link to "Meso/Neolithic Migration Route by Sea
from Sindhi to North European Coastal Regions"

Qutu [GUTIAN] (EN),  3 instances,
Written forms:   qutītum; gu-ti-i; qu-tu-u₂.

Normalized forms:   gutî (gu-ti-i); qutītum (qutītum); qutû (qu-tu-u₂).   qutu [GUTIAN] (EN)
2 instances   Written forms:gu-ti-i.    Normalized forms:gutî (gu-ti-i).
                        On one hand history has a Sanskrit presence in Mesopotamia 1500 BC this date was
then dove tailed into the timing of Sanskrit entering India 1500 BC.
The reason for the lack the evidence of Sanskrit words is prior to 2000 no words were pronounced
from writing.
Mesopotamia
The International History Project
"Both Sumerian and non-Sumerian languages can be detected in the divine names and place-names.
Since the
pronunciation of the names is known only from 2000 BC or later, conclusions about their
linguistic affinity are not without problems. Several names, for example, have been reinterpreted in
Sumerian by popular etymology. It would be particularly important to isolate the Subarian components
(related to Hurrian), whose significance was probably greater than has hitherto been assumed. For the
south Mesopotamian city HA.A (the noncommittal transliteration of the signs) there is a pronunciation
gloss "shubari," and non-Sumerian incantations are known in the language of HA.A that have turned out
to be "Subarian."

On the other hand history gives those dates for the people associated with the Sanskrit presence in
Mesopotamia as from the 21st century BC to the late 18th century BC as part of the Assyria controlled
colonies in Anatolia, Hurrian and Hattians lands. There is no presence of Hattian/Hittite and Hurrian prior
to 2300 BC where the chariot historically appears.
This is the same time as the destruction layer of end of Early Bronze IIIB (ca. 2350/2300 BC), this
destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river both Hurrian and Hittite lands. After this period is a return
to the rural system and a transitional phase towards the new urban development of the Middle Bronze
Age (2000-1550 BC).
Was the county of Ishuwa prior to 1500 BC?
Wilhelm, Gernot (Würzburg) wrote:
"(Išuwa). Name of an Anatolian landscape in Hittite and Assyrian sources of the 15th to 9th cents. BC.  
It was situated between the Euphrates and Tigris in the area of the Murat Su river, with the plain of
Elazığ as its centre (Arsanias, modern Lake Keban).  (Išuwa). is first mentioned in texts of the Hittite
king Tudḫaliya I/II (late 15th cent.); but
even before, it was a bone of contention between the Hittite
kingdom and the kingdom of  Mitanni in upper Mesopotamia".
The Mitanni were closely associated with horses. The name of the country of Ishuwa, which might have
had a substantial Hurrian population, meant  “horse-land”. A famous text discovered at Hattusa deals
with the training of horses. The man who was responsible for the horse-training was a Hurrian called
Kikkuli. The terminology used in connection with horses contains many Indo-Aryan loan-words
(Mayrhofer, 1974). Kikkuli, was the Hurrian "master horse trainer"
(assus
sanni, virtually Sanskrit aśva-sana) of the land Mitanni" (LÚA-AŠ-ŠU-UŠ-ŠA-AN-NI ŠA KUR
URUMI-IT-TA-AN-NI) and author of a chariot horse training text written in the Hittite language, dating to
the Hittite New Kingdom (around 1400 BC).

The word Sana is then a proto Indo-Iranian word associated with (teaching the horse, chariot
and Brahma).
yama-sAna mfn. champing the bit (as a horse) RV. vi , 3 , 4.
catuHsana mfn. containing the 4 sons of Brahma1
cakSaNa n. appearing , appearance , aspect RV. AV. ;
speaking , saying W. ;
carSaNa see %{ratha-}.  
ratha
carSaNa m. or n. a partic. part of a chñchariots RV.
cakSaNi m. an illuminator RV. vi , 4 , 2.  
cakSas n. radiance , clearness RV. AV. vi , 76 , 1 ; (of the sea) La1t2y. i , 7 , 5 ; look , sight , eye RV.
; (%{ase}) dat. inf. %{cakS} q.v. ; m. a
teacher , spiritual instructor L. ;
cakSu m. the eye RV. x , 90 , 13 ; (ifc. AV. iv , 20 , 5) ; N. of a prince BhP. ; (for %{vakSu}?) the Oxus
river VP. ii , 2 , 32 and 35 ; 8 , 114 Gol. iii , 38.
The Oxus  river Runs directly through BMAC land
kazyapa  personification of races inhabiting the Caucasus (cakSu), the Caspian , Kas3mi1r


carSaNa see %{ratha-}.  
carSaNI in comp. for %{-Ni4} ; f. a disloyal wife Ra1jat. vii , 102 ; N. of Varun2a's wife (mother of
Bhr2igu) BhP. vi , 18 , 4.
carSaNIdhRt mfn. supporting or protecting men RV.
carSaNIdhRti f. support or protection of men , viii , 90 , 5 (loc. %{-tA} , = instr. of %{-dhR4t} , scil. %
{va4jreNa} Gmn. , but SV. has the nom. %{-tiH}) SV. (see. %{-sa4h}).
carSaNiprA mfn. satisfying men RV.  
carSaNIsah mfn. ruling over or overpowering men RV. (ix , 24 , 4 dat. %{-sa4he} SV. %{-dhR4tiH}).  
carSaNa see %{ratha-}.  
carSaNi mfn. ( %{kRS}) , `" cultivating "' , active , agile , swift RV. ; (AV. vii , 110 , 2) MBh. i , 726 ;
seeing (fr. %{cakS}?) Naigh. iii , 11 Nir. v , 24 ; f. pl. `
" cultivators (opposed to nomads) "' , men ,
people , race RV. (%{pa4Jca@c-} = %{p-@kRSTa4yas
} (q.v.) , v , 86 , 2 ; vii , 15 , 2 ; ix , 101 , 9)
AV. xiii , 1 , 38 BhP. x , 29 , 2 ; N. of Aryaman's children by Ma1tr2ika1 (progenitors of the human race)
BhP. vi , 6 , 40 (cf. %{pra4-} , %{ratha-} , %{vi4-} , %{vizva4-}.).

sana-ga m. N. of a teacher (of. %{sanaka}) S3Br.  
sAna-ga m. (fr. %{sanaga}) N. of a
teacher MaitrS
sana-ndana m. `" having joy "'N. of one of the 4 or 7 mind-born sons of Brahma1 (said to have
preceded Kapila as
teachers of the Sa1m2khya phil. ; cf. %{sanaka}) MBh. Hariv. Pur. ; of a pupil of
S3am2kara7ca1rya and another author Cat.
ekek-SaNa m. `" one-eyed "'N. of S3ukra or Venus (the
teacher of the Asuras) T.
This was Shukaletuda(Sukra), a gardener who is terrible at his job and partially blind defiled Inanna in
the under world.

zA-sana ; teaching , instructing , an instructor BhP. ; (%{I}) f. an instructress RV. i , 31 , 11 ; (%{am}) n.
(ifc. f. %{A}) punishment , chastisement , correction (%{zAsanaM-kR} , to inflict punishment) Baudh.
Mn. MBh. &c. ; government , dominion , rule over (comp.) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; an order , command , edict
, enactment , decree , direction  `" by command of "' ; %{zAsanA} f. Sch. on S3is3. xiv , 36) RV. &c.
&c. ;
a royal edict , grant , charter (usually a grant of land or of partic. privileges , and often inscribed
on stone or copper) Ya1jn5. Ka1v. Ra1jat. &c. ; a writing , deed , written contract or agreement W. ;
any written book or work of authority , scripture (= %{zAstra}) ib. ; teaching , instruction , discipline ,
doctrine (also= `" faith "' , `" religion "'
) MBh. Ka1m. Katha1s. ; a message (see comp.) ;
sana 2 mf(%{A})n. (derivation doubtful ; for 1. see p. 1140 , col. 3) old , ancient (%{am} ind. "' of old ,
formerly "') RV. AV. ; lasting long BhP. ; m. N. of a R2ishi (one of the four or seven spiritual sons of
Brahma1 ; cf.


ava-sAna
2 n. (cf. %{ava-mocana}) `" where the horses are unharnessed "' , stopping , resting-place ,
residence RV. x , 14 , 9 AV. S3Br. MBh. ; a place chosen or selected for being built upon Ma1nGr2. ;
(ifc. f. (%{A}) Ragh. i , 95) conclusion , termination , cessation Mn. ii , 71 S3ak. &c. ; death S3ak.
Pan5cat. ; boundary , limit L. ; end of a word , last part of a compound or period , end of a phrase
Pra1t. Pa1n2. ; the end of the line of a verse or the line of a verse itself. AAnukr. VPra1t. Ka1tyS3r. ; N.
of a place , (g. %{
takSazilA7di} q.v.)

vR-SaNazva mfn. drawn by stallions (as a chariot) RV. ; m. N. of a man (the father of Mena1) ib.
MaitrS. ; of a
Gandharva L. (w.r. %{-NAzva}) ; of a horse of Indra L.

vR-SanAbhi (%{vR4Sa-}) mfn. having a strong nave (as a chariot) ib.

sanA-bhi (%{sa4-}) mfn. having the same nave or centre (as the spokes of a wheel or the fingers of the
hand) RV. (cf. Naigh. ii , 5) ; connected by the same navel or womb , uterine , of kindred blood , a
blood-relation ;

ak-SAnah (the vowel lengthened as in %{upA-na4h} , &c.) , mfn. tied to the axle of a car RV. x , 53 , 7 ;
(horse Sa1y. ; trace attached to the horse's collar Gmn.)  

sana-ka mfn. former , old , ancient (%{At} ind. `" from of old "') RV. ; m. N. of a R2ishi (one of the four
mind-born sons of Brahma1 , described as one of the counsellors or companions of Vishn2u and as
inhabiting the Janar-loka ; the other three are Sana , Sanatkuma1ra , and sa-nandana ; some reckon
seven of these mind-born sons) MBh. Hariv. BhP. (cf. RTL. 422) ; of an inspired legislator W. [Cf. Lat.
{Seneca} ; Goth. {sineigs}.]
The people of north-west of India the tribe of Caksus move to Mesopotamia after 2300 BC, between
the Murat river west to the Oxus river east.   
Murat river originates near Mount Ararat.
cakSus%{vakSu}) the Oxus river VP. ii
vaGkSu ; the Oxus MBh. Pur. (cf. %{vakSu}).
cakSus name of a Marut

Caksus or Caucasus are the BMAC culture right on the Oxus

zvaGk (also written %{zraGk} , %{svaGk}) cl. 1. A1. %{zvaGkate} , to go , move Dha1tup. iv , 22.  
vaGkri f. a rib , the rib of any animal as of a horse
cakSus mfn. seeing RV. ii , 39 , 5 ; x AV. v , 24 , 9 ; x , 10 , 15 [382,2] ; m.
name of a Marut Hariv.
11545 ; of a R2ishi (with the patr. Ma1nava , author of RV. ix , 106 , 4-6) RAnukr. ;

zvaGk (also written %{zraGk} , %{svaGk}) cl. 1. A1. %{zvaGkate} , to go , move Dha1tup. iv , 22.


 The names of the kings of the Mitanni state were of Indo-Aryan origin, and a number of Indo-Aryan
gods (Mitra, Varuza, Indra, Nāsatya) are mentioned in the Mitanni texts, alongside the indigenous gods
(cf. Burrow 1973:27—30). The Hittite archives of Àattušašhave revealed the oldest known horse-
training manual. This work, written ca. 1345 BCE by a Mitanni horse-trainer named  Kikkuli 4, contains
1080 lines on four tablets. It begins with the words: ‘Thus speaks Kikkuli, master horse-trainer of the
land of Mitanni’. Several Indo-Aryantechnical terms for horse training are mentioned in this manual:
aikawartanna‘one turn (of thecourse)’ (cf. Sanskrit eka-vartana-), terawartanna ‘three turns’ (cf.
Sanskrittri-)  panzawartanna ‘five turns’ (cf. Sanskrit pañca-),sattawartanna ‘seven turns’ (cf. Sanskrit
sapta-), and nawartanna (for *nawa-wartanna) ‘nine turns’ (cf. Sanskrit nava-). The word aššuššanne
‘horse-trainer’ combines the Hurrian suffix - anne with an Indo-Aryan-sounding root aššušš (cf.Sanskri
áśva--‘horse’). Indeed, it was probably the Hurrians who introduced “the light horse-drawn chariot with
spoked wheels, the training of horses to draw it, its use as a platform for firing the composite bow, and
the development of scale-armour for men and horses to counter it”(cf. Sherratt 1980:125). Another
Hurrian text, found at Yurgan Tepe, has babru and pabru-nnu (cf. Sanskrit babhrú-‘brown’), parita (cf.
Sanskrit palitá-‘grey’), and pinkara (cf. Sanskrit piygalá- ‘red’).  Artatama stands for rta-dhāman, while
Tušratta reflects tve ā-rathā, tveSaratha mfn. having rushing or brilliant chariots , v , 61 , 13.
Was the word chariot used as a technical word for an object?
This would determine when the language group started. Technical words place a marker in time thru the
artifacts archaeological date.  Examples are the Indo-European languages familiarity with wheeled
vehicles, such as wagons and carts.
This could not have happened before 4000 BC, because of the dates of their invention in
archaeology. These technical terms include two words for the wheel, a word for the axle, a word
for the thill or harness-pole and a verb meaning 'to ride in a vehicle'. The chariot first appears in
history around 2300 BC.  I looked for an association around the Indic word for chariot. The
Indic or Sanskrit word for chariot is 'Ratha'.  This word would have preceded the division of the
Indo-Europeans.  The Old Persian word for chariot 'ratha' and the old Persian warrior 'rathestar'
and in the Avesta the oldest Persian religious text 'ratho' means vehicle and chariot. In Europe,
the Old Church Slavonic word 'rati' means war or battle. The Serbian word for war 'rat' and the
Old Irish word for vehicle 'roth', the Irish word to attack 'ruathar'  are associated.  The Lithuanian
word to uproot 'rautereti', the Greek word to ride 'a-rith-mos' with the Greek word to destroy
'rhaio' are connected. The Latin word to rage 'e-rotos' the English 'riot' and the Latin wheel and
chariot 'rota', thus the Latin word to cast down 'rutus' are connected.  Latin's 'rota' and the close
association to 'ratha' follows Latin's staunch conservativism towards change. The German word
for chivalry 'ritter-linchkeit' and the German word for Knight 'ritter' the German word to destroy
'aus-rotten' with the German word for savoir 'retten' are connected.  The Celtic chariot 'ca-rros'
an amalgamation of the Sanskrit 'ca' meaning both (as in the english prefix co-dependent) and
ratha that became the wheel (both wheels cha-riot). The English Cha-riot is a loan word, with the
Old Briton 'car'.  These associations can then be grouped with the military word to 'route' an
enemy; French 'deroute', Spanish 'rota' and the German 'ronde'. The first time historically the
word Ratha is used as chariot is around 1650BCE with the Hurrians of the Middle East. These
Hurrian's had hundreds of Vedic Sanskrit loan words. These associations and the established
associations of the Indo-European groups are similar; Sanskrit 'Ayas' meaning metal shifts to
bronze in Latin's 'Aes' and becomes 'Iron' in the German 'Eisen';. The Sanskrit 'father'; is 'pater'
German 'vater' and Latin 'pater' this word was best saved jumping to the word 'pater-nal' in
English. The Sanskrit word 'satem' means one hundred, the Latin word is 'centum' it jumps but
stays within the same subject matter in the English words 'century' and 'centennial'. Many times
these associations are loan words of a later date, but they can point to the Sanskrit word being
saved better in a sister language.
            The Hurrian and Hittite Influence in the entire region become dominant.
Texts in the Hurrian language in cuneiform have been found at Hattusa, Ugarit (Ras Shamra), as well as
in one of the longest of the Amarna letters (Egypt), written by King Tushratta of Mitanni to Pharaoh
Amenhotep III. It was the only long Hurrian text known until a multi-tablet collection of literature in
Hurrian with a Hittite translation was discovered at Hattusa in 1983.

The first Indo-aryan words found in Mesopotamia can trace back to the capital of the Gutians empire
the city of 'Arrapha' Iraq this capital became Hurrain after their fall in 2000 BC. Before this was a 146
years period of Gutian rule and prior to that a 100 years of war, that started with Naram-Sîn 2254–
2218 BC.
The names of the Mitanni aristocracy frequently are of Indo-aryan origin, but it is specifically their
deities which show Indo-aryan roots (1.Mitra, 2.Varuna, 3.Indra, 4.Nasatya), the recorded order 1.2.3.4
was the same as recorded in Indian Sanskrit. The common language, the Hurrian language, is neither
Indo-European nor Semitic. Hurrian is related to Urartian, the language of Urartu, both belonging to the
Hurro-Urartian language family. Arrapha or Arrapkha was an ancient city in what today is northeastern
Iraq, on the site of the modern city of Kirkuk. It began as a city of the Gutian people, became Hurrian,
and was an Assyrian city during most of its occupation.

The city Arrapha became Hurrian around 2000 BC by the Hurrian-related Zagros Mountains–Taurus
Mountains dwellers who were known as the Gutian people by lowland-dwellers of Southern
Mesopotamia. Arraphkha was the capital of the Guti kingdom (Gutium), which is mentioned in cuneiform
records about 2400 BC.  Arrapha was an important trading center in the 18th century BCE.  By the 14th
century it was a largely Hurrian city, the capital of the small, Hurrian kingdom of Arrapkha, situated
along the southeastern edge of the area under Mittani domination.
The Gutians also Guteans, Guti, Quti, Qurtie, Qurti, and Kurdu were a tribe from northern and central
ranges of the Zagros Mountains that overran southern Mesopotamia when the Akkadian empire
collapsed in approximately 2154 BC. Qu is a Mesopotamia word for 'standard' on one inscription they
were called Quti Manu the Standard of Manu. 2254 BC or even 2000 BC for a start or a Indic presence
in Mesopotamia, yet according to the Aryan invasion theory there is no Indic presence in India until the
collapsing Indus Valley civilization prior to 2000 BC.

In the Indus Valley during Gutians rule you have an exodus of the entire family of Bhrgu to Iran and
forming the Iranian part of the language group Indo-Iranian.  It was Indra and 'Saravata of the Bhrgu
family' accredited with the destroying of the 99 fortified cities. It was his father that gave his bones to
make a the weapon to destroy the Asuras. These Asura's went from being Divine to becoming the word
for evil-spirit. In the many Lamination's or poems of the hardship endured from the Gutians "we built
cities and they were torn down". The chariot historically appears around 2300 BC, same time as the
destruction layer of Early Bronze Age 2 and 3, this destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river. This
happened 300 years prior to the appearance of the organized Hittite nation in 2000BC.
Just like the wheel the chariot puts a marker in time. bhRgu m. pl. ( %{bhrAj}) N. of a mythical race of
beings (closely connected with fire , which they find [RV. x , 46 , 2] and bring to men [i , 58 , 6 ; 195 , 2]
; they are also said to fabricate chariots [iv , 16 , 20]

While the Vedic BhRgu family took part in destroying the Asura's they also became their Guru or
'teacher the Asura's'. The trouble started with a traitorous time in Mesopotamia as Sargon the trusted
cup bearer of the king formed and executing a military coup. Once in power he makes his cup bearer
his 5400 man army, he starts a bloody campaign to tax the entire known world.  Sargon is the first
example of a military dictatorship on a nation level. This period was marked by almost constant wars
among the major city-states and against foreign enemies {it is said that from Sargon 2000 years of war
began}. The former religious institutions of the Sumerians remained with Sargon he became "anointed
priest of Anu" and "great ensi of Enlil".
Naram-Sin was the grandson of Sargon, he extended the empire west into Pakistan and India as
Magan and Meluhha. In the "Curse of Agade" it blames the destruction of Agade on Naram-Sin, for
attacking those that were all ready paying tribute. Naram-Sin Attacks the Indus valley and pillages, from
the seeds for planting to the food for the mouth, to the nails holding timbers together. At Mohenjo-daro
the granary is crushed and a complete change of food staple begins. He was the first Mesopotamian
king known to have claimed divinity for himself, and one of the first (following the earlier Lugal-Anne-
Mundu) to be called "King of the Four Quarters".The name Sargon and Naram-sin are later used as a
pun as the same trouble's presest.

Indra the King of the Diva's was once driven out of Devaloka (Heaven) by an Asura (Demon) named
Vritra. This asura was the recipient of a boon whereby he could not be killed by any weapon. The Vritra
Demon also stole all the water in the world for his own use and for his Demon army so that all other
living beings die out of thirst and hunger and so no Human or God is left alive to challenge his place in
Heaven.
In Sargons old age all lands revolted because of a drought that brought a famine. Lord Marduk was
angry and destroyed his people by famine from the rising of the sun unto the setting of the sun they
opposed him and gave him no rest.
After this attack Dadhichi, also known as Dadhyancha, who was among the greatest of the clan of
bhrigus gave his life to destroy this Asuric demon. In the early Vedic religion, Vritra, is an Asura and
also a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and adversary of Indra. According to the Rig
Veda, Vritra kept the waters of the world captive until he was killed by Indra, who destroyed all the 99
fortresses of Vritra. In one verse of a Rig-Vedic hymn eulogising Sarasvati son of Dadhichi is portrayed
as the one who slayed Vritra. Mention of this occurs nowhere else.
The origins of Asura and the Deva go back to a common time in India and Mesopotamia that started
with the Golden Age of Manu or %{vaivasvata} , Sun-born , or from his piety %{satya-vrata} , the 'Satya
Age'; regarded as the progenitor of the present race of living beings , and said , like the Noah of the
Old Testament , to have been preserved from a great flood by Vishnu or Brahma in the form of a fish.
Tvastar-Rathakara
Tvastar is mentioned in the Matanni treaty, Wikipedia says this establishes Tvastar as
a Proto-Indo-Iranian divinity,  if so then this Rathakara is son of Sukracarya of the Bhrgus
that created nadIvRt mfn. stream-obstructing (Vritra) RV. Tvastar creates Vritra
and creates the weapon that kills him. Tvastar creates Nabu that later became one of the
principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was
the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was
also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water. He is the visible form of
creativity emerged from the navel of the invisible Viswakarma.  In Yajurveda purusha
Suktha and in the 10th mandala of the Rigveda his character and attributes are merged
with the concept of Hiranyagharbha/Prajapathy or Brahma . The term, also transliterated
as Tvastr, nominative Tvasta, is the heavenly builder, the maker of divine implements,
especially Indra's Vajra and the guardian of Soma and maker of
Chariots. Tvastar is mentioned 65
times in the
Rgveda[2] and is the former of the bodies of men and animals,' and invoked when desiring
offspring, called garbha-pati or the lord of the womb.Tvastar is also referred to as
Rathakra or the chariot maker and sometimes as Taksa in Rgveda. Surprisingly he is also
inferred to as Indra's father.

(Išuwa). Name of an Anatolian landscape in Hittite and Assyrian sources of the 15th to 9th cents. BC. I.
was situated between the Euphrates and Tigris in the area of the
Murat Su river, with the plain of Elazığ
as its centre (Arsanias, modern Lake Keban).   
Murat river originates near Mount Ararat north of Lake
Van, in Eastern Turkey, and flows westward for 722 km (449 mi) through mountainous area. Mount
Ararat associated with Noha and the flood.

The people of north-west India the tribe of Caksus move to Mesopotamia after 2300 BC, between the
Murat river west to the Oxus river east.   
Murat river originates near Mount Ararat.
cakSus%{vakSu}) the Oxus river VP. ii
vaGkSu ; the Oxus MBh. Pur. (cf. %{vakSu}).
cakSus name of a Marut

Caksus or Caucasus are the BMAC culture right on the Oxus


mAruta or %{mAruta4} mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{marut}) relating or belonging to the Maruts , proceeding from
or consisting of the MñMaruts RV. &c. &c. ;
Name of a people MBh. ; (%{I}) f. (scil. %{diz} or %{vidiz}) the north-west quarter VarBr2S. ;
cakSus%{vakSu}) the Oxus river VP. ii
cakSus mfn. seeing RV. ii , 39 , 5 ; x AV. v , 24 , 9 ; x , 10 , 15 [382,2] ; m. N. of a Marut Hariv. 11545 ;
of a R2ishi (with the patr. Ma1nava , author of RV. ix , 106 , 4-6) RAnukr. ; of another R2ishi (with the
patr. Saurya , author of RV. x , 158) ib. ; of a son of Anu BhP. ix , 23 , 1 ; f. N. of a river BhP. v , 17 , 6
f. ; n. light , clearness RV. SV. ; the act of seeing (dat. inf. = %{-kSase}) AV. xviii , 3 , 10 ; aspect RV. x
, 87 , 8 ; faculty of seeing , sight RV. AV. TS. ii , v AitBr. ii , 6 S3Br. x , xiv Mn. &c. ; a look RV. AV. iv ,
9 , 6 ; the eye RV. &c. `" the eye of Mitra and Varun2a "' (cf. RV. vii , 61 , 1) , another Sa1man
The term "Post-Sumerian" is meant to refer to the time when the language was already extinct and only preserved by Babylonians and Assyrians as
a liturgical and classical language (for religious, artistic and scholarly purposes). The extinction has traditionally been dated approximately to the
end of the Third Dynasty of Ur, the last predominantly Sumerian state in Mesopotamia, about 2000 BC. However, this date is very approximate, as
many scholars have contended that Sumerian was already dead or dying as early as around 2100 BC, by the beginning of the Ur III periodwhile
others believe that Sumerian persisted as a spoken language in a small part of Southern Mesopotamia (Nippur and its surroundings) until as late as
1700 BC.[5] Whatever the status of spoken Sumerian between 2000 and 1700 BC, it is from this period that a particularly large quantity of literary
texts and bilingual Sumerian-Akkadian lexical lists survive, especially from the scribal school of Nippur. This, along with the particularly intensive
official and literary use of the language in Akkadian-speaking states during the same time, is the basis for the distinction between a Late Sumerian
period and all subsequent time.
Sumerian Questions and Answers
Certain Sumerian cuneiform signs began to be used to represent phonetic syllables in order to write the unrelated Akkadian language, whose
pronunciation is known from being a member of the Semitic language family. We have a lot of phonetically written Akkadian starting from the time of
Sargon the Great (2300 B.C.). These phonetic syllable signs also occur as glosses indicating the pronunciation of Sumerian words in the lexical lists
from the Old Babylonian period. This gives us the pronunciation of most Sumerian words. Admittedly the 20th century saw scholars revise their initial
pronunciation of some signs and names, a situation that was not helped by the polyphony of many Sumerian ideographs. To the extent that
Sumerian uses the same sounds as Semitic Akkadian, then, we know how Sumerian was pronounced.
Some texts use syllabic spelling, instead of logograms, for Sumerian words. Words and names with unusual sounds that were in Sumerian but not in
the Semitic Akkadian language can have variant spellings both in Akkadian texts and in texts written in other languages; these variants have given
us clues to the nature of the non-Semitic sounds in Sumerian.