History of India and
the Indus Script
                                                                                                                                                          Daniel F. Salas    








 Pururavas  moved with Urvasi to Uttarakuru a land were the river Bhadra flows north to the northern ocean.
Pururavas conquered the seven continents. The Veda states the home land of the Aryan people was Uttarakuru.
The chariot making Sintashta culture (2100–1800BC), formerly included within the Andronovo culture (2300-1000BC)
with it's horizon including the Afanasevo culture (3500-2500BC).
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) (3300–1300 BC), mature period (2600–1900 BC) extending from what
today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan to Deli in India.



The Aryan culture enter Pakistan and India separating the
Dravidian language. The reason the Brahui are there is the
Bolan pass that unites Pakistan and Iran, it is an important
trade route that is easily defended.


The Mehrgarh culture is the precursor to the Indus culture.
Here three theory's are valid one the Mehrgarh were Dravidian
thus the Indus culture was Dravidian. The Second theory Mehrgarh
were Dravidian prior to 3300BC where the Aryan's from the north
start the separation.
The third theory being the Mehrgarh were an Aryan culture that
starts the separation of the Dravidian language.

Theory one the Sintashta culture (2100–1800BC) push
down to form the Gandhara grave culture that emerged
c. 1600 BC, and flourished in Gandhara, which lies in
modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan c. 1500 BC to 500 BC
This theory would include the Hurrian  lexicon loanwords
of the Indo-Aryan language.  Hurrians a people who entered
northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly
vanished by 1000 BC. It is believed that the warring Hurrian
tribes and city states became united under one dynasty after
the collapse of Babylon due to the Indo-European Hittite sack
by Mursili I and the Kassite invasion. The Hittite conquest of
Aleppo (Yamhad), the weak middle Assyrian kings who                               
succeeded Puzur-Ashur III, and the internal strifes of the
Hittites had created a power vacuum in upper Mesopotamia.
This led to the formation of the kingdom of Mitanni that spoke Hurrian.
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who established an empire at
Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC.


The second and third theory have the same out come, the second
theory only starts later.  Both fit to what was happening in Mesopotamia
around 2300BC. There is this huge Chariot making population in the north
with roots as early as 3500 BC but they never go south until 1600BC.
Uttarkuru I believe were the Gutain's who destroy Mesopotamia, this war
starts around 2300 BC, it ends 2100 BC. Hurrians people entered
northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC.  
The capital of Mesopotamia
was the Gutian city of 'Arrapha' Iraq this capital became Hurrain (2100BC).
And the second includes India being established Aryan by the start of the
Indus Culuture 3300Bc. Vedic history records two nations of Kuru and Uttara-Kuru'
Kuru was located in the Indus Valley North west of Deli..
Kurum 2121-2120BC was the name of a king of the Gutains

Where does the word Dravidian come from?
Within the Tamil Lexicon there is no pronunciation for the prefix "Dra"
the closest is "tra" that happens only twice in the entire Lexicon as
trApai; worthless, trash  and  trapsam;  little small.
Sanskrit  tRNaka n. a worthless blade of grass MBh. i. ; m. N. of a man , ii , 328.
 tRNaprAya mfn. = %{-vat} (a district) R. iii , 15 , 41 ; worth a straw , worthless W.
tRNa n. (m. g. %{ardharcA7di} ; ifc. f. %{A}) grass , herb , any gramineous plant ,
blade of grass , straw (often symbol of minuteness and worthlessness) RV. &c.
(ifc. accent g. %{ghoSA7di}) ; m.
N. of a man g. %{zivA7di} and %{naDA7di} ;
[cf. Goth. {thaurnus} English {trash}
Tamil  tirailOkkiyam  1. the three worlds;
This is a loan word as in English "three" Sanskrit "tri"or the entire
Indo-european language is a Dravidian based language.
triloka n. sg. [MBh. xiii Hariv. 11303] m. pl. [R. iii] the 3 worlds
(= %{-patha}) ; m. sg. the inhabitants of the 3 worlds BhP. iii , 2 , 13 ;

catti  04 1. ability, power, strength, energy, prowess;
2. regal power of three kinds viz 3.
the number 3;
6. grace of Siva; 7. Pa1rvati, Siva's energy;
9. spear, dart; 10. trident;                                                                                    
Tira-milam

tirailOkkiyam  1. the three worlds;                                                                            Ta -mil
tiramiLam  1. south India; 2. Tamil language

tirAviTam  1. the tamil country; 2. south India, south of vindhya,
including the five provinces, tir1avit2am, A1ntiram, Kan2n2at2am,
Maka1ra1tt2itam and K1u1rccaram; 3. the Tamil language;
4. vernacular togues of the inhabitants of s. India,
Tamil, Telugu, Kanarese, Malayalam, Tul2u, etc.

tiraviTapASaikaL  dravidian languages, viz.,
Tamil, Telugu, Kanarese, Malayalam, Tulu, Kodagu, Ko1t2a1, etc.,

tirA-viTam
Dra-vidian

trividya mfn. containing the 3 Vedas (S3iva ; cf. %{trayI-tanu}) ; (%{A}) f. threefold knowledge (cf. %{trayI4vidyA4} Pa1n2. 4-1 , 88 Pat
The very name they call themselves is a loan word.

The father of all Historical Hindu kings Vaivasvata he became King of Dravida.  
He became king of a place with a Sanskrit name rooted with trivida. This is my reasoning for thinking that Mehrgarh was both Dravian and
Aryan with Aryan in charge by 3300 BC with the exodus prior to 3300BC.

Sanskrit
There are two Sanskrit words Dravida the first one is the sons of Rshabha that became deferent Prakrit forms of five Aryan groups the A1ndhras ,
Karn2a1t2akas , Gurjaras , Tailan3gas , and Maha1ra1sht2ras.
The second are the five deferent languages of the Dravida language , Tamil , Telugu , Kanarese , Malaya1lam and Tulu

draviDa m. N. of a people (regarded as degraded Kshatriyas and said to be "' descendants of Dravid2a , sons of Vr2ishabha-sva1min S3atr.) and of a
district on the east coast of the Deccan Mn. Var. MBh. &c. ; collect. N. for 5 peoples , viz. the A1ndhras , Karn2a1t2akas , Gurjaras , Tailan3gas , and
Maha1ra1sht2ras (cf. %{dAviDa} below) ; N. of a son of Krishn2a BhP. ; of an author Cat. ; pl. of a school of grammarians ib. ; (%{I}) f. (with %{strI}) a
Dravidian female Cat. ; (in music) N. of a Ra1gin2i1.

drAviDa mf(%{I})n. Dra1vidian , a Dra1vida MBh. Ra1jat. &c. ; m. pl. the DñDra1vida people MBh. R. Pur. ; also collect. N. for the above 5 peoples , and of
the 5 chief DñDra1vida languages , Tamil , Telugu , Kanarese , Malaya1lam and Tulu ; m. sg. a patr. fr. Dravid2a S3atr. ;

vRSabhasvAmin m. N. of a king (founder of the family of Ikshva1ku and father of Dravid2a) S3atr.
Rshabha did not found the Gotra he coined the word Ikshvaku as sugar-cane.
ikSu m. (2. %{iS} Un2. iii , 157) , the sugar-cane
AV. i , 34 , 5 Kaus3. A1s3vGr2. Mn. &c.  
Vrshabha same as Rshabha.
Purana, Bharatha son of Dushyanta appears thousands of years after Emperor Bharatha son of Rshabha.


Dravida is explained in n Manu smrithi, as one belonging to the 7th generation in the lineage of Kshatriyas (warrior) who have given up their interest in
warrior tendencies. The above statement can mean Dravida came from the 7th generation of Aryan Kings from
Ikshva1ku or sons of Vrishabha.  

The coming of Dravida son of Vrishabha the same riRshabha that started the Jain religion he was
not a favoured King in Hindhu history. The first time the
Nagas are mentioned is Vrishabha he starts the or includes the Nagas into the Gotra system.  Vrishabha's final years were spent in southern India with the
Dravidain people . They were not related to him but the Dravidain people adopt his son's name.  

The history of the modern population that is in the location of the Indus Valley are the tribes named after a Gotra, often a famous kings thus the city's were
named to after famour kings.
The names of the Yaudheyas, Malavaas, Shivis. Kaths, Ksudrakas, Taxila that were Naga's
of a religion after Rishabha.
Pururavas was prior to Rishabha, his capital was Pratisthan, there is one Pratisthan near
Allahabad in western india the another in the Aurangabad district of Maharashtra the
Godavari river the last one is the former capital of the Nurpur state Pathankot, Paithan
during the Mughal period Pathankot was Prakrit form of the word Pratisthan formally part of the
Trigarta Kingdom.

Audumbaras people part of Nurpur or Pathankot (Pratisthan) of Trigarta.
Audumbaras
indambara n. the blue lotus , Nymphaea Caerulea L. see %{indI-vara}.  
indirAlaya n. `" the abode of Indira1 or Lakshmi1 "' , the blue lotus ,
Nymphaea Stellata and Cyanea (the goddess Indira1 issued at the creation from its petals) L.  
indIvara or %{indI-vAra} , or %{indi-vara} , %{as} , %{am} m. n. the blossom of a blue lotus ,
Nymphaea Stellata and Cyanea MBh. R. Sus3r. Prab. &c. ; m. a bee Gi1t. ;
(%{I}) f. the plant Asparagus Racemosus ; (%{A}) f. another plant L.
indIvaradala n. the petal of a blue lotus Bhartr2.
indIvarAkSa m. `" lotus-eyed "'N. of a man Katha1s.  
indIvariNI f. a blue lotus , a group of blue lotuses L.  
indubha n. N. of the Nakshatra Mr2igas3iras ; (%{A}) f. a group of lotuses.

Very early the blue lotus traveled from Africa through Mesopotamia to the Indus Valley.
kumudvat (%{ku4mud-}) mfn. (Pa1n2. 4-2 , 87) abounding in lotuses Ragh. iv , 19 BhP. ;
(%{An}) m. the moon BhP. x , 29 , 3 ; N. of a wind MaitrS. iv , 9 , 8 ;
(%{atI}) f. an assemblage of lotuses , place or pond filled with them Kaus3. S3ak. &c.
;
N. of a sister of the serpentking Kumuda and wife of Kus3a Ragh. ;
of the wife of the Kira1ta king Vimarshan2a SkandaP.  
Myself I think he is the same as    ;jaratkarNa m. `" old-ear "'N. of Sarpa Aira1vata (author of RV. x , 76).
jaratkAru m.(g.
%{zivA7di}) N. of a R2ishi of Ya1ya1vara's family MBh. BrahmaP. ii , 1 and 43 ; f.
his wife (sister of the Na1ga Va1suki) MBh. BrahmavP. ii , 42 [414,1]  
goddess Manasa1 , wife of the sage Jarat-ka1ru ; cf. %{
padma-priyA}) L. ;
She was not Dravidian but Australoid from the Karkota tribe.
To this day associated with Rshabha and mount Arbu.
Rshabha is said to have caused such confusion among the races so much so that all of India came together
at one time at one place  (Arbu) and the Rajput kings were formed.
Agian a very unpopular Hindu story of a Hindu Rshis that married outside of his race.
This does not mean that the Indus was Dravidian no, what it really points to was very early
there was a separation of who one could marry and when a highly revered person
broke the law so be it, It was not Hidden or swept under the rug, it happened and was
recorded. Kusa son of Rama later this family or part of it move to the Ran Kutch as the Kashi kings
of Trigarta. Lava was Kusa's brother and no such marriage is recorded both establish city's in
Pakistan. When did the big exodus of the Dravidian population leave the Indus?. That must have
happened at the start 3300BC or prior because there is no record. Dravidian's were a part of the Veda
that is a Religion, for that matter they were totally accepted as a separated part,
at some point (again Rshabha) they gave up their Dharma (duty) and were no longer Kshatraya
but nowhere was it allowed to intermarry because the children became caste-less and a Sudra
was born.
In the time of the Muhammodan  the coinage names were Khusru the Ghaznivide, Kangra Rajas
from Pathama Chandra to Triloka.
.
In Prof. TP Verma work “Writing in the Vedic Age, Harappan and Acokan
Writing” he commentson the writing system ‘çrotriya akñaräëi’ this system
I believe is the same as Gotra-akarna.Gotra is the family linage and a
class of writers [the occupation of this class is writing ,accounts &c.
A writer , scribe the family name]. Karna is the ear and [ (in Gr.)a sound or
word as an independent part of speech (or as separated from the context ;
in this sense usually n.) this is the same as the Rebus principle.  In the copper
tablets of  Mohenjo-daro the Yak is Camara that is independent of Kamara but
sounds like it.  From the “Harappa Archaeological Research Project” The rarity of
zebu seals is curious because the humped bull is a recurring theme in many of the
ritual and decorative arts of the Indus region, appearing on painted pottery and as
figurines long before the rise of cities and continuing on into later historical times.
The zebu bull may symbolize the leader of the herd, whose strength and virility
protects the herd and ensures the procreation of the species or it stands for a
sacrificial animal. When carved in stone, the zebu bull probably represents the
most powerful clan or top officials of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa .
I have also believed the humped bull to represent the ruling class, the
Sanskrit name “Kakubha” the royal family from king Raivata and king Bhagiratha.
Raivata of Kakudmin (the ruler of Anarta) Pur. of a mountain near Kusa-sthali
(the capital of the country Anarta) MBh. Hariv.   After king Bhagiratha the
Capital changes to Ayodhya, Bhagiratha is the great-grandfather of Sagara , king of Ayodhya.
Here the rulers of the Indus were from the line of Kakudmin.
Using the same line of reasoning I was looking at the copper tablet of the Unicorn that I was
sure that was Visana horn rebus Vrsan m. vRSabhasvAmin N. of a king
( of the family of Ikshva1ku and father of Dravida) S3atr.  The Indus Valley
people sons of Vrishabha-svamin S3atr. and of a district on the east coast
of the Deccan Mn. Var. MBh. &c. ; collect. N. for 5 peoples , viz
. the Andhras , Karnatakas , Gurjaras , Tailangas , and Maharashtras
It than follows the these people spoke  Indoeuropean and not Dravidain language.
Prof. TP Verma
We have found the word Çrotriya for writing in literature which definitely shows that the
Vedic priests had their own system of writing and that was known only to a very selective
group of people. This system continued till at least the Gupta period. This writing was called
‘çrotriya akñaräëi’ in the drama ‘Mudrä-räkñasa’ of Viçäkhadatta ascribed to the Gupta period.
In the first act of the drama a disciple of Cäëakya hands him over a ‘mudrä’ (seal) of Räkñasa.
This triggers a plan in latter’s mind to trap Malayaketu an ally of Räkñasa through it.
He prepares a letter in this writing of the Vedic brähmaëas (çrotriya akñaräëi) and asks
his disciple to get it rewritten, because of its obscurity, in the prevalent script of his times
in the hands of Çakaöadäsa. Here Cäëakya says ‘Çrotriya akñaras, though written with much
effort, are of definite pronunciation’ (çrotriyäkñaräëi prayatnalikhitänyapi niyata-sphuöäni bhavati).

Here he points out two features of the Çrotriya system of writing: i) this was written with much
effortor care, and ii) it had definite pronunciation.Çrotriya-akñaras the origins are Gotra-akarna
Gotra   enclosure RV. (once m. viii , 50 , 10) ; `" family enclosed by the hurdle "' , family , race , lineage ,
kin ChUp. S3a1n3khS3r. Kaus3. &c. (a polysyllabic fem. in %{I} shortens this vowel before %{gotra} in
comp. [e.g. %{brAhmaNigotrA} , `" a Bra1hman woman only by descent or name "' Ka1s3.] Pa1n2. 6-3 ,
43 ff.) ;the occupation of this class is writing , accounts &c.) a writer , scribe the family name A1s3vGr2.
MBh. xiii , 548 VarBr2S. ;name (in general) S3ak. vi , 5 Ragh. &c. ;; iv , 1 , 89 ff. and 162 ff.; a tribe , subdivision (in the Bra1hman caste 49 Gotras are
reckoned and supposed to be sprung from and named after celebrated teachers , as S3a1n2d2ilya , Kas3yapa , Gautama , Bharad-va1ja , &c.) W.

kAra 1 mf(%{I})n. (1. %{kR} Pa1n2. 3-2 , 23) , making , doing , working , a maker , doer :  the term used in designating a letter or sound or indeclinable
word (e.g. %{a-k-} , %{ka-k-} , qq. vv. ; %{eva-k-} , the word %{eva} ; %{phUt-k-} q.v.) Pra1t. Mn. &c. ;effort , exertionL. ; determination L. ; religious austerity
L. ; a husband , master , lord L. ;
AkarNayaNom. P. %{-yati} , (ind. p. %{A-karNya}) to give ear to , listen to , hear R. BhP. S3ak. &c.
karaNa(once %{karaNa4} RV. i , 119 , 7) mf(%{I})n doing , making , effecting , causing ;  the occupation of this class is writing , accounts &c.) a writer ,
scribe W. ; (in Gr.)
a sound or word as an independent part of speech (or as separated from the context ; in this sense usuallyn.)Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 3-1 , 41
Pat. Comm. on RPra1t. ; ; a calculation (esp. an astronomical one) VarBr2S. ; an astrological division of the day

The point zero of Indian chronology is Vikrama in a famous story he travels to a distant land to find his Karmic downfall he meets the king of the land
Nebuchadnezzar / Nebhuchadnejjar, while there he lights their candles.  This is from a Biblical Babyon curse of the candle light of wisdom being out
(Isaiah}.  The chronology then starts at 600-580 BC and not 0.

The Akkadian name, Nabû-kudurri-uṣur, means "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son". Nabu, son of the god Marduk, is the Babylonian deity of
wisdom. In an inscription, Nebuchadnezzar styles himself as Nabu's "beloved" and "favourite".[2][3] His name has previously been mistakenly
interpreted as "O Nabu, defend my kudurru",[4] in which sense a kudurru is an inscribed stone deed of property. However, when contained in a ruler's title,
kudurru approximates to "firstborn son" or "oldest son".[5] Variations of the Hebrew form include נְבוּכַדְנֶאצַּר and נְבוּכַדְרֶאצַּר (Nəḇuḵaḏreṣṣar). He is also
known as Bakhat Nasar, which means "winner of the fate", or literally, "fate winner".
One evening while Vikrama was at his new work, the candle went out due to a sudden breeze. He sang Raag Deepaka to light up the candle again. But in
fact, this action lit up all the candles in the town! The town’s princess had taken a vow to marry anyone who lights candles with Deepaka Raaga singing.
She was astonished to see this disabled man as the source of the music but despite his appearance she decides to marry him. The king, when he saw it
was Vikrama, got very angry remembering him from the theft charges previously and now being about to marry his own daughter. He drew his sword to cut
off Vikrama’s head. At that time, Vikrama realizes that all this is happening to him because of Shani’s power. When he was about to die, he
offered prayers to Shani. He accepts his mistakes and agrees that he was too proud of his status. Shani appears and gives him his jewels, legs, arms, and
everything back. Vikrama requests Shani not to give to ordinary people like what he has gone through. He said, a strong person like him was able to
endure it but no ordinary person will be able to. Shani agrees and promises that he will not. Recognizing both Shani and Vikrama, the local King
(nebhuchadnejjar) surrenders to his Lord and agrees to marry off his daughter to him. At the same time, the shopkeeper visits the palace, saying the
wooden duck rack had released the jewels from its mouth. He too offers his daughter to Vikrama. Vikrama returns to Ujjain and lived with Shani’s blessings
as a great emperor.
Was the Sanskrit word for chariot (ratha) used in other Indo-European
languages as a technical word for an object. This would determine when
the language group
started. Technical words place a marker in time through the artifacts
archaeological date.  Examples are the Indo-European languages
familiarity with wheeled vehicles, such as wagons and carts. This could not
have happened before 4000BC, because of the dates of their invention in
archaeology. These technical terms include two words for the wheel, a word
for the axle, a word
for the thill or harness-pole and a verb meaning 'to ride in a vehicle'. The
chariot first appears in history around 2300BCE.

I looked for an association around the Indic word for chariot. The
Indic or Sanskrit word for chariot is 'Ratha'.  This word would have
preceded the division of the Indo-Europeans.  The Old Persian word for
chariot 'ratha' and the old Persian warrior 'rathestar' and in the Avesta the
oldest Persian religious text 'ratho' means vehicle and chariot. In Europe,
the Old Church Slavonic word 'rati' means war or battle. The Serbian word
for war 'rat' and the Old Irish word for vehicle 'roth', the Irish word to attack
'ruathar'  are associated.  The Lithuanian
word to uproot 'rautereti', the Greek word to ride 'a-rith-mos' with the Greek
word to destroy 'rhaio' are connected. The Latin word to rage 'e-rotos' the
English 'riot' and the Latin wheel and chariot 'rota', thus the Latin word to
cast down 'rutus' are connected.  Latin's 'rota' and the close
association to 'ratha' follows Latin's staunch conservatism towards change.
The German word for chivalry 'ritter-linchkeit' and the German word for
Knight 'ritter' the German word to destroy 'aus-rotten' with the German word
for savoir 'retten' are connected.  The Celtic chariot 'ca-rros' an
amalgamation of the Sanskrit 'ca' meaning both (as in the english prefix
co-dependent) and
ratha that became the wheel (both wheels cha-riot). The English Cha-riot is
a loan word, with the Old Briton 'car'.  These associations can then be
grouped with the military word to 'route' an enemy; French 'deroute',
Spanish 'rota' and the German 'ronde'. The first time historically the word
Ratha is used as chariot is around 1650BC with the Hurrians of the Middle
East. These Hurrian's had hundreds of Vedic Sanskrit loan words. These
associations and the established associations of the Indo-European
groups are similar; Sanskrit 'Ayas' meaning metal shifts to
bronze in Latin's 'Aes' and becomes 'Iron' in the German 'Eisen';. The
Sanskrit 'father'; is 'pater' German 'vater' and Latin 'pater' this word was
best saved jumping to the word 'pater-nal' in English. The Sanskrit word
'satem' means one hundred, the Latin word is 'centum' it jumps but stays
within the same subject matter in the English words 'century' and
'centennial'. Many times
these associations are loan words of a later date, but they can point to the
Sanskrit word being saved better in a sister language.  

nediSThatama (%{ne4d-}) mfn. the nearest of all RV. ; (%{Am}) ind. S3Br. 7 nediSThin mfn. very near , very
nearly related Ta1n2d2Br. S3rS.

It was Nemrod and the story of the tower of babel tryed to make a universal language. Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew
Nebo ) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of
Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum, and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum probably at the
same time as Marduk shortly after 2000 BC.[6] While Marduk became Babylon's main deity, Nabu resided in
nearby Borsippa in his temple E-zida. He was first called the "scribe and minister of Marduk", later assimilated as
Marduk's beloved son from Sarpanitum. During the Babylonian New Year Festival, the cult statue of Nabu was
transported from Borsippa to Babylon in order to commune with his father Marduk.

Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions
to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets
of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and
as a god of water.[6]
Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba {or her
consort Nabha}. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands
with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as
Sirrush), initially Marduk's.This dragon became Vritra.

The etymology of his name is disputed. It could be derived from the root nb´ for "to call or announce", meaning
something like "He who has called".[7] His power over human existence is immense because Nabu engraves the
destiny of each person, as the gods have decided, on the tablets of sacred record. Thus, He has the power to
increase or diminish, at will, the length of human life.[8][9] Nabu is mentioned in the Nevi'im of the Tanakh as
Nebo in Isaiah 46:1.A statue of Nabu from Calah, erected during the reign of the Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser III
is on display in the British Museum.In late Babylonian astrology, Nabu was connected with the planet Mercury. As
the god of wisdom and writing, he was equated by the Greeks to either Apollo or Hermes, the latter identified by
the Romans with their own god Mercury.
nediSTha mf(%{A})n. (superl. of %{neda} substituted for %{antika} Pa1n2. 5-3 , 63) the
nearest , next , very near
RV. &c. &c. (%{am} ind. next , in the first place ib. ; a1t ind. from the neighbourhood AitBr. Ka1t2h.) ; %{At} ind.
from the neighbourhood AitBr. Ka1t2h.) ; = %{nipuNa} L. ; m. Alangium Hexapetalum L. ; N. of a son of Manu

The Akkadian name, Nabû-kudurri-uṣur, means "O god Nabu,
preserve/defend my firstborn son". Nabu, son of the god Marduk, is the Babylonian deity

nediSThatama (%{ne4d-}) mfn. the
nearest of all RV. ; (%{Am}) ind. S3Br. 7 nediSThin mfn. very near , very
nearly related Ta1n2d2Br. S3rS.
nAbha ifc. (mfn.) = %{nAbhi} , nave , navel , central point (cf. %{abja-nAbha} , %{vajra-n-} , %{su-n-} &c.) ; m. N. of S3iva MBh. ; of a son of S3ruta and father of Sindhudvi1pa BhP.  
44 nAbhi f. (prob. fr. 1. %{nabh} , `" to burst asunder or into a hole "' ; ifc. f. %{i} or %{I} Va1m. v , 49) the
navel (also nñnavel-string cf. %{-kRntana}) , a navel-like cavity RV. &c. &c. (in later
language also m. and %{-bhI} f.) ; the nave of a wheel ib. (also m. L. , and %{-bhI} f.) ; centre , central point , pñpoint of junction or of departure , home , origin , esp. common oñorigin , affinity
, relationship ; a near relation or friend ib. (m. L.) ; musk: (= %{mRra-n-}) L. ; m. or f. musk-deer Megh. 53 (?) BhP. ; m. a chief (= central point) of (gen.) Ragh. xviii , 19 (cf. %{maNDala-nAbhi-
tA}) ; a sovereign or lord paramount (= %{mukhya-rAj}) L. ; a Kshatriya L. ;
N. of a grandson of Priya-vrata (son of Agnidhra and father of R2ishabha) Pur. ; of the father of R2ishabha (first
Arhat of the present Avasarpin2i) L. [Cf. Angl. Sax. {nafu} , {nafela} ; Germ. {naba} , {Nabe} , {nabolo} , {Nabel} ; Eng. {nave} , {navel}.]
45 nAbhicakra n. (magical) navel-circle Cat.
46 nAbhijAta mfn. (for 1. see 2. %{na4}) , sprung from a navel Vcar. (v.l.)
47 nAbhika ifc. (mfn.) = %{nAbhi} , navel Hcat. ; nave of a wheel MBh. ; (%{A4}) f. a navel-like cavity S3Br. ; Achyranthes Atropurpurea L.


It was Nemrod and the story of the tower of babel tryed to make a universal language. Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew
Nebo ) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of
Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum, and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum probably at the
same time as Marduk shortly after 2000 BC.[6] While Marduk became Babylon's main deity, Nabu resided in
nearby Borsippa in his temple E-zida. He was first called the "scribe and minister of Marduk", later assimilated as
Marduk's beloved son from Sarpanitum. During the Babylonian New Year Festival, the cult statue of Nabu was
transported from Borsippa to Babylon in order to commune with his father Marduk.

Nabu later became one of the principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians addressed many prayers and inscriptions
to Nabu and named children after him. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was the keeper of the Tablets
of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and
as a god of water.[6]
Nabu is accorded the office of patron of the scribes, taking over from the Sumerian goddess Nisaba {or her
consort Nabha}. His symbols are the clay writing tablet with the writing stylus. He wears a horned cap, and stands
with hands clasped, in the ancient gesture of priesthood. He rides on a winged dragon (mušhuššu, also known as
Sirrush), initially Marduk's.This dragon became Vritra.

The etymology of his name is disputed. It could be derived from the root nb´ for "to call or announce", meaning
something like "He who has called".[7] His power over human existence is immense because Nabu engraves the
destiny of each person, as the gods have decided, on the tablets of sacred record. Thus, He has the power to
increase or diminish, at will, the length of human life.[8][9] Nabu is mentioned in the Nevi'im of the Tanakh as
Nebo in Isaiah 46:1.A statue of Nabu from Calah, erected during the reign of the Assyrian king, Tiglath-pileser III
is on display in the British Museum.In late Babylonian astrology, Nabu was connected with the planet Mercury. As
the god of wisdom and writing, he was equated by the Greeks to either Apollo or Hermes, the latter identified by
the Romans with their own god Mercury.
The first three
Glyphs "Bhaga"
#1 bh
#2 Gada Bhrgu
Family {club}
#3 a determinant
Lakshmi  
#4 Ra  
#5 Th
Sister of the
serpentking
Kumuda and wife
of Kus3a Ragh. ;