 21 = VS. xxiv , 40 (%{khaGga4}) S3a1n3khS3r. Mn. MBh. &c. ; a rhinoceros-horn L.; a Pratyeka-buddha (so-called because he is a solitary being like a rhinoceros; cf. %{eka-cara} and %{-cArin}) L. ;

khaDa m. (g. %{madhv-Adi}) dividing, breaking L.; buttermilk boiled with acid vegetables and spices Car. vi, 9 Sus3r. i, vi; N. of a man g. %{azvA7di} ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. (= %{khaTa}) a kind of small grass, straw L. ; (%{I}) f. (= %{khaTI}) chalk L.

khaDgika m. a swordsman L.; (= %{khaTTika}) a butcher, vender of flesh-meat L.; (= %{khaTTika}) the cream of buffalo’s milk L.

duHkhaduHkha n. (instr.) with great difficulty Megh. 90; %{-tA} f. the uneasiness connected with pain SaddhP.

duHkhadagdha mfn. `” burnt by affliction “‘, pained, distressed W.

duHkhaduHkhin mfn. having sorrow upon sorrow BhP. xi, 11, 19.

khAdatavamatA f. (Impv. 2. pl. fr. %{vam}) continual eating and vomiting ib. (v.l.)

khaDgakoza m. the sheath of a sword, scabbard L.; Scirpus maximus L.

khaDgapidhAna n. the sheath of a sword; scabbard L.

Below coinage found in southern India bears a striking similarity to Indus Valley Script. The word Sangam is a Sanskrit loan word, its meaning is gathering. This word is not found in any of the Sangam literature. The Sangam period has three parts only the last can be found. Tamil-Brahmi, also known as Tamil or Damali, is a variant of the Brahmi script used to write inscriptions in the early form of the Old Tamil language. The Sangam period or age (Tamil: சங்ககாலம், caṅkakālam ), or the third Sangam period, is the period of the history of ancient Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and parts of Sri Lanka (then known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 6th century BCE to c. 3rd century CE. It was named after the famous Sangam academies of poets and scholars centered in the city of Madurai. The Sangam literature is the historic evidence of indigenous literary developments in South India in parallel to Sanskrit, and the classical status of the Tamil language. While there is no evidence for the first and second mythical Sangams, the surviving literature attests to a group of scholars centered around the ancient Madurai (Maturai) that shaped the “literary, academic, cultural and linguistic life of ancient Tamil Nadu”, states Zvelebil.

Cassiopeia 01h 00m 00s, +60° 00′ 00″ Above Pisces 01h 00m 00s, +15° 00′ 00
Cassiopea or Cassiopeia, the Enthroned Queen, is a sitting figure, at times suspended upside-down in the sky in a very undignified position, she is depicted firmly bound to her throne and refrained from falling out of it, in going around the pole head downward (rather like being on a Ferris wheel I imagine). Greeks knowing it as KassiepeiaE tou thronou, ‘Cassiopeia, She of the Throne‘; and Hyde gave it the title Inthronata. The constellation is often referred to as Cassiopeia’s throne because the stars clearly outline the chair, or throne, upon which the queen sits. The word ‘throne‘ comes from the Indo-European root *dher ‘To hold firmly, support’. Derivatives: farmfermata (in music the prolongation of a tone, chord), firm¹firm²firmamentaffirmconfirmfurlinfirminfirmary, (these words from Latin firmus, firm, strong), throne (from Greek thronos, seat, throne < ‘support’), dharma (from Sanskrit dharma, statute, law < ‘that which is established firmly’), dharna (the practice of protesting against an injustice by sitting and fasting outside the door of the offender, from Prakrit dharana, a holding firm), Darius (from old Persian darayava(h)us, ‘holding firm the good’, from daraya– to hold firm, uphold). [Pokorny 2. dher– 252. Watkins

The Egyptian word for ‘throne‘ or ‘seat’ is ‘KXA’ (‘kazhaa‘) which looks like it could be pronounced ‘cassa’, resembling Cassiopeia’s name.The word ‘dharma‘ (from *dher) is related to the word throne. According to the American Heritage Dictionary; “dharma in Hinduism and Buddhism is the principle or law that orders the universe, also the body of teachings expounded by the Buddha”. Hindus called this constellation Casyapi (Kasyapi, similar to Cassiopeia or Kassiopeia). In Buddhist tradition there is a monk Kasyapa (Kashyapa, Kasiapa) whom Zen Buddhists consider their First Patriarch and the founder of their lineage, of whom the Buddha remarked that he alone of all his students had received his teaching (dharma), and should thereafter be known as Mahakasyapa, the Buddha said “I have true dharma, and I transmit my dharma to Mahakasyapa” .
kaSAya
mfn. astringent MBh. xiv , 1280 and 1411 R. Sus3r. Pan5cat. BhP. ; fragrant Megh. 31 ; red , dull red , yellowish red (as the garment of a Buddhist Bhikshu) MBh. Hariv. Mr2icch. Ya1jn5. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. (g. %{ardharcA7di}) an astringent flavour or taste Sus3r. ; a yellowish red colour Ya1jn5. i , 272 Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 4-2 , 1 ; an astringent juice , extract of juice S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Mn. xi , 153 ; a decoction or infusion Sus3r. (the result of boiling down a mixture consisting of one part of a drug and four or , according to some , eight or sixteen parts of water until only one quarter is left Sus3r.) ; any healing or medicinal potion Bhpr. ; exudation from a tree , juice , gum , resin L. ; ointment , smearing , anointing L. ; colouring or perfuming or anointing the person with cosmetics MBh. ; dirt , filth ; stain or impurity or sin cleaving to the soul ChUp. BhP. ; dulness , stupidity Veda1ntas. ;

Below Mitra standing with Casseopea with Picses the double fish constellation (samgraha) the standing Mitra as Purisha samgrahaniya(fecal astringents

Above Cassiopeia 01h 00m 00s, +60° 00′ 00″ 

Above Pisces 01h 00m 00s, +15° 00′ 00

kaSAya
mfn. astringent MBh. xiv , 1280 and 1411 R. Sus3r. Pan5cat. BhP. ;
In last place antya
Anamita
and mfn. (p. of Caus.) bent or bowed down , caused to bend Bhartr2. Ma1lav.
AnAmita
mfn. (p. of Caus.) bent or bowed down , caused to bend Bhartr2. Ma1lav.
anata

The Samarra culture ( Samarra bowl below) is a Late Neolithic archaeological culture of northern Mesopotamia, roughly dated to between 5500 and 4800 BCE. It partially overlaps with Hassuna and early Ubaid. Samarran material culture was first recognized during excavations by German Archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld at the site of Samarra. Other sites where Samarran material has been found include Tell ShemsharaTell es-Sawwan and Yarim Tepe.

Early continual cultural phase in the Indus starts in the area around 7000 BCE. The aceramic Neolithic (Mehrgarh I, Baluchistan, Pakistan, also dubbed “Early Food Producing Era”) lasts c. 7000 – 5500 BCE. The ceramic Neolithic lasts up to 3300 BCE, blending into the Early Harappan (Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age) period.

The bowl is crafted to be a volume for a purge.

matsyavedhana
n. fñfish-piercing “‘ , a fñfish-hook , angle L. ; (%{I}) f. id. L. ; a cormorant L.
madgu
m. (accord. to Un2. i , 7 fr. %{majj}) a , diver-bird (a kind of aquatic bird or cormorant ; cf. Lat. {mergus}) VS. &c. &c. (also %{-guka} R.) ; a species of wild animal frequenting the boughs of trees (= %{parNa-mRga}) Sus3r. ; a kind of snake L. ; a partic. fish Ni1lak. 
matsya
m. (cf. %{matsa} and %{maccha}) a fish RV. &c. &c. (personified as a prince with the patr. %{sAmmada} S3Br.) ; a partic. species of fñfish L. ; (in astron.) the figure of a fñfigure (= %{timi}) Su1ryas. ; a partic. luminous appearance VarBr2S. ; (du.) the 12th sign of the zodiac (Pisces) Jyot. ; a partic. figure (= %{svastikamadhyA7kRti}) Hcat. ; (pl.) N. of a people and country (which accord. to Mn. ii , 19 forms part of Brahmarshi) RV. &c.&c. ; a king of the Matsyas (cf. %{matsa}) ; N. of Vira1t2a (as having been found by fishermen , along with his sister Matsya1 or Satya-vati1 , in the body of the Apsaras Adrika1 , metamorphosed into a fish) MBh. ; N. of a pupil of Deva-mitra S3skalya Cat. ; (%{A}) f. a female fish Un2. iv , 104 Sch. ; N. of the sister of king Vira1t2a (cf. above) MBh. ; (%{I}) f. see %{matsa} and g. %{gaurA7di}.

mIna
m. (derivation fr. 1. %{mI} very doubtful in spite of Un2. iii , 3 , ) a fish Mn. MBh. &c. ; the sign of the zodiac Pisces R. VarBr2S. Pur. ; N. of a teacher of Yoga Cat. ; (%{A}) f. a stick L. ; N. of a daughter of Usha1 and wife of Kas3yapa Pur.
mInamatsya
m. du. the zodiacal sign Pisces Var. Sch.
antyabha
n. the last Nakshatra (Revati) ; the last sign of the zodiac , the sign Pisces.
antya
mfn. last in place , in time , or in order ; ifc. immediately following e.g. %{aSTamA7ntya} , the ninth ; lowest in place or condition , undermost , inferior , belonging to the lowest caste ; m. the plant Cyperus Hexastachyus Communis ;
posible Musta as a purge part of a purge and emitic.
  • # 18 Musta (Cyprus rotundus): Lekhaniya, Truptighna, Kandughna, Atanyashodhana, Trushnanigrahan

  • The bhutasamsara forumula with Musta. Use of prerequisite to the guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), musta (Cyperusrotundus Linn), triphala (combination of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Linn), bibhitaki(Terminalia belerica Roxb) and amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn)), takrarishta (a fermented medicinal preparation of buttermilk) and honey.


    Anantya
    mfn. (fr. %{an-anta} Pa1n2. 5-4 , 23) , infinite , eternal MBh. &c. ; bestowing infinite reward A1rshBr. ; (%{am}) n. infinity , eternity S3Br. Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. ; immortality , future happiness MBh. &c.
    anantya
    mfn. infinite , eternal , (%{am}) n. infinity , eternity.
    2
    Anantya
    mfn. (fr. %{an-anta} Pa1n2. 5-4 , 23) , infinite , eternal MBh. &c. ; bestowing infinite reward A1rshBr. ; (%{am}) n. infinity , eternity S3Br. Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. ; immortality , future happiness MBh. &c.
    Anamita
    and mfn. (p. of Caus.) bent or bowed down , caused to bend Bhartr2. Ma1lav.
    AnAmita
    mfn. (p. of Caus.) bent or bowed down , caused to bend Bhartr2. Ma1lav.
    anata
    mfn. not bent , not bowed down ; not changed into a lingual consonant RPra1t. ; erect ; stiff ; haughty.
    Anata
    mfn. bending , stooping , bowed Ragh. Katha1s. ; humbled , submissive , obedient MBh. &c. ; bent or curved inwards (as a bow) S3Br. ; flat , sunk (not elevated) MBh. R. ; pacified , conciliated ; saluted reverently. [140,2]
    Anati
    f. bending , bowing , stooping VS. Katha1s. ; submission , obedience , inferiority Comm. on Ka1tyS3r. &c. ; contentedness T. ; saluting L.
    aniSudhanva
    mfn. without arrows and a bow TA1r.
    Antra
    1 n. (fr. %{antra}) , the bowels , entrails RV. AV. VS. S3Br.
    antrakUja
    m. or rumbling of the bowels.
    antrakUjana
    n. or rumbling of the bowels.

    matsya
    m. (cf. %{matsa} and %{maccha}) a fish RV. &c. &c. (personified as a prince with the patr. %{sAmmada} S3Br.) ; a partic. species of fñfish L. ; (in astron.) the figure of a fñfigure (= %{timi}) Su1ryas. ; a partic. luminous appearance VarBr2S. ; (du.) the 12th sign of the zodiac (Pisces) Jyot. ; a partic. figure (= %{svastikamadhyA7kRti}) Hcat. ;(%{I}) f. see %{matsa} and g. %{gaurA7di}.


    gara mfn. (2. %{gRR}) `” swallowing “‘ (g. %{pacA7di}) see %{aja-} ; m. (g. %{uJchA7di} Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 3-3 , 29 and 57) any drink , beverage , fluid S3Br. xi , 5 , 8 , 6 ; a noxious or poisonous beverage Ta1n2d2yaBr. xix TA1r. R. Sus3r. BhP. ; a factitious poison (`” an antidote “‘ W.) L. ; a kind of disease (perhaps one attended with difficulty of swallowing? ; `” disease in general “‘ L.) Sus3r. i , iv ; vi , 39 , 208 ; N. of a man Ta1n2d2yaBr. ix , 2 , 16 ; (%{A}) f. swallowing L. ; (%{A} , %{I}) f. Andropogon serratus L. ; (%{I}) f. N. of a district g. %{gaurA7di} (Gan2ar. 48) ; (%{am}) n. a poisonous beverage (`” a kind of poison “‘ L.) MBh. i , 5582 BhP. viii ; the fifth of the eleven Karan2as (in astron.) VarBr2S. ; sprinkling , wetting (? %{karaNa}) W.
    Azvatthior g. %{gaurA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1 , 41)n. belonging to the As3vattha tree (Ficus Religiosa) AitBr. TS. Ka1tyS3r. S3Br.
    12Azvatthika) mf(%{I4} g. %{gaurA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1 , 41)n. belonging to the As3vattha tree (Ficus Religiosa) AitBr. TS. Ka1tyS3r. S3Br. ; &c. ; relating to the fruit-bearing season of this tree Comm. on Pa1n2. ; belonging to the Nakshatra As3vattha L. ; (%{am}) n. the fruit of the Ficus Religiosa Pa1n2. and L.
    #190 Ashwattha (Ficus religiosa): Mutra samgrahaniya

    Shirovirechanopaga( helping nasal errhine therapy)

    Truptighna (anti-satiety)opposed to Satiety is the satisfied feeling of being full after eating. Early satiety is feeling full sooner than normal or after eating less than usual

    78 Viḍanga (Embelia ribes): Truptighna, Kushṭhaghna, Krimighna, Shirovirechanopaga

    #80 Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia): Truptighna, Trushnanigrahana, Dahaprashamana, Stanyashodhana

    #40 Pippali (Piper longum): Dipaniya, Kanṭhya, Truptighna, Asthapanopaga, Hikkanigrahana, Kasahara, Shulaprashamana, Shirovirechanopaga, Sheeta prashamana

    #41 Pippalimula (Roots of Piper nigrum): Dipaniya, Shula prashamana

    1. Chavya (Piper chaba): Dipaniya, Truptighna, Shulaprashamana, Arshoghna
    2. Maricha (Piper nigrum): Dipaniya, Krumighna, Shiro-virechanopaga, Shula prashamana
    3. # 18 Musta (Cyprus rotundus): Lekhaniya, Truptighna, Kandughna, Atanyashodhana, Trushnanigrahana
    4. Vacha (Acorus calamus): Lekhaniya, Truptighna, Arshoghna, Asthapanopaga, Sheeta prashamana, Sanjna sthapana
    5. Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica ): Lekhaniya, Bhedaniya, Dipaniya, Tr̥uptighna , Arshoghna, Shulaprashamana
    6. #82 Patola (Trochiosanthus dioeca): Truptighna, Trishna nigrahana
    7. below # 88, 85, #152 Bhuta-sara virechanopaga (sub-purgative)
    8. #88 Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica): Kushthaghna, Virechanopaga, Kasahara, Jwarahara
    9. #85 Abhaya (Terminalia chebula): Arshoghnani, Kushthaghna, Virechanopaga, Hikka nigrahana, Kasahara, Jwarahara, Vayasthapana
    10. #152 Bibhitak (Terminalia belerica): Virechanopaga, Jwarahara
    11. #153 Karkandhu (Zizyphus nummularia): Virechanopaga
    12. #221 Pippalimula (Roots of Piper longum): Shula prashamana
    13. snehopaga (sub-oleative)Abhyantar Snehana: Internal oleation. Part of Purvakarma it is specifically designed to liquify and dislodge ama from the dhatus.
    14. #1 Jivaka (Microstylis wallichii) : Jeevaniya, Shukra janana, Snehopaga
    15. #2 Rishabhaka (Microstylis wallichii) : Jeevaniya, Shukra janana
    16. #3 Meda (Polygonatum verticilatum): Jeevaniya, Shukra janana, Snehopaga
    17. #4 Mahameda (Polygonatum verticilatum): Jeevaniya
    18. #5 Kakoli (Roscoea procera): Jeevaniya, Brimhaniya, Shukra janana, Snehopaga, Aangamrdaprashamana
    19. #6 Kshirakakoli (Tuberous Root of Roscoea procera): Jeevaniya, Brimhaniya, Shukra janana, Snehopaga
    20. #7 Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus): Jeevaniya, Shukra janana
    21. #8 Mashaparni (Taramnus labialis)’: Jeevaniya, Shukra janana
    22. #9 Jivanti (Leptadenis reticulate): Jeevaniya, Snehopaga, Vaya sthapana, Shwasahara
    23. #10 Madhuka (Glycyrrhiza glabra): Jeevaniya, Shonita sthapana, Angamrdaprashamana, Dahaprashamana, Mutra virajaniya, Asthapanopaga, Vamanopaga, Snehopaga, Kandughna, Kanthya, Varnya, Sandhaniya, Purishavirajaniya

    Below Mutra-samgraha with bahu dosha.

    Amra (Mangifera indica): Hrudya, Chhardinigrahana (Amra pallava- leaves) Purishasamgrahaniya (Amra asthi-seed)- Mutrasamgrahaniya

    sAraNamf(%{I})n. id. L.; cracked, split L.; having five hair-tufts on the head L.; m. dysentery, diarrhea L.; wind during the autumn L. ; 
    Sarana; having five hair-tufts on the head L. ;
    Below, in the image of Varuna, there are five hair tufts.

    saMgraha m. holding together, seizing, grasping, taking, reception, obtainment MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; taking (in the sense of eating or drinking food, medicine &c.) Ragh. Bhartr2. ; %{-grahaNI} f. a partic. form of diarrhea (alternating with constipation) Bhpr. ; 

    saMgrahaNIya mfn. to be taken hold of; to be taken as a remedy against (any disease e.g. diarrhea), Car. [1129,3]; to be directed towards (loc.) S3am2k. ; to be drawn together or contracted or restrained MW.

    saMghAta m. (rarely n.; ifc. f. %{A}) striking or dashing together, killing, crushing MBh. Sus3r. ;{-ja} mfn. produced by a complicated derangement of the three humours (= %{saMnipAtika}) Bhpr. ;

    The square on the left side is Bhasaka, Embelia Ribes.

    Above both seals, Varuna where the writing is above, and the unicorns writing is below, have Zlisa Phlemic humour and Samgata phlegm, and all three humours.

    AzleSa m. intimate connection, contact; slight contact L.; embracing, embrace; entwining MBh. BhP. Megh. Amar. &c. ; adherence, clinging to Nya1yam. ; (%{A4}) f. and (%{A4s}) f. pl.N. of the seventh Nakshatra AV. TS. Sus3r. MBh. VarBr2S.

    saMghAta m. (rarely n.; ifc. f. %{A}) striking or dashing together, killing, crushing MBh. Sus3r. ; closing (of a door &c.) VS. TBr. ; a collection of mucus, phlegm (cf. %{saMghANaka}) L. ;%{-ja} mfn. produced by a complicated derangement of the three humours (= %{saMnipAtika}) Bhpr. ;

    zleSmadhAtu m. the phlegmatic humour MW.

    zleSmaka n. phlegm, the phlegmatic humour L.

    zleSman m. phlegm, mucus, rheum, the phlegmatic humour (one of the three humours of the body = %{kapha}; see %{dhAtu}) S3Br. Ya1jn5. Sus3r. MBh. &c. ; n. a band , cord , string AitBr. Ka1t2h. ; lime, glue &c. A1past. ; 

    bhasmaka mfn. (with %{agnI}) = %{bhasmA7gni} , S3a1rn3gS. ; n. a partic. the disease of the eyes or morbid appetite from over-digestion (cf. %{bhasmA7gni}) L.; gold L.; the fruit of Embelia Ribes L.3

    The square on the left side is Bhasaka, Embelia Ribes.

    vyAghranakham. a tiger’s claw W. ; m.n. a root or a partic. root L. ;

    zleSmaNa mfn. phlegmatic, slimy S3Br. ; producing phlegm or mucus Car. ; (%{A}) f. a kind of plant L.

    zleSmAtisAra m. dysentery or diarrhea produced by vitiated phlegm Sus3r.

    raJjaka mf(%{ikA})n. coloring, dyeing S3a1rn3gS.; exciting passion or love, charming, pleasing Cat. ; m. a colorist, dyer, painter Mn. iv, 216 [863,3]; an inciter of affection &c. , stimulus W.; the red powder on the capsules of the Rottleria Tinctoria L.; biliary humour on which vision depends W. ;

    rajanI f. `” the coloured or dark one “‘ , night AV. &c. &c. ; Curcuma Longa (du. = %{-dvaya}) Sus3r. 

    citraraJjaka n. tin Npr.

    candracitra m. pl. N. of a people R. (B) iv, 42, 6.

    rasAJjana vitriol of copper or a sort of collyrium prepared from it with the addition of Curcuma 

    Curcuma longa (Haridra),

    haraka m. a taker, seizer, conveyer W.; a rogue, cheat ib. ; a reflecting person ib. ; N. of S3iva ib. ; a divisor or division ib. ; a long flexible sword ib.

    Curcuma longa is the name of Garga, it became Haraka. The color of copper.

    gargaraka m. the fish Pimelodus Gagora Sus3r. ; N. of a plant with a poisonous root ib. ; (%{ikA}) f. N. of a plant and its fruit g. %{harItaky-Adi} (Ka1s3.)

    nakhararajanI f. v.l. for %{nakha-r-} g. %{harItaky-Adi} Ka1s3.

    grAhin (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 134) mfn. ifc. seizing, taking, holding, laying hold of R. S3ak. ii , 6/7 (v.l.) Bhartr2. Katha1s. 

    haritAla m. a kind of pigeon of a yellowish-green color, Columba Hurriyals L. ; (%{I}) f. Panicum dactylon L.; the blade of a sword L.; the fourth (or third).day in the light half of the month Bha1dra L.; a streak or line in the sky L.; the atmosphere L. ; (%{am}) n. yellow orpiment or sulphuret of arsenic (described as the seed or seminal energy of Vishn2u = %{harer@vIryam}) MBh. Hariv. &c.

    haritAzma n. `” green-colored stone “‘, a turquoise or emerald L.; sulfate of copper or blue vitriol L.

    grAha (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 143) mf(%{I})n. ifc. seizing, holding the handle (of a sword &c.) Gal. ;

    rAjJI f. (see 1. %{rA4jan}) a queen, princess, the wife of a king VS. &c. &c. ; N. of the western quarter or that which contains the Soul of the Universe ChUp. iii, 15, 2 of the wife of the Sun Pur. ; deep-colored or yellowish-red brass (consisting of three parts of copper to one of zinc or tin) L.

    rajas n. `” colored or dim space “‘, the sphere of vapor or mist, region of clouds, atmosphere, air, firmament (in Veda one of the divisions of the world and distinguished from %{div} or %{svar}, `” the sphere of light “‘, and %{rocanA@divaH}, `” the ethereal spaces “‘, which are beyond the %{rajas}, as ether is beyond the air;  tin L.; autumn L. 

    pIta 2 mf(%{A})n. (possibly fr. 2. %{pi} or %{pyai}, the color of butter and oil being yellowish) yellow; Curcuma Longa 

    pitta n. (etym. unknown) bile, the bilious humour (one of the three humours [cf. %{kapha} and %{vAyu}] or that secreted between the stomach and bowels and flowing through the liver and permeating spleen, heart, eyes, and skin; its chief quality is heat) AV. &c. &c.

    bhasmaka mfn. (with %{agnI}) = %{bhasmA7gni} , S3a1rn3gS. ; n. a partic. the disease of the eyes or morbid appetite from over-digestion (cf. %{bhasmA7gni}) L.; gold L.; the fruit of Embelia Ribes L.3

    citrataNDula m. Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{a}) f. id. Bhpr. v , 1 , 112.

    citraraJjaka n. tin Npr.

    candracitra m. pl. N. of a people R. (B) iv, 42, 6.

    candraja m. `” moon born “‘, the planet Mercury VarBr2S.; %{-siMha} m. N. of a man.

    candrabhAsa m. (= %{-hAsa}) `” moon-brilliant “‘, a sword L.; N. of a hero of Ka1lika1 Virac. xxx.39

    candrahAsa m. (= %{-bhAsa}) , `” moon-derider “‘ , a glittering scimitar Sa1h. vi, 27/28; Ra1van2a’s sword R. vii, 16, 43; N. of a prince, JaimBha1r. lxv-lxxv; of a hero of Ka1lika1 Virac. xxx; n. silver L. ; (%{A}) f. = %{-puSpA} Bhpr. ; Cocculus cordifolius L. 

    candraka m. the moon Ma1lav. v, 7 (ifc. f. %{ikA}); a circle or ring-shaped like the moon S3is3. v, 40; a spot similar to the moon R.  a kind of white-blossoming Kan2t2aka1ri L.; the Utpalini metre ; (in music) a kind of measure; N. of Da1ksha1yan2i MatsyaP. xiii; of a woman Ma1lav. iv, 6/7; of a Sura7n3gana1 Sin6ha7s. ; of the Candra-bha1ga1 river L.

    priyaMkara mf(%{I} or %{A})n. acting kindly towards, showing kindness to (gen.) VS. MBh. Hariv. &c. ; causing pleasure, agreeable Hariv. ; exciting or attracting regard, amiable W.; m. N. of a Da1nava Katha1s. ; of sev. men ib. Kshiti7s3. ; (%{I}) f. Physalis Flexuosa L.; a white-blooming Kan2t2aka1ri1 L. ;

    zvetarUpya n. tin L.

    zvetakaNTakArIf. a species of plant (= %{priyaMkarI}) MW.

    kSetraja mfn. produced in a field (as corn &c.) L.; m. (scil. %{putra}) `” born from the womb “‘, a son who is the offspring of the wife by a kinsman or person duly appointed to raise up the issue to the husband (this is one of the twelve kinds of issue allowed by the old Hindu1 law) Baudh. Gaut. Mn. ix, 159 ff. Ya1jn5. i , 68 and 69 ; ii , 128 ; (%{A}) f. N. of several plants (= %{zvetakaNTakArI} , 

    gardabha m. `” crier , brayer (?) “‘ , an ass RV. AV. &c. (ifc. f. %{A} Katha1s. lxx); a kind of perfume L.; pl. N. of a family Pravar. ii , 3 , 3 ; v , 4 ; n. the white esculent water-lily L. ; Embelia Ribes L. ;%{zvetakaNTakArI}) L. ;

    garbha m. (%{grabh} = %{grah} , `” to conceive “‘ ; 2. %{gRR} Un2. iii, 152) the womb RV. AV. &c. ;

    pIta 2 mf(%{A})n. (possibly fr. 2. %{pi} or %{pyai}, the color of butter and oil being yellowish) yellow (the color of the Vais3yas, white being that of the Bra1hmans, red that of the Kshatriyas, and black that of the S3u1dras) Gr2S. Up. MBh. &c. ; of the Vais3yas in S3a1lmala-dvipa VP. ; (%{A}) f. N. of sev. plants Curcuma Longa 

    candracitra m. pl. N. of a people R. (B) iv, 42, 6.

    bhASAcitraka n. a play on words, conundrum Ba1lar.

    bhASA f. speech, language (esp. common or vernacular speech, as opp. to Vedic or in later times to Sanskr2it) Nir. Pa1n2. Mn. MBh. ; any Pra1kr2it dialect or a partic. group of 5 of them (viz. Ma1ha1ra1sht2ri , S3auraseni , Ma1gadhi , Pra1cya1 , and Avanti , also called Pan5ca-vidha1 Bha1sha1 ;

    bhaiSajya m. patr. fr. %{bhiSaj} , or %{bhiSaja} g. %{gargA7di} (Ka1s3.) ; n. creativeness, healing efficacy VS.; a partic. ceremony performed as a remedy for sickness Kaus3. ; any remedy, drug, or medicine (`” against “‘ gen.) S3Br. Sus3r. ; the administering of medicines &c. MW.

    bheSaja mf(%{I})n. (fr. 1. %{bhiSaj}) curing, healing, sanative RV. AV. AitBr. ; n. a remedy, medicine, medicament, drug, a remedy against (gen. or comp.) RV. &c. &c. ; a spell or charm (for curative purposes (generally from Atharva-veda) S3rS.; water Naigh. i, 12; Nigella Indica W.

    bheSajacandra m. `” moon of medicine “‘N. of a man Katha1s.

    munibheSaja n. `” sage’s medicine “‘ fasting L.; Agati Grandiflora L.; Terminalia Chebula or Citrina L.

    haritabheSaja n. a remedy against jaundice AV.

    bhasmAgni m. (in medic.) N. of a disease in which the food is over-digested or as it was reduced to ashes.

    bhasmagandhinIf. `” having the smell of añashes “‘, a kind of perfume L.

    bhasmagarbha m. ; (%{A}) f. a species of plant L.; a kind of perfume L.

    bhasmaka mfn. (with %{agnI}) = %{bhasmA7gni} , S3a1rn3gS. ; n. a partic. a disease of the eyes or morbid appetite from over-digestion (cf. %{bhasmA7gni}) L.; gold L.; the fruit of Embelia Ribes L.

    akSibheSaja n. medicament for the eyes, collyrium, &c. ; m. a tree, Red Lodh.

    %{bhiSaja} g. %{gargA7di}

    Below are the small inscribed copper tablets found at Mohenjo-Daro, three types that I believe learning plates for matching symbolizim to the writing, expressing weight and substance, the weight is based on these smallest units.

    • Above B14, (B5, digestive power agni deepana), (B8, B9 Mild purgation (mridu virechana)), and B10 are daughters, the heart-shaped leaf (letter “d”). While B1 has both signs daughter and Matra mother. I believe the unicorn (B1) to be Pazu domestic use, it is the most used image of the entire corpus of the Indus Valley seals. The Copper tablets from the Mohenjo-Daro are about half the size and weight of the new nine copper tables. (above).

    The dosage forms are categorized as below: [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 13/29], Maximum dose (pradhana matra), Medium dose (madhyama matra) Minimum/Low dose (hrasva matra) and Lowest dose or test dose (hrasiyasi matra).

    B8. iSustrikANDA (%{iSustrikANDA}) f. `” the threefold arrow “‘N. of a constellation (perhaps the girdle of Orion) AitBr.

    ISam. the month A1s3vina see %{iSa} ; a son of the third Manu ; a servant of S3iva.
    iSa
    2 mfn. possessing sap and strength ; well-fed , strong ; sappy , juicy , fertile RV. ; m. N. of the month A1s3vina , September-October) VS. S3Br. Sus3r. VP. ; N. of a R2ishi BhP.
    ISat
    2 ind. (gana %{svar-Adi} Pa1n2. 1-1 , 37 ; for the use of %{ISat} see Pa1n2. 3-3 , 126 , &c.) little , a little , slightly S3Br. R. Sus3r. &c.
    ISallabha
    (%{ISat-labha}) mfn. to be obtained for a little L.
    ISadasamApta
    mfn. a little incomplete , not quite complete , almost complete ,
    azvayuj
    mfn. harnessing horses RV. v , 54 , 2 ; having horses put to (as a carriage) R. v , 27 , 14 ; born under the constellation As3vayuj Pa1n2. 4-3 , 36 (cf. %{Azvayuja}) ; (%{k}) f. sg.N. of a constellation (the head of Aries) Pa1n2. 4-3 , 36 VarBr2S. iv , 3 , 36 VarBr2S. &c. ; (%{-yu4jau}) f. du. id. AV. xix , 7 , 5 TBr. ; (%{k}) m. the month A1s3vina (Sept.-Oct.) VarBr2S.
    (hrasva matra)
    hrasvamUla
    m. `” having a small root “‘ , the red sugar-cane L

    Below horseplay in the Indus Valley, Minimum/Low dose (hrasva matra) A1a and A1b are horses with horns.

    Pre-therapeutic measures (Purvakarma)

    The pre-purgation procedure aims to prepare the body for purgation and to bring toxins to the gut for expulsion. Digestive (pachana) therapies are administered to correct digestion and detach the microcellular toxins (ama). Unction (snehana) is prescribed in a suitable dose for a duration until proper unction features are observed.

    https://www.ancient-asia-journal.com/articles/10.5334/aa.12317/

    The set of nine copper plates of Indus Valley origin but of a quite different appearance to the aforementioned wafers has recently come to light. The source and history of the plates are poorly known, as the plates lay stored in two successive private collections in Pakistan for many years. The plates were first thought to be generally comparable to those from the large corpus of small copper tablets or wafers known from Mohenjo-daro and thus were given little importance.

     Inscribed Indus Valley metal objects include seals, small tablets (or wafers), and occasionally tools. Seals similar to steatite seals are known in both copper and silver but are very rare, were likely cast for wealthy individuals from sealings taken from crisp steatite seals. Steatite seals were prone to breakage and loss, as the stone is soft and brittle; broken seals or seals with a broken boss have often been found in excavated streets at Indus Valley sites. Over 200 small inscribed copper tablets have been found at Mohenjo-Daro, and these are discussed by Parpola (1994; p. 111); They comprise three groups based on shape: square, rectangular, and long and narrow. Their average dimensions respectively are 26.6mm by 26.5mm by 3.5mm; 33.8mm by 26.5mm by 3.5mm; and 33.0mm by 24.0mm by 3mm. Most of these tablets have an inscribed image on one side and text on the other side. Many of the tablets occur as duplicates, where the image and relevant script are consistent from copy to copy. In one rectangular design featuring a bull, 28 copies are known. 

     urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel) and adho-mārga Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through downward channel). Khad breaks down to Khand division becomes Chhardi and Vamane is the purification itself.

    chardif. vomiting , sickness Ka1tyS3r. xxv , 11 Gaut. Sus3r. VarBr2S. xxxii , 18 ; expulsion (of the breath) KapS. iii , 33.
    2khAdata-vamatA
    Below chhad – vamane
    f. (Impv. 2. pl. fr. %{vam}) continual eating and vomiting ib. (v.l.)

    In the Atisara Chikitsa (treatment of diarrhea), there is a description of Chhardi Chikitsa. The word chhardi is derived from the root chhard vamane. The word chhad means gripping (avritta or a-chhad-ana) and ard means pain (peedha). Other words like chhardah, chhardana, chhardi, chhardika, etc. are considered synonyms of chhardi. The words chhardi and vamana, both are used in the sense of vomiting but have basic difference. Chhardi is a pathological condition where the sufferer is exposed to particular predisposing factors for vomiting and as a result suffers from the particular condition called chhardi. On the other hand vamana is one of the purification therapies of Panchakarma (five purification procedures in Ayurveda) where the physician intends to induce vomiting to expel out vitiated kapha and pitta. In general, the vitiated doshas accumulate in the stomach and are thrown out from the body through various channels. There are two major channels from which the body generally does such excretory mechanisms. The one is adhomārga (excretion through the downward channel) for which the description of atisara is given in the previous chapter and the other one is urdhvabhaga (excretion through the upward channel) where the description of chhardi is discussed here. Chhardi comes under the category of koshtha rasayani shrita vyadhi (diseases of GI tract) whose roots are in mahasrotas (GI tract) and manovaha (mind) srotasa. The amashaya and rasayani are the involved avayavas (organs) in this disease. The management of this disease is by the pharmacological treatment through various herbs/combinations, dietary modifications and psychological counseling. The preventive aspect includes avoidance of causative factors and enhancement in psychological strength to specific items/factors. The curative treatment focuses on pharmacotherapy depending upon dosha dominance and mild samshodhana (expelling out the vitiated dosha).

    The Rhino and the goat combine (above) the arrows are pointed down for the Tiger copper tablet. The rhino body spells Medha is the grasping power of intellect to learn sciences. It is one of the three faculties of buddhi (intellect). The rhino The word ‘snehana’ means providing unction, oleation, lubrication, rubbing or smearing with oil or unguents, being or becoming oily etc. It also shows a psychological ‘feeling of affection’. The process of unction or unction therapy is an important preparatory procedure (Purvkarma) performed before purification therapies (Panchakarma). 

    One ingredent of unctuous is Embelia Ribes as a herbal additive. unctuous substances like ghee (ghrita), edible oil (taila), muscle fat (vasa) and marrow (majja). These substances are used in diet and various medical therapies in Ayurveda.

    • dhatu provides unctuousness to all body components. Unctuousness is the essential property of the essence of all seven dhatu (ojas). It is related to vitality and immunity of the body. [Cha.Sa. Chikitsa Sthana 24/31] The unctuous portion (sneha) carries functions like lubrication, providing moisture, smoothening, unction, fluidity, and ooziness. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 22/11] These are important in various physiological processes and functions of the body. Meda dhatu is formed from the unctuous portion of mamsa dhatu by action of factors responsible for metabolism of meda (medadhatvagni).[Cha. Sa Chikitsa Sthana 15/29-30] Oral administration of unctuous substance (snehapana)
    • Per rectal administration (sneha basti)
    • Intra nasal administration (nasya)

    The word ‘snehana’ means providing unction, oleation, lubrication, rubbing or smearing with oil or unguents, being or becoming oily etc. It also shows a psychological ‘feeling of affection’. The process of unction or unction therapy is an important preparatory procedure (purvakarma) performed before purification therapies (Panchakarma). 

    Below is the Rhino as a Nasya.

    The third part of a three-sided artifact, the left side starts with a Nasya, the middle an enema, and the right side bloodletting.

    The term ‘nasya’ denotes ‘being in the nose’ or ‘belonging to nose’. It is one among the five purification procedures (panchakarma). In this procedure, the medicines are instilled through the nostrils. It is indicated in the diseases of head and associated structures.[A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 20/1] Considering the therapeutic efficacy, it is used to treat a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from headache to infertility.

    nasya Purificatory (shodhana) medicine

    It is indicated in disorders due to aggravation of kapha dosha in the head and throat like the heaviness of head, tastelessness, loss of smell, epilepsy, migraine etc. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 40/36]

    One of the last parts of the Kubal first line is the Rhino, part of the beginning as an emetic and purge, then the rhino is part of the end of the line as a nasya.

    The word ‘basti’ denotes the therapeutic procedure of an enema. It is one of the five purification procedures (panchakarma). Basti also spelled as vasti, literally means bladder or an injection syringe made of bladder or injection itself. From an anatomical perspective, the urinary bladder is called basti. In ancient times, the bladder of animals (mainly goat or buffalo) was used to administer enema therapy, hence the therapy is known as ‘basti’. [A.S.Sutra Sthana 28/2] It is the best treatment for disorders of vata dosha. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 25/40]. 

    The middle procedure of the Panchakarma is the humped bull, in ancient times, the bladder of animals (mainly goat or buffalo) was used. the apparatus falling down from the humps of the bulls below.

    Below a stone artifact with three faces first is Vana, Mrga; wild for an emetic Tiger than a lion. Second gramya domestic two buffalo leading the procession a purge. The third is divided into three parts. The rolled seal with Varuna and Mitra has 7 parts in the copper tablets. B6 instead of B8 shown below for the goat, and B5 for the Rhino, B12 and B13 for the two Tigers, these fall under Dosa the night Chhardi Chikitsa  urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel) and adho-mārga Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through downward channel). These two channels appear as a Graha or a siezer in the day light, first two bulls of the second procession below B6 with B12 night with water buffolo B3. The other channel is the Rhino B5 above it A11 Guru/Garuda above it the tiger/lion B2 the night Dosa its seizer for the day is the water

    buffalo B2 vRSanAzana.

    The pyramid or triangle is part of the rhino in the first part of the three-sided artifact above. The last part has the triangle with a plant coming out of the top and two animals smelling it a Nasya.

    A 11 above is Guru; Tin,

    gurupattran. tin L. ; (%{A}) f. the tamarind tree L.
    gurupattrakan. tin Gal.

    B2 above has both signs found on tin ingots. candraja m. `” moon born “‘, the planet Mercury VarBr2S.; %{-siMha} m. N. of a man.

    rajanI f. `” the coloured or dark one “‘ , night AV. &c. &c. ; Curcuma Longa (du. = %{-dvaya}) Sus3r. 

    rasAJjana vitriol of copper or a sort of collyrium prepared from it with the addition of Curcuma

     rAjJI f. (see 1. %{rA4jan}) a queen, princess, the wife of a king VS. &c. &c. ; N. of the western quarter or that which contains the Soul of the Universe ChUp. iii, 15, 2 of the wife of the Sun Pur. ; deep-colored or yellowish-red brass (consisting of three parts of copper to one of zinc or tin) L.

    110 Ancient ideas | ancient, indus valley civilization, bronze age  civilization

    Indian gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica

    Below is the purge part it has the root of Embelia Ribes

    No alt text provided for this image
    The second gylph of B13 from left to right is cancer Pusya,
    and the last gylph is also cancer Karkata.
    vidanga (Embelia ribes) should be collected in pusya nakshatra.
    karkaTa
    m. a crab Sus3r. Pan5cat. &c. ; the sign Cancer VarBr2S. VarBr2.

    vRSanAzana m. Embelia Ribes L.

    vRSanAzanam. Embelia Ribes L.
    viDaGgamfn. clever , able , skilful L. ; m. and (%{A}) f. Embelia Ribes L. ; n. the fruit of the above plant (a vermifuge) L.
    zleSmavidagdhamfn. = %{-duSTa} Sus3r.
    pittavidagdhamfn. burnt or impaired by bile (as sight) Sus3r.

    Embelia Ribes

    commonly
    distributed in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and
    Mizoram in the altitudinal zone of 500 to 2500 msl. The plant changes as to its altitude, the higher plants are the roots of Embelia Ribes .

    1. Kills Worms: (Seed; Ayurveda, Unani)
    -Roundworm, Threadworm, especially Tapeworm

    2. Warms the Stomach, Clears Damp, Benefits Qi:
    -Colic, Flatulence; prevents Constipation
    -a few of the fruit added to children’s Milk to prevent Colic and Worms

    3. Clears Wind-Phlegm and Damp:
    -Traditionally as a purgative of Phlegm, Pituitous and Burnt Bile Humors
    -Cough, Bronchitis, Wheezing
    -Scrofula, swollen glands, Tumors from Melancholy and Phlegm
    -Vitiligo and skin pigmentation problems; Leprosy
    -Headache
    -Rheumatism, Gout; ‘expels the Phlegm from the Joints’. (Avicenna)
    -Wind-Damp obstructing the nerves: Hemiplegia, Paralysis, Facial Paralysis, Tremors, Nerve disorders (Unani)

    4. Clears Damp, Promotes Urine:
    -Edema, Ascites
    -Dysuria, cloudy urine, Gravel, Stones
    -high Uric acid
    -Jaundice

    5. Moves the Blood, Promotes Menstruation:
    -amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea
    -used as a contraceptive

    6. Rasayana:
    strengthens the Body; tonic to the 7 body constituents (Rasayana); regarded as preventing Old age. (Susruta)
    -Diabetes-related to Phlegm

    7. Externally:
    -applied to Ringworm and fungal infections
    -in gargles and mouthwashes for Sore Throat and Mouth Sores
    -root-bark is applied to Toothache
    used in nasal medications in India

    Vaman the 103 grams above it contains Embelia Ribes the fruit and this has the five forked glyphs associated with Trirata three nights. The second is Virechan 107 grams above it contains Embelia Ribes vRSanAzana the root. Then Basti the middle the humped bull. Raktamokshan ?, and then Nasya the 113.6 grams above with Embelia Ribes, vRSanAzana the root and karkata the crab a small water-jar Pan5cat.

    Zaza is the hare, from the right Asta-kshiti-bhrt

    astakSitibhRt m. `” the mountain Asta “‘, the western mountain (behind which the sun is supposed to set), Ratna1v.

    asta home RV. AV. S3Br. ; m. setting (as of the sun or of luminaries) VarBr2S. Su1ryas. ; `” end, death “‘ see %{asta-samaya} below; the western mountain (behind which the sun is supposed to set) MBh. R. &c. ; (in astron.) the seventh lunar mansion VarBr2. ; 

    astabhavana the seventh lunar mansion VarBr2.

    azleSA sg. or %{As} f. pl. (= %{azleSA4} q.v.) N. of the seventh (in later times the ninth) lunar mansion (containing five stars) MBh. xiii , 3262 Jyot. VarBr2S.

    viSANa n. (for 2. see under %{vi-So} , fr. which 1. may perhaps also come; in older language also %{A} f. and accord. to g. %{ardhar-cA7di} , also m. ; ifc. %{A} or %{I}) a horn , the horn of any animal AV. &c. &c. (cf. %{kharI-} , %{zaza-v-}) ; a horn (wind-instrument) BhP. ; the tusk (of an elephant or of a boar or of Gan2e7s3a) MBh. Hariv. &c. ; the claws (of a crab) Pan5cat. ; a peak, top, point, summit Shad2vBr. VarBr2S. ; the horn-like tuft on S3iva’s head MBh. ; the tip of the breast, nipple BhP. ; the chief or best of a class or kind (cf. %{-bhUta} ; %{dhI-v-} = `” acuteness of intellect , sagacity “‘) MBh. VarBr2S. ; a sword or knife R. (v.l. %{kRpANa}) ; (%{I}) f. N. of various plants (Odina Pinnata ; the Indian tamarind ; Tragia Involucrata ; = %{RSabha} , %{karkaTa-zRGgI} and %{kSIra-kAkolI}) L. ; Costus Speciosus or Arabicus L.

     vRSabha (cf. %{RSabha}) manly, mighty, vigorous, strong (applied like %{vRSan}  zodiacal sign Taurus VarBr2S.; a partic. drug (described as a root brought from the Hima7laya mountains, resembling the horn of a bull, of cooling and tonic properties, and serviceable in catarrh and consumption) Bhpr. ;

    visanaka 1. %{viSANa} , a horn L. ; m. an elephant Gal. ; (%{akA4}) f. a species of plant AV. ; (%{ikA}) f. N. of various plants (Odina Pinnata ; the Senna plant ; Asclepias Geminata ; = %{karkaTa-zRGgI} and %{sAtalA}) L.


    zRGga
    n. (perhaps connected with %{ziras}, %{zIrSan}; ifc. f. %{A}, or %{I}) the horn of an animal, a horn used for various purposes (as in drinking, for blowing, drawing blood from the skin &c.) RV. &c. &c. ; the tusk of an elephant R. Ka1m. ; the top or summit of a mountain, a peak, crag MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; the summit of a building, pinnacle, turret ib. [1087,2] ; any peak or projection or lofty object, elevation, point, end, extremity AV. Kum. Gi1t. ; a cusp or horn of the moon R. Hariv. VarBr2S.; highest point, acme, height, or perfection of anything Hariv. 6424; the horn as a symbol of self-reliance or strength or haughtiness Ragh. ; the rising of desire, excess of love or passion (cf. %{zRGgAra}) Sa1h. ; a partic. military array in the form of a horn or crescent MBh. vi, 2413; a syringe, water-engine Ragh. S3is3. ; the female breast BhP. ; a lotus L.; agallochum L.; a mark, token, sign L.; = %{zazazRGga} “‘, hare’s horn “‘, anything impossible or extraordinary, Kusum. ; m. a kind of medicinal or poisonous plant L. ;
    The glyph Vrsana Taurus appears with a goose in several seals.
    cakrAGgam`”. curved-neck “‘ , a gander MBh. viii , xii f. R. v , 16 , 11 ; the Cakra(-va1ka) bird Mn. v , 12 ; `” wheel-limbed (cf. %{-kra-pAda}) “‘ , a carriage L. ; n. `” disc-shaped “‘ , a parasol L. [381,3] ; (%{A}) f. = %{-GkA} , Cocculus tomentosus W. ; (%{I}) f. = %{-GkI} , a goose L. ; Helleborus niger L. ; Cocculus tomentosus L. ; Rubia munjista L. ; Enhydra Heloncha L. ; the plant %{karkaTa-zRGgI} L.
    bandhura mf(%{A})n. (Un2. i , 42 Sch. ; cf. Va1m. v , 2 , 42) bent, inclined Ka1v. Pan5cat. ; curved, rounded, pleasant, beautiful, charming Inscr. Ka1lid. Caurap. ; (ifc.) adorned with Ka1d. ; undulating, uneven L.; deaf L. (cf. %{badhira}); injurious, mischievous W.; m. (only L.) a bird; a goose; Ardea Nivea; Pentapetes Phoenicea ; Embelia Ribes; a partic. bulbous plant growing on the Hima-vat mountain L.; oil-cake; the vulva L. ; (%{A}) f. a harlot L.; N. of a procuress Ha1sy. ; (pl.) the meal of parched corn L.; n. a diadem, crest
    karkaTa
    m. a crab Sus3r. Pan5cat. &c. ; the sign Cancer VarBr2S. VarBr2. &c. ; a particular bird L. ; N. of several plants ; the fibrous root of a plant L. ; the curved end of the beam of a balance (to which the strings supporting the scale are attached) , Mit. ; a pair of compasses in a particular position ; a particular position of the hands ; a kind of fever Bhpr. ; a kind of coitus L. ; (%{A}) f. Momordica Mixta L. ; (%{I}) f. a female crab MBh. ; Cucumis Utilissimus , a kind of cucumber Comm. on Ta1n2d2yaBr. ; a small water-jar Pan5cat. ; the fruit of Bombax Heptaphyllum L. ; N. of a Ra1kshasi1 ; [cf. Gk. $ ; Lat. &79738[256 ,1] %{cancer}.]
    karkaTaka
    m. a crab Sus3r. Pan5cat. &c. ; the sign Cancer VarBr2S. ; a pair of tongs Das3. ; a pair of compasses (cf. %{karkaTa}) ; a kind of plant Sus3r. ; a particular position of the hands; N. of a Na1ga R. ; (%{ikA}) f. a sort of plant Sus3r. ii, 276, 3 Pan5cat. ; a kernel L. ; (%{am}) n. a kind of poisonous root Sus3r. ; a particular fracture of the bones Sus3r. I, 301,
    Indian gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica over Embelia Ribes root vRSanAzana purge the twelve grains that can be used.
    Karkandhu (Zizyphus nummularia): Virechanopaga
    This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is image-3-306x1024.png
    bhaujaMga
    (fr. %{bhujaM-ga}) mf(%{I})n. relating to a snake , serpent-like Ka1m. ; n. (scil. %{bha}) the serpent constellation , the Nakshatra A1s3lesha VarBr2S.
    5
    bhujaMgabha
    n. `” serpent-asterism “‘N. of the Nakshatra A1s3lesha Var.
    uraga
    m. (fr. %{ura} = %{uras} [Ka1ty. on Pa1n2. 3-2 , 48] and %{ga} , `” breast-going “‘) , a serpent , snake ; a Na1ga (semi-divine serpent usually represented with a human face) Suparn2. viii , 5 Sus3r. Ragh. &c. ; N. of the Nakshatra A1s3lesha (presided over by the Na1gas) 

    sarpabandha m. `” snake-fetter “‘, an artifice, subtle device MBh.

    The Sarpabhanda images have two Indus Valley glyphs the body and neck.
    mAtRkA
    f. a mother (also fig. = source, origin) Ka1v. Katha1s. Pur. ; a divine mother (cf. under %{mAtR}) RTL. 188; a nurse L. ; a grandmother Das3. ; N. of 8 veins on both sides of the neck (prob. so-called after the 8 divine mñmother) Sus3r. ; N. of partic. diagrams (written in characters to which magical power is ascribed; also the alphabet so employed; prob. only the 14 vowels with Anusva1ra and Visarga were originally so-called after the 16 divñdivine mñmagical) Ra1matUp. Pan5car. ;
    antaHstha
    (generally written %{antastha4}) mfn. being in the midst or between S3Br. &c. ; (%{as}, %{A}) mf. a term applied to the semivowels, as standing between the consonants and vowels Pra1t. &c. ; (%{A}) f. interim, meantime PBr.

    AzleSa
    m. intimate connection, contact; slight contact L.; embracing, embrace; entwining MBh. BhP. Megh. Amar. &c. ; adherence, clinging to Nya1yam. ; (%{A4}) f. and (%{A4s}) f. pl.N. of the seventh Nakshatra AV. TS. Sus3r. MBh. VarBr2S.

    azleSAbhava
    or m. the Ketu (or descending node) L.

    azleSAbhU
    m. the Ketu (or descending node) L.

    bandhura
    1 mf(%{A})n. (Un2. i , 42 Sch. ; cf. Va1m. v , 2 , 42) bent , inclined Ka1v. Pan5cat. ; curved, rounded, pleasant, beautiful, charming Inscr. Ka1lid. Caurap. ; (ifc.) adorned with Ka1d. ; undulating, uneven L.; deaf L. (cf. %{badhira}) ; injurious, mischievous W.; m. (only L.) a bird; a goose; Ardea Nivea ; Pentapetes Phoenicea ; Embelia Ribes ; a partic. bulbous plant growing on the Hima-vat mountain L. 
    AbandhP. %{-badhnAti} (impf. %{A74badhnAt} AV. vi , 81 , 3 ; pf. %{-babandha}) A1. (pf. %{-bedhe14} AV. v , 28 , 11 ; Inf. %{A-ba4dhe} AV. v , 28 , 11) to bind or tie on, tie to one’s self AV. S3Br. A1s3vGr2. La1t2y. MBh. Katha1s. &c. ; to join, bind together, combine, resume MBh. Das3. Ka1d. ; to take hold of, seize Mn. ; to adhere closely to, be constant Ka1d. ; to fix one’s eye or mind on Katha1s. Ragh. ;

    sarpabandha m. `” snake-fetter “‘, an artifice, subtle device MBh.

    caNDAlikAbandhamind. so as to form a particular knot Pa1n2. 3-4 , 42 Sch. (not in Ka1s3.)
    granthibandham
    ind. (with %{grath}) so as to form a knot (in tying) Ba1lar.
    granthibandhana
    n. tying a knot W. ; tying together the garments of the bride and bridegroom at the marriage krauJcabandham
    ind. so as to make a knot called after the wings of a curlew Pa1n2. 3-4 , 42 Ka1s3.
    kokabandhu
    m. `” friend of the ruddy goose “‘ , the sun L.
    khaDgabandha
    m. a kind of artificially-formed verse Sa1h.
    mArgabandhana
    n. obstruction of a road or way Ka1m.
    nibandha
    m. binding on, tying, fastening R.; chain, fetter, bondage MBh. BhP.; attachment to, intentness on L.; basis, root, origin MBh. ii. 2532; a grant of property, an assignment of cattle or money Ya1jn5. i. 317 ; fixed property ib. ii. 121; restraint, obstruction L. ; constipation or suppression of urine Sus3r. (v.l. for %{vi-b-}) ; any literary composition or work Cat.
    sukhabandhana
    mfn. attached to the pleasures or enjoyments of the world Ka1m.
    vartmabandha
    m. a disease which obstructs the movement of the eyelids L.
    vibandh
    P. A1. %{-badhnAti}, %{-badhnIte} , to bind or fasten on different sides, stretch out, extend RV. AV. S3rS.; to seize or hold by (instr.) Kaus3. ; to obstruct (feces) Car.
    vibandha
    m. encircling, encompassing MBh. vii , 5923 ; = %{Akalana} L. ; a circular bandage Sus3r. ; obstruction , constipation ib. ; a remedy for promoting obstrñobstruction Car. ; %{-hRt} mfn. destroying or curing obstrñobstruction Va1gbh.
    vibandhana
    mfn. obstructing, constipating Sus3r. ; n. the act of fastening or binding on both sides (%{paraspara-v-} , mfn. mutually bound, depending on each other) MW.
    pucchabandha
    m. a (horse’s) tail-band or crupper Gal.
    vAlabandha
    m. `” tail-band “‘ , a crupper MBh. ; N. of a partic. performance Cat.
    vAlabandhana
    n. a crupper (cf. prec.) MBh.
    nAgabandha
    m. a snake as a chain or fetter Katha1s. ; N. of a metre resembling the coilings of a sñsnake Prata1p. (cf. %{-pAza}).
    sarpabandha
    m. `” snake-fetter “‘, an artifice, subtle device MBh.

    Below the goat’s tail becomes a sign, it is the first sign of B3 and B13 the lion with strips? the second sign of B13 became the goaty or beard of the goat, then the first sign of B9, A3a then twice in A3b with the top one next to the sign for Usna found in B8.

    mRgendra
    B 13
    m. `” king of beasts “‘, a lion Bhag. Hariv. R. &c. ; the sign Leo VarBr2S. ; a tiger. MBh. ; a partic. metre Col. ; a house lying to the south(?) L.; N. of a king VP.; of an author Sarvad. ; (prob.) n. N. of Mr2ige7ndra’s wk. ; of a Tantra; %{-caTaka} m. a falcon L.; %{-tA} f. dominion over wild animals Pan5cat. ; %{-mukha} n. a lion’s mouth MW.; a partic. metre Col. ; %{-vRSabha} m. du. a lion and a bull MW. ;
    vAlabandha `” tail-band “‘, a crupper MBh. ; N. of a partic. performance Cat.
    vAla
    1 m. (later form of 1. %{vAra} ; also written %{bAla} q.v.) the hair of any animal’s tail (esp. of a horse’s tail), any tail or hair TS. &c. &c.
     vAra
    1 m. (earlier form of %{vAla} q.v.) the hair of any animal’s tail (esp. of a horse’s tail, = $) RV.; m. n. sg. and pl. a hair-sieve ib.
     vAra 
    2 (fr. 1. %{vR}) m. keeping back, restraining (also mfn. ifc. = difficult to be restrained TBr. ; cf. %{dur-v-}); a turn of a day (under the regency of a planet), a day of the week (they are A1ditya-, Soma-, Man3gala-, Budha-, Guru. , S3ukra-, and S3ani-va1ra; cf. IW. 178 n. 1) Gan2it. Ya1jn5. Sch. Ka1v. &c. (cf. %{dina} and %{divasa-v-}) ;
    vara 
    2 inf(%{A})n. (fr. 2. %{vR}) choosing the three kinds of myrobolan “‘; Cocculus Cordifolius; turmeric; Embelia Ribes; a root similar to ginger ; 
    gah-vara 
    mf(%{A} , %{I})n. (g. %{azmA7di}) deep, impervious, impenetrable TS. v Hariv. BhP.; confused (in mind) Katha1s. lxi, 39 and 41; m. an arbor, bower L.; a cave, cavern L. ; (%{A}) f. the plant Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{I}) f. a cave, cavern L.;

    The tail is first glyph left side on B3, B13, B9, A3a, A3b, Above C2, C5a, A4, A5, A9.

    vAlabandha `” tail-band “‘,

    The goat Makor hoof stomping on a snake then eats it.

    lAGgUlinmfn. tailed, having a tail W.; m. a monkey L.; a kind of bulbous plant which grows on the Hima-vat L. ;
    baNDamf(%{A})n. (also written %{vaNDa}) maimed, defective, crippled (esp. in the hands or feet or tail) AV. S3rS. (Sch. also = impotent , emasculated ;
    Thread by @GemsOfIndology, #ThreadI will not try to prove that the two  languages are different. [...]

    The Bhanda in the inscription above has the goat’s beard on both sides.

    Below the goat’s goatee is the written part of the rhino as a Nasya, one of the Panchakarmas. Shirovirechanopa is a Nasya. First and last part of the Panchakarma.

    Viḍanga (Embelia ribes): Truptighna, Kushṭhaghna, Krimighna, Shirovirechanopaga

    Pippali (Piper longum): Dipaniya, Kanṭhya, Truptighna, Asthapanopaga, Hikkanigrahana, Kasahara, Shulaprashamana, Shirovirechanopaga, Sheeta prashamana

    Below and Above the Sarpabhandha’s lower head or neck have the Indus Valley sign for zleSmaNa mfn. phlegmatic, slimy S3Br. ; producing phlegm or mucus Car. ; (%{A}) f. a kind of plant L, Azlesa the seventh Nakshatra AV. the serpent constellation.

    ubhayabhAgamfn. having part in both (night and day) ; %{-hara} mfn. taking two shares or parts ; applicable to two purposes ; (%{am}) n. a medicine that acts in two ways (as an emetic and a purge).
    ullekhanamfn. delineating, making lines , making visible or clear Sarvad. ; (%{am}) n. the act of marking by lines or scratches, furrowing Ka1tyS3r. ; scratching open or up , scraping Mn. Ya1jn5. ; bringing up , vomiting [219,3]; an emetic Sus3r. ; mentioning, speaking of L.
    ullikhanan. an emetic Bhpr.
    UrdhvabhAgam. upper part, higher part, subsequent part Hcat. ; Comm on Pa1n2. ; (mfn.) effective towards the upper part, emetic Car.
    UrdhvabhAjmfn. tending upwards MaitrUp. MBh. iii (also N. of Agni) ; emetic Car.
    Urdhvabhaktikamfn. effective upwards , causing to come up , emetic Car.
    p-UrvArdha 
    m. (later n.) the front or upper part; eastern side (opp. to %{jaghanA7rdha} , %{uttarA7rdha} &c.) TS. S3Br. Gr2S3rS. &c. ; the fore or first half (of a hemistich) S3rutab. ; (with %{dinasya}) forenoon Bhartr2. &c. ; %{-kAya} m. the front or upper part of the body MBh. ; %{-bhAga} m. the upper part, top Ragh. ; %{-lambin} mfn. having the foremost half inclined, leaning forward MW.
    lekhana
    mf(%{I}) n. scratching, scraping, scarifying, lancing Sus3r. ; exciting, stimulating, attenuating ib. S3a1en3gS. Bhpr. ; m. Saccharum Spontaneum (a sort of reed of which pens are made) W. ; (%{I}) f. id. L.; an instrument for writing or painting, reed-pen, painting-brush, pen, pencil MBh. VarBr2S. Hcat. (m.c. also %{-ni}) ; a spoon, ladle (cf. %{ghRta-I-}) ; n. the act of scratching or scraping, lancing, scarifying Car. Sus3r. ; touching, coming in contact (said of heavenly bodies) AV.Paris3. ; writing down, transcribing Katha1s. Pan5cat. ; an instrument for scraping or furrowing Kaus3. ; Betula Bhojpatra (the bark of which is used for writing) L. ;
    kRtti
    f. skin, hide RV. viii, 90, 6 VS. AV.; a garment made of skin (fr. 3. %{kRt}?) Nir. v, 22; the hide or skin on which the religious student sits or sleeps, &c. (usually the skin of an antelope) W.; the birch tree L.; the bark of the birch tree (used for writing upon, for making hooka pipes, &c.) W.; (= %{kR4ttikA}) one of the lunar mansions (the Pleiads) L.; a house Naigh. iii, 4 (probably with reference to RV. viii , 90 , 6 ; but cf. %{kuTI}) ; food Nir. v , 22 ; fame (%{yazas}) ib. ; [cf. Hib. {cart} ; Lat. {cortex}.)
    lekha
    m. (cf. %{rekha}) a line, stroke Ma1nGr2. ; (also pl.) writing, letter, manuscript, a written document of any kind Hariv. Ka1v. VarBr2S. &c. (cf. %{kUTa-l-}) ; a god , deity S3is3. ; = %{Abhoga} L. ; N. of a man g. %{zivA7di} ; of a poet Cat. ; pl. N. of a class of gods under Manu Ca1kshusba Pur. ; (%{A}) f. see below.
    lekhA
    f. (cf. %{rekhd}) a scratch, streak, line, stroke, stripe, furrow S3Br. &c , &c. ; the pale or faintly discernible streak of the young moon’s crescent Kir. (cf. %{candra-} and %{zazA7Gka-l-} , the act of delineation, drawing, painting S3ak. (v.l.) ; writing, handwriting L. ;

    trirAtra n. sg. 3 (nights or) days S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. cf. %{azva-} , %{garga-} , %{baida-} ; (%{am}) ind. for 3 days , during 3 days Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vGr2. Mn. &c. ;

    Below the Swastika and the five forked glyphs appear all over India the example below is from southern Tamil coinage. The Rhino’s horn as a hieroglyph appears associated with Purva “the first” it breaks down to the vowel “e” spelling Medha in the small copper tablets above and Deva in both the new nine large copper tablets and the statue of Buddha from Pakistan. The goatsbeard as a hieroglyph? it is the first vowel in the word Buddha “u” – “o”.

    The Issyk inscription is a yet undeciphered text, found in 1969 on a silver bowl in Issyk kurgan in Kazakhstan, dated approximately the 4th century BC. The context of the burial gifts indicates that they may belong to Saka tribes. This is an important artifact as it is prior to the Greeks entering India.

    The Statue from Pakistan below reads from right to left “Sukha Booddha Maha Deva” the pleasure of the city of Buddha.

    The bower above both has since turned into Embelia Ribes in this investigation.
    gahvara mf(%{A} , %{I})n. (g. %{azmA7di}) deep, impervious, impenetrable TS. v Hariv. BhP.; confused (in mind) Katha1s. lxi, 39 and 41; m. an arbor, bower L.; a cave, cavern L. ; (%{A}) f. the plant Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{I}) f. a cave, cavern L.

     The animal Vyāghra is part of the sub-group named prasaha, referring to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

    Below the constant “D” from the origin, Sanskrit Dhanu. Below the cave carvings were from 2300BC .

    dhanum. or (Un2. i, 82) 2. %{dhanU} f. (fr. 2. %{dhan}?) a bow Hit. S3a1ntis3. ; a measure of 4 Hastas or cubits L. (cf. %{dhanv-antara} below); the sign of the zodiac Sagittarius Priy. i , 5 ;
    ban-dhana-granthi
    m. a noose, rope for tying cattle L.

    marmabhedana `” piercer of the vitals “‘ , an arrow L.

    bhedana breaking , cleaving , splitting , rending , piercing, dividing, separating MBh. R. &c. ; (ifc.) causing to flow , giving free course (to a river) Pan5car. ; causing pain in the joints or limbs Sus3r. ; loosening (the faeces) , cathartic , purgative S3a1rn3gS. ; destroying , dissolving , relieving (cf. %{hRdaya-granthi-bh-}) ; m. a hog L.; Rumex Vesicarius L. ; n. the act of breaking , cleaving &c. MBh. R. &. ; bursting, parting asunder , breach , fracture Ka1tyS3r. Sus3r. Pra7yas3c. ; the passing (through an asterism) VarBr2S. ; disclosure , betrayal (of a secret) Katha1s. ; embroilment , disunion , discord MBh. Ka1m. Ra1jat. ; discrimination W. ; a purgative Sus3r. ; Asa Foetida L.

    unmAdana id. Katha1s. ; m. N. of one of Ka1ma’s five arrows Vet.

    Below seal # 227111040 sarAdAna taking hold of an arrow L.

    sArAdAna picking out the best Kap.

    Urdhvazo-dhanan. `” purifying or emptying upwards “‘ , vomiting W.
    zo-dhana
    mfn. cleaning, purifying, cleansing, refining, purgative Mn. MBh. Sus3r. ;

    Below Mary Settegast uses the dates 17000-1200 years ago, this is impossible, realistically around 2300 BCE. I believe the formula for Shiva Gutika the Indus seal below has a double meaning in that the formula spells Sivo Raksatu Girvarna-Bhasa-rasa-Svadatat-Paran.

    svAdu (%{vI4})n. sweet , savoury , palatable , dainty , delicate , pleasant to the taste , agreeable , chirming (also as compar. `” sweeter than &c. “‘ , with abl.) RV. &c. &c. ; m. sweet flavour , sweetness L. ; sugar , molasses L. ; N. of various plants (= %{jIvaka} , %{gandha-dhUma-ja} &c.) L. ; (%{us} or %{vI}) f. = %{drAkSA} , a grape L. ; (%{u}) n. sweet taste , sweetness Megh. ; pleasantness , charm , beauty Subh. [Cf. Gk. $ ; Lat. {suavis} ; Old Sax. {swo7ti} ; Angl. &386374[1279 ,3] Sax. {swe7ete} ; Eng. {sweet} ; Germ. {su10ss}.]

    svAdudhanvan `” having a sweet bow “‘N. of Ka1ma-deva (whose bow is said to be made of sugar-cane) L.

    trimadhura n. the 3 sweet substances (sugar, honey, ghee) VarBr2S. S3a1rad. ix ; (%{madhuratraya} Tantras. iv).


    triphala
    mfn. having 3 fruits Ka1m. viii, 42 ; (%{A}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1 , 64 Va1rtt. 3) the 3 Myrobalans (fruits of Tertminalia Chebula , TñTantras Bellerica , and Phyllanthus Emblica; also %{tRph-} L.) Sus3r. VarBr2S. xvi Katha1s. lxx Ka1tyS3r. Sch. ; the 3 sweet fruits (grape, pomegranate, and date) Npr. ; the 3 fragrant fruits (nutmeg, areca-nut, and cloves) ib. ; (%{I}) f. id. L.

    Principles of panchakarma

    The following principles are applied in panchakarma procedures:

    1. The procedure is intended to correct imbalance in body physiology. It shall remove excessively aggravated dosha and bring them to normal state.
    2. The procedure is performed only in a state of excess aggravation (bahu dosha) and natural tendency to get removed (utklesha) through nearest natural orifice.
    3. If the dosha are in dormant state (leena dosha), then procedure is performed after bringing them to gut (koshtha) from periphery (shakha). The following factors lead to movement of dosha from periphery to gut. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 28/33]
    • Aggravation of dosha (vriddhi)
    • Liquefaction of dosha (vishyandana)
    • Suppuration of dosha (paka)
    • Clearing the body channels (srotoshodhana)
    • Pacification of vata (vayunigraha)

    word ‘swedana’ means providing fomentation or sudation or steam or making a person sweat. It is an important treatment modality among the six primary treatments in Ayurveda. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 22/4] It is the principal treatment for diseases caused by vitiation of vata and kapha dosha. This treatment is administered before purification therapies (panchakarma). Fomentation therapy essentially includes sweating induced for therapeutic purposes by specific techniques or methods. Thus, it excludes pathological sweating either due to disease or sweating due to environmental conditions.

    In ancient times, various sweating methods were applied for therapeutic purposes by utilization of natural resources. In current times, modified techniques are used to induce sweating, which allows better heat regulation and enhanced therapeutic control. However, both methods are equally effective and can be applied depending upon the availability of resources.

    The goat’s horns are bowed in the Lapis lazuli seal above (the blue seal above) and the axe and double bowed archer below. The long Indus seal below
    (gray seal below I believe to be Sivo-Ghrtsa. ghRtaudana
    n. (Pa1n2. 2-1 , 34 Sch.) rice sprinkled with ghee A1s3vGr2. i S3a1n3khGr2. i , 27.
    Bharatkalyan97: Three tin ingots of Haifa shipwreck with Indus (Sarasvati)  hieroglyphs reinforce the Meluhha rebus reading ranku dhatu mũh, 'tin  mineral-ore ingot'

    Two Tin ingot above, the first one has the guru sign.

    Below are Post Indus Valley symbols on Punch-Marked Coins.

    danielyogi7@yahoo.com

    Sanskrit definitions;

    https://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/tamil/index.html