The Parkers Tissa coin below found in Ceylon thus Dravidian bears a striking similarity to the
coins of the Kuninda (golden coin below Parkers coin) located along the Jamuna, Beas, Sultaj,
the prior Indus Valley. The common denominator here as with the Sangha coins above is
                                                                                                                      Daniel F.Salas
Above the Sanskrit diz * for cardinal points of direction, this word became the Sumerian word for sky and
God the Sanskrit word diz-ambara or dig-ambara the sky is your clothing.
diz    *    2 f. Quarter or region pointed at , direction , cardinal point RV. AV. S3Br. &c. (four in number ,
viz. %{prAcI} , east ;%{dakSiNA} , south ; %{pratici} , west ; and %{udIcI} , north AV. xv , 2 , 1
A1s3vGr2. iv , 8 &c. ; Sometimes a 5th , %{dhruvA} AV. iii , 9 , 15 S3Br. ix , 4 , 3 , 10 ;
Dingir *, usually transliterated DIĜIR Sumerian pronunciation: [diŋir]) is a Sumerian word for "god." Its
cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for religious names and related
concepts, in which case it is not pronounced and is conventionally transliterated as a superscript "D" as in
e.g. DInanna. The cuneiform sign by itself was originally an ideogram for the Sumerian word an ("sky" or
"heaven"); its use was then extended to a logogram for the word diĝir ("god" or goddess)
Five Swastika's in a row, same as the Indus seal. The Buddhist got their symbols from Jainism,
Buddhism 600 BC, Indus ends 1200 BC.

I believe Rishabha to be Manjusri.

Scholars have identified Mañjuśrī as the oldest and most significant bodhisattva in Mahāyāna literature
prajñā (transcendent wisdom). The Lotus Sutra assigns him a pure land called Vimala, which according to
the Avatamsaka Sutra is located in the East.  His consort in some traditions is Saraswati.The
Mañjusrimulakalpa, which later came to classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Saiva,
Garuda and Vaisnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught originally by

pUrvajina        m. `" ancient sage "'N. of Manju-sri L.
daNDA-jinika        mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{daNDA7jina}) carrying a staff and skin (as mere outward signs of
religion) m. cheat , rogue , hypocrite Pa1n2. 5-2 , 76.
zArdUlavAhana        m. `" riding on a tiger "'N. of Manju-sri1 L.
daNDin        mfn. (Pa1n2. 5-2 , 115 Ka1s3.) carrying a stick S3Br. xiii Ka1tyS3r. S3a1n3khS3r. Mn. &c. ;
m. a Bra1hman in the 4th stage of his life (= %{Tri-}) Ka1lid. ; N. of an order of ascetics founded by
S3am2kara7ca1rya W. ; a door-keeper , policeman Nal. iv , 25 Ka1d. i , 225 ; an oarsman W. ; Yama
Ka1m. ii , 36 ;
Manju-sri1 L. ; (g. %{naDA7di}) N. of a son of Dhr2itit-ra1sht2ra MBh. i , 2738 ; of a door-
keeper of the Sun R. vii , 23 , 2 , 9 and 11 ;
sthiracakra        m. N. of Manju-sri1 ib.
garteza        m. `" master of a cave "'N. of Manju-sri1 Buddh.
vAdirAj        m. `" king among disputants , an excellent disputant Pan5cat. ; a Bauddha sage (also N. of
Man5ju-ghosha or
Man5ju-s3ri1) L.

V-rishabha-svamin is Rshabha who starts (fathers) a social systems within the two deferent language
groups of India one Indoeuropean the other Dravidian with Tibet that is three.
VRSabhasvAmin N. of a king (founder of the family of Ikshva1ku and father of Dravid2a) S3atr.  

draviDa m. N. of a people (regarded as degraded Kshatriyas and said to be "' descendants of Dravid2a ,
sons of Vr2ishabha-sva1min S3atr.)and of a district on the east coast of the Deccan Mn. Var. MBh. &c. ;
collect. N. for 5 peoples , viz. the A1ndhras , Karn2a1t2akas , Gurjaras ,Tailan3gas , and Maha1ra1sht2ras
(cf. %{dAviDa} below)  m. pl. the DñDra1vida people MBh. R. Pur. ; also collect. N. for the above 5
peoples ,

drAviDa mf(%{I})n. Dra1vidian , a Dra1vida MBh. Ra1jat. &c. ; m. pl. the DñDra1vida people MBh. R. Pur.
; also collect. N. for the above 5 peoples , and of the 5 chief DñDra1vida languages , Tamil , Telugu ,
Kanarese , Malaya1lam and Tulu ; m. sg. a patr. fr. Dravid2a S3atr. ;

Dravida is an Indoeuropean word, the prefix Dra is common in Sanskrit and does not exist in the Drividian
dRSTivAda m. N. of the 12th An3ga of the Jainas.
dRSTa mfn. seen , looked at , beheld ,perceived , noticed Mn. MBh. Ka1v.&c.  
dRSTArtha mfn. having the aim or object apparent ,

The first tirthankara Rishabhanatha codifies writing "Masi", within the broad subject matter of writing is
Agga and Agamas, they are the sacred text of Jainism. The founder of Jainism Rishabhanatha is also
credited with having invented and taught fire, cooking, and all skills needed for human beings to live. The
association of fire suggests Rishabha is the founder of Agni "fire" of the Veda. Agni is considered as the
mouth of the gods and goddesses Agam/Agni.  The word Agni is used in many contexts, ranging from the
fire in stomach, the cooking fire in a home, the sacrificial fire in an altar, the fire of cremation, the fire of
rebirth, the fire in the energetic saps concealed within plants, the atmospheric fire in lightning and the
celestial fire in the sun
Agamas are texts of Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara. Agamas exist in Hinduism as well.
'Agama' is a Sanskrit word. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is called
Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas. The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas
(chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with
twelve branches. This forms the basis of the Jaina Agamas or canons. These are believed to have
originated from Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara. Some of the early Tamil classics such as Valayapathi,
Silappatikaram and Civaka Chintamani are Jain or Jain-affiliated works.

Agama        mf(%{A})n. coming near , approaching AV. vi , 81 , 2 ; xix , 35 , 3 ; m. (ifc. f. %{A}) arrival ,
coming , approach R. &c. ; origin Mn. viii , 401 R. &c. ; appearance or reappearance MBh. ii , 547 income ,
lawful acquisition (of property , %{artha} , %{dhana} , %{vitta} , %{draviNa}) Mn. MBh. &c. ; reading ,
studying Pat. ; acquisition of knowledge , science MBh. Ya1jn5. &c. ; a traditional doctrine or precept ,
collection of such doctrines , sacred work , Bra1hmana Mn. xii , 105    
Ajjanavati female elephant of
Pundarika muladhara original ganadhara and elephant of
south-east same as Agni is Agga.     
gamAgama        m. going and coming , going to and fro Katha1s. lxxvii ; m. sg. and pl. negotiation Ka1d.
Ra1jat. vii , 1274 (cf. %{gatA7gata}) ; %{-kArin} m. a negotiator , messenger VarBr2S. x , 10 Sch.
gamaka        mfn. causing to understand , making clear or intelligible , explanatory , leading to clearness or
conviction (e.g. %{hetu} , `" a convincing reason "') Sarvad. i , 35 ;MBh. &c.

Thus "causing to understand" gama equates to graha "seizing understaning".
ghamb        cl. 1. A1. %{-bate} , to go , move Dha1tup. xi , 35 (Vop.).
mátsya-saṃghāta = Samgha
matsyasaMghAta m. a shoal of young fry or small fish cf. L.

Schooling and shoaling is a kind of collective animal behaviour by fish. Any group of fish that stay together
for social reasons is said to be shoaling, and if the shoal is swimming in the same direction together, it is
ghaTa        mfn. intently occupied or busy with (loc.) Pa1n2. 5-2 , 35 ; = %{ghaTA@yasyA7sti} g. %{arza-
Adi} ; m. a jar , pitcher , jug , large earthen water-jar , watering-pot Mn. viii , xi Ya1jn5. iii , 144 Amr2itUp.
MBh. &c. ; the
sign Aquarius VarBr2S. ;; a troop (of elephants) assembled for martial purposes
Ma1lati1m. v , 19 VarBr2S. xliii S3is3. i , 64 Katha1s. Ra1jat. mfn.(%{ghaT}) `" working on "' see %{danta-}
;; n. management of an elephant Gal. ;
ratnatraya        n. `" jñjewels-triad "' , the three jewels or excellent things (with Buddhists , viz. %{buddha} , %
{dharma} and %{saMgha} ; or with Jainas , viz. %{samyag-darzana} , %{sñsaMgha-jJAna} and %{samyak-
ratnasaMghAta        m. a number or collection of jewels ; %{-maya} mf(%{I})n. made or consisting of a
number of jńjewels MBh.
saMghAta ; (in gram.) a compound as a compact whole (opp. to its single parts) Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 2-3 , 56
a vowel with its consonant (opp. to %{varNa} , `" a letter "') , Ka1t2y. ; N. of a division of the infernal
regions (cf. %{saMhAta}) Ya1jn5. Buddh. ;
ghaMS        (and %{ghaMs}) cl. 1. A1. %{-Sate} (and %{-sate}) , to diffuse lustre or splendour Dha1tup. xvi
, 50 ;
to flow , stream ib.
saMghaT        A1. %{-ghaTate} , to assemble together , meet Ra1jat. ; to meet , encounter Sin6ha7s.:
Caus. %{-ghA8Tayati} , to cause to assemble , collect Katha1s. ; to join or fasten together Sarvad. ; to
strike (a musical instrument) R.
saMgha        " close contact or combination "' , any collection or assemblage , heap , multitude , quantity ,
crowd , host , number (generally with gen. pl. or ifc. , e.g. %{muni-s-} , `" a multitude of sages "' BhP. ; %
{zatru-s-} , a host of enemies Ra1jat.) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; any number of people living together for a certain
purpose , a society , association , company , community ; a clerical community , congregation , church Mn.
Sa1h. &c. ; (esp.) the whole community or collective body or brotherhood of monks (with Buddhists
; also
applied to a monkish fraternity or sect among Jainas) Buddh. Sarvad. MWB. 176.

Rishabhanatha is then said to have taught mankind six main professions. These were: (1) Asi
(swordsmanship for protection), (2) Masi (writing skills), (3) Krishi (agriculture), (4) Vidya (knowledge), (5)
Vanijya (trade and commerce) and (6) Shilp (crafts). In other words, he is credited with introducing karma-
bhumi (the age of action) by founding arts and professions to enable householders to sustain themselves.
He is, in the Jain belief, the one who organized a social system that created the varna based on
varna  Kshatriyas Asi (swordsmanship for protection) , Vaisyas  (3) Krishi (agriculture), (5) Vanijya (trade
and commerce) and (6) Shilp (crafts), Brahmans Samghajjana.
saMghAta; (in gram.) a compound as a compact whole (opp. to its single parts) Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 2-3 , 56
a vowel with its consonant (opp. to %{varNa} , `" a letter "') , Ka1t2y.consonant (opp. to %{varNa} , `"
a letter).
Rishabhanatha codifed Masi (writing skills), "') , Ka1t2y. as samghata is a vowel with its consonant (opp. to
%{varNa} , `" a letter "') as with samghata/samgha of anchorites defferent from the comunity of house

In the Jains thirteenth Purvas: Kriya Visala Purva: Skills, 64 arts of women, 84 arts of men, then there are
64 Hindhu Kalas meaning any practical art , any mechanical or fine art (sixty-four are enumerated in the
S3aivatantra .  Those persons would have become house holders. The possessing of a house was from
the Agga/Agamas name of the chief sacred texts of the Jainas.
catuHSaSTi 64 AitBr. i , 5 , 8 Mn. viii , 338 Hariv. R. ; the 64 Kala1s MBh. ii , 2068 ; N. of RV.    
(consisting of 64 Adhya1yas) L; %{-STy-
aGga} mfn. having 64 subdivisions (the Jyotih2-s3a1stra) Mudr. i ,
agArin        mfn. possessing a house , (%{I}) m. a house holder, layman (cf %{an-agArin}) Jain.
agnicitvat        mfn. possessing house holders that have prepared a sacred fire-place Pa1n2. 8-2 , 10 Sch.
grAha        (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 143) mf(%{I})n. ifc. seizing , holding , catching , receiving Ya1jn5. ii , 51 R. iv , 41 ,
38 ; crocodile
graha     seizing , laying hold of , holding BhP. iii , 15 , 35; crocodile  ; with Jainas they constitute one of the
5 classes of the
Graha and the crocodile below is a representation of the rebus  principle an allusional device that uses
pictures to represent words or parts of words. I believe the Indus script to be both a logographic system
based on rebus and an alphabetic/syllabaries system where individual written characters represent sounds
rather than concepts. Explaining Samgha the fish sign with two bars "sam" and "gha" gana fish and
Graha/Grha sieze/house holder. I believe the "gha" from samgha to have it's roots somewhere in the gloss
of words gana, guna, graha, grha that were connected. Today Guṇa is both a root and a word in Sanskrit
and guNa is rooted with grah not gana that changed where originally the concept of quality and quantity
were related.
In verse VI.36 of Nirukta by Yāska, a 1st millennium BC text on Sanskrit grammar and language that
preceded Panini,
Guṇa is declared to be derived from another root Gaṇa.
The house holder is represented on an Indus Valley artifact (below) that had three sides.  The three sided
Indus Valley artifact, with two sides showing processions of domestic animals then wild animals, both have a
flying crocodile for graha Householder. In the two seals below there is no writing purely symbolic, the flying
crocodile represents graha/grha.

The top seal is part of a three sided seal below that the user could chose one of three meanings, this
artifact brings together the crocodile/fish and the common motif of a tiger looking back. I interpret the
backwards looking tigers meaning as symbolic for the leader of the anchorites that are represented by wild
animals, the tiger looking back at his/her life as house holder graha.
Article;  Stratification in Rig Vedic Society
The grhapati was the leader or chief. The Agni-grhapati found in the first hymn of the VII mandal in which well-
formed men (narah sujatah) and brave heroes (suvirah) are described as sitting together around the fire in the
dwelling place. Perhaps, the offer­ing of the grhamedha sacrifice to the Maruts, who are described as
grhamedhasa, the sharers of grhamedha in the Rgveda is a reference to a sattra. The connection of the Maruts
with grhamedha, is significant, as they are all young and form one collectivity (gana) and as such are espe­cially
connected with grha.
Another crucial word having the sense of family or household is grha. In many Rig Vedic passages it is clearly the
material abode or place of residence. The gods are described as going to the grha of the benefactor.
Elsewhere, Agni is said to be in every dama (house).
However, at one place grha, too, appears to be a consanguineous unit. The usage of grhini (housewife) and
grhastha (householder) continues to this day in Hindi. The terms grhapati and grhapatni have been translated as
the head and the mistress of the household. R.S. Sharma is of the view that grha in the Rig-Veda was the lowest
social unit but it was a “large family containing members of four generations.”

Thus grhapati would be the head of one such family, although elsewhere he suggests that the tribal chief could
have been known by the title of grhapati. Romila Thapar thinks that the grhapatis were of ‘higher lineage’ in the
Rig-Veda, that is, of the rajanya lineage, “since the term is brought in when describing the nuptials of the
daughter of Surya …. Agni is called the grhapati and the sacred household fire is grhapatya.

Grhapatya here is obviously a mistake for the garhapatya fire and not for grhyagni. The garhapatya fire was not
a sacred ‘household fire’, but one of the three srauta or public fires, the other two being ahavaniya and
daksinagni. It is always differentiated from grhyagni, the household fire, also called vaivahika or smartagni.

The latter is meant for the purpose of daily offerings made twice, morning and evening. It is significant that the
Grhyasutras speak of it as the nuptial (vaivahika) fire to be kindled on the day of marriage by the newly married
couple, who are to keep it burning constantly. It may be allowed to go out if the wife is dead and the man wishes
to remain a widower. Thus the distinction between the grhyagni and the garhapatyagni lies not in the fact that
one represents the ‘popular’ and the other ‘elite’ diety, but that the former is the fire of the individual household
for the purpose of daily offerings, and the latter a communal fire meant for seasonal or occasional purposes.

In the yatsattras, which were long sacrificial sessions ritualizing the eastward march of the Vedic Aryans, the
garhapatya fire is to be built on the place where the yoke-pin of the chariot (samya) comes down. It is con­tend
that the grhya, ritual built around the domestic fire seems to be a ‘substitute’ or ‘replacement’ of the cumbersome
and elaborate srauta ritual, as there Is a basic similarity o structure and procedura.

Nevertheless, the practice of making daily offerings into the domestic fire may go back to Rig Vedic times. It
was, however, quite distinct from the fire of the grhapati or garhapatyagni, which is mentioned in connection with
the seasonal soma sacrifice in a Rig Vedic hymn addressed to the per­sonified season (Rtu.)

The clue to the original significance of grhapati may be found in the sattra sacrifices. These are collective
sacrifices to be performed by a band of sacrifices between the age of seventeen and twenty-four in company
with their wives, who are given diksa along with their husbands.
In a sat- sacrifice there are no priests, the yajamanas or the sacrifices themselves act as priests and they
choose one among them as their grha­pati to perform all the necessary sacred acts in the course of the
sacrifice, others merely touching him.
A similar development may be seen in the case of the hotr. It derives from an Indo-Eurpoean root hu meaning ‘to
pour’. Thus the original function of the hotr was to pour liba­tions in the fire. It also denoted one who invoked the
gods by reciting the hymns and is regarded by some as the earliest priest.
In ancient Iran, Zaotar was the designation of a class of priests. However, origi­nally hotr does not seem to have
belonged to a distinct priestly class but was identical with yajamana the sacrificer, and this position he retains in
the paka yajnas of the grhya ritual. Later, with the growth of a more complicated sacrificial ritual, hotr becomes
one of the four rtvijs having three priest assistants or helpers. In some hymns of the Rig-Veda, the hota and the
yajamana are clearly distinguished and at two places he is one of the seven priests named along with Brahman.
matsya        m. (cf. %{matsa} and %{maccha}) a fish RV. &c. &c. a partic. species of fish L. ; (in astron.) the figure of a figure (=
%{timi}) Su1ryas.  (du.) the 12th sign of the zodiac
(Pisces) Jyot. ; a partic. figure (= %{svastikamadhyA7kRti}) Hcat. ; (pl.) N. of a
people and country (which accord. to Mn. ii , 19 forms part of
Brahmarshi) RV. &c.&c. ; a king of the Matsyas (cf. %{matsa}) ;
matsyasaMghAta        m. a shoal of young fry or small fish L.
The first samgha as the time of Rshabhanatha winter solstice was in Pisces, the start of the year, that is 7,560 years ago.
From Mahavira to Rshabhanatha
5,000 years.
matsya        m. (cf. %{matsa} and %{maccha}) a fish RV. &c.
&c. a partic. species of fish L. ; (in astron.) the figure of a
figure (=%{timi}) Su1ryas.  (du.) the 12th sign of the zodiac
(Pisces) Jyot. ; a partic. figure
(= %{svastikamadhyA7kRti})
Hcat. ;
svastikamadhyA7kRti where madhya is middle.
bharata-RSabha        m. =
rSabha}N. of
Visva-mitra AitBr. (cf. RV. iii
, 53 , 24).
I bow to the Arahants, the perfected human beings, Godmen.
I bow to the Siddhas, liberated bodiless souls, God.
I bow to the Acharyas, the masters and heads of congregations.
I bow to the Upadhyayas, the spiritual teachers.
I bow to the spiritual practitioners in the universe, Sadhus.
Pandya Kingdom, Sangam
period, Anonymous bronze
unit, c. 3rd - 1st century BCE
Weight: 7.82 gm., Dim: 29 x 22
Elephant right, barred trident
and altar before, various
symbols above /
Stylized fish (Pandya dynastic
pANDaradanta        mfn.
white teeth or tusks
(elephant) R.
pANDu        mfn. (%{paND}?)
yellowish white , white , pale
S3Br. MBh. Ka1v. &c. ;
jaundiced Car. ; m. jaundice
Car. ; pale or yellowish white
colour W. ;
a white elephant
pANDarabhikSu        m. `" a
white-robed mendicant "' , N.
of a partic. sect L.
pANDuravAsin        mfn.
white-robed MBh.
pANDuraya        Nom. P.
%{yati} , to colour white ,
pANDurIka-raNa        n.
colouring white Vcar.
pANDurIka-raNakR        to
colour white Ka1d.
pANDaradanta        mfn.
white teeth or tusks
(elephant) R.
       m. a white
W. ;
puNyatRNa        n. a sacred
grass (N. of the white variety
of Kus3a grass) L.
puNDra ; a white lotus-flower
     ; fever in an
elephant L. ;
white (the
colour) L. ; N. of a Na1ga MBh.
; of the
elephant of the
south-east quarter Ragh. ; ifc.
expressive of beauty cf. g.
%{vyAghrA7di}) RV. &c.&c

Although Mehrgarh predates BMAC the amount of interaction between two suggests they were the same
people that settled in the Pakistan, already having roots in the north they occupied BMAC in the north for tin
copper and Lapis. Mehrgarh with hundreds of BMAC artifacts, BMAC where Steppe wares are found on thier
site, then BMAC artifacts are found in Iran, Afghanistan,
Nepal, India and Pakistan. BMAC 2300–1700 BC
Crested axes like those of the BMAC appeared at Shadad and other sites in eastern and Central Iran. A
cemetery at Mehrgarh VIII in Baluchistan, on the border between the Harappan and Elamite civilizations,
contained so many BMAC artfacts that it "Suggests" an actual movement of BMAC people into
L. Anthropomorph reported by Art
Curator,Naman Ahuja in 2014. R.
Anthropomorph reported by Sanjay
Manjul, Director, Institute of
Archaeology, Delhi Museum, ASI in
August 2015.
The Indus valley were naga's after the digambara tradition.
nAkacantiran2        jaina arhat
nakkan2        01 1. naked person; 2. arhat; 3. siva;
nagna        mf(%{A4})n. naked , new , bare , desolate , desert RV. &c. &c. ; m. a naked mendicant (esp. a Bauddha , but also a mere hypocrite) Var. VP. ; a bard
accompanying an army L. ; N. of S3iva S3ivag. ; of a poet Cat. ; (%{A4}) f. a naked (wanton) woman AV. v , 7 , 8 ;
Adijina        m. N. of R2ishabha Jain. L.
ArSabha        mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{RSabha}) , coming from or produced by a bull S3Br. MBh. ; m. a descendant of R2ishabha BhP.
(%{I}) f.
N. of several constellations VP. Comm. on BhP. ; (%{am}) n. N. of a Sa1man ; a particular metre.
ArSabhi        m. a descendant of R2ishabha Ti1rtha-kr2it ; N. of the first Cakra-vartin in Bha1rata L.
camasa        m. (n. g. %{ardharcA7di} ; %{I} f. L. Sch. ; fr. %{cam}) a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking the Soma , kind of flat dish or cup or ladle (generally
of a square shape , made of wood and furnished with a handle) RV. AV. VS. &c. ; m. a cake (made of barley , rice , or lentils , ground to meal) , sweetmeat , flour
L. Sch. ; (g.
%{gargA7di}) N. of a son of R2ishabha BhP. v , xi ;
jatUkarNa        m. (g. %{gargA7di} v.l. %{jAt-})
, bat-eared "'N. of a physician (pupil of Bharadva1ja Kapisht2hala) Car. i , 1 , 29 (v.l. %{jAtUkarN}).

      m. (fr. %{jat-}? g. %{gargA7di} v.l.) N. of an ancient teacher (one of the 28 transmitters of the Pura1n2as VP. iii , 3 , 19 ; vi , 8 , 47 [%{-Nya}]
Va1yuP.i , 1 , 8 ; 23 , 201[%{-Nya}] Devi1bhP. ; author of a law-book Ya1jn5. Sch. ; [%{-Nya} Pa1rGr2. Sch.] ;
N. of a physician) MBh. ii , 109 Hariv. 2364
BhP. vi , 15 , 13
; (= Agni-ves3ya) ix , 2 , 21 ; N. of S3iva ; (%{I}) f. N. of Bhava-bhu1ti's mother Ma1latiim. i , 5/6 ; mf(%{I})n. of %{-Nya} g. %{kaNvA7di}.

jAtukarNya        m. (fr. %{jatU-karNa} g. %{gargA7di}) N. of several preceptors and grammarians (see also %{-Na}) S3Br. xiv Ka1tyS3r. iv , xx , xxv VPra1t.
S3a1n3khS3r. ; Sa1n3khGr2. , iv , 10 , 3 AitA1r. v , 3 BrahmaP. ii , 12 ; pl. Ja1tu1karn2ya's family Pravar. vi , 1 and 6.
ArkSya        m. and (fr. %{RkSa} g. %{gargA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1 , 105) , a descendant of R2iksha.
ArkSyAyaNI        f. (fr. %{RkSa} g. %{gargA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1 , 105) , a descendant of R2iksha
cAmasya        m. patr. fr. %{camasa4} g. %{gargA7di}.
cikitsita        mfn. treated medically , cured W. ; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} (not in Ka1s3.) ; n. = %{-tsA} Mn. x , 47 MBh. iii , 1460 ; iv , 318 Sus3r. &c. ; (pl.)
the chapters of the therapeutical section (of med.) Sus3r. (ifc. f. a1 , i , 13 , 6).
devahU        mfn. invoking the gńgods (superl. %{-tama}) RV. VS. ; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} ; f. (scil. %{dvAr}) N. of the northern aperture of the human
body , i.e. of the left ear (which is turned north wards if the face is directed towards the east) BhP. iv , 25 , 51 &c. (cf. %{pitR-}).
dhaumya        m. (patr. fr. %{dhUma} g. %{gargA7di}) N. of an ancient R2ishi MBh. Hariv. Pur. ; of a son of Vya1ghra-pa1da MBh. ; of a younger brother of
Devala and family priest of the Pa1n2d2avas ib. ; of a pupil of Va1lmi1ki R. ; of sev. authors Cat. ; %{-zikSA} and %{-smRti} f. N. of wks.
dhUma        m. (%{dhU} or 1. %{dhvan}) smoke , vapour , mist RV. &c. &c. ; smoke as a sternutatory (in 5 forms) Sus3r.: a place prepared for the building of a
house Jyot. ; wheat L. ; a kind of incense L. ; a saint W. ; N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} ; (%{A}) f. a kind of plant L. [Cf. Lat. {fumus}.]
Agni is said to be in every dama (house).
     m. N. of a R2ishi g. %{gargA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1 , 105.
elAka        m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1 , 105 ; (%{am}) n. = %{elA} above.
gaNa        m. a flock , troop , multitude , number , tribe , series(in Gr.) a series of roots or words following the same rule and called after the first word of the
series (e.g. %{ad-Adi} , the g. %{ad} &c. or the whole series of roots of the 2nd class ;
%{gargA7di} , the g. %{garga} &c. or the series of words commencing with
%{garga}) ; a particular group of Sa1mans La1t2y. i , 6 , 5 VarYogay. viii , 7 ; a kind of perfume L. ; = %{vAc} (i.e. `" a series of verses "') Naigh. i , 11 ; N. of an
author ;

jatukRt        f. lac-maker "' , a kind of Oldenlandia (the lac insect forms its nest in this tree) Bhpr. v , 2 , 127.

yAj-Jatu-ra        m. (fr. %{yajJa-tura}) patr. of R2ishabha S3Br. ; N. of a Sa1man A1rshBr.

jatu        n. lac , gum Kaus3. 13 MBh. i , xii Sus3r. ; (%{U4s}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1 , 71 Pat.) a bat VS. xxiv , 25 and 36 AV. ix , 2 , 22 ; [cf. Lat. {bitumen} ; Germ. {Kitt}.]
tura        1 mfn. quick , willing , prompt RV. AV. vi , 102 , 3 ; strong , powerful , excelling , rich , abundant RV. AV. vii , 50 , 2 TS. ii Kaus3. 91 ; m. N. of a
preceptor and priest with the patr. Ka1vasheya S3Br. ix f. xiv AitBr. Ta1n2d2yaBr. BhP. ; (%{tu4ram}) ind. see 2. %{tu4r}.
tura        2 mfn. hurt RV. viii , 79 , 2 ; cf. %{A-}.
turayA        mfn. going quickly RV. iv , 23 , 10.
turAyaNa        n. `" Tura's way "'N. of a sacrifice or vow (modification of the full-moon sacrifice) S3a1n3khBr. S3a1n3khS3r. Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vS3r. Pa1n2. MBh. xiii
; cursory reading Gal.
yajJaturaMga        m. a horse for a sñsacrifice Ma1lav.
RSabhaka        m. a bull Nigh. ; a kind of medicinal plant Sus3r. Car. Bhpr. ; N. of a king Katha1s. ;
go     m. the sign Taurus VarBr2S. xl f. VarBr2. Laghuj. ; the sun (cf. %{-putra}) Nir. ii , 6 and 14 ; the moon L. ; a kind of medicinal plant (%{RSabha}) L.
horse (fr. 1. %{gA}) Sa1y. on RV. i , 121 , 9 and iv , 22  
gopati        (%{go4-}) m. the lord of cowherds , leader , chief (a N. often applied to Indra) RV. AV. VS. i , 1 ; a bull MBh. xii , 4877 R. iii , iv VarBr2S. ; (hence) the
medicinal plant
R2ishabha L. ;
gorakSa        mfn. id. W. ; m. a cowherd L. ; a Gorkha or inhabitant of Nepa1l W. ; S3iva L. ; N. of an author (= %{-kSa-nAtha}) ; the orange tree L. ; the
medicinal plant
R2ishabha L.
RSabha        m. (fr. 2. %{RS} Un2. ii , 123) , a bull (as impregnating the flock ; cf. %{vRSabha} and %{ukSan}) RV. AV. VS. ChUp. BhP. &c. ; any male animal in
general S3Br. ; the best or most excellent of any kind or race (cf. %{puruSarSabha} , &c.) MBh. R. &c. ; the second of the seven notes of the Hindu1 gamut
(abbreviated into R2i)
; a kind of medicinal plant Sus3r. Bhpr.
yAj-Jatu-ra        m. (fr. %{yajJa-tura}) patr. of R2ishabha S3Br. ; N. of a Sa1man A1rshBr.
jatugeha        n. = %{gRha} q.v.
jatugRha        n. a house plastered with lac and other combustible substances

jAtya        mfn. ifc. = %{-tIya} , belonging to the family or caste of MBh. xiii R. ii , 50 , 18 Pan5cat. ; of the same family , related S3Br. i , 8 , 3 , 6 ; of a noble family
, noble Ragh. xvii , 4 ; of good breed R. ii , 45 , 14 ; legitimate , genuine , $ Mn. x , 5 MBh. v R. ii , 9 , 40 (said of gold) Sus3r. ;

Asura        1 mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{asura}) , spiritual , divine RV. VS. AV. ; ; a division of medicine (surgery , curing by cutting with instruments , applying the actual
cautery) ;

Varuna is chef of the Asura's
mAnuSa        or %{mAnuSa4} mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{manus}) belonging to mankind , human RV. &c. &c. ; favourable or propitious to men , humane RV. AV. ; m. (ifc. f.
%{A}) a man , human being (pl. the races of men , 5 in number) RV. &c. &c. ;
(scil. %{cikitsA}) , human medicine "' , a branch of medñmedicine , the administering
of drugs (opp. to
%{AsurI} and %{daivIcik-}) W.
manasA        1 f. N. of a partic. goddess (described as consisting of a particle of Prakr2iti and as daughter of Kas3yapa. sister of the serpent-king Ananta , wife
of the Muni
Jarat-ka1ru , mother of the Muni A1sti1ka and protectress of men from the venom of serpents ;
RSabhaka        m. a bull Nigh. ; a kind of medicinal plant Sus3r. Car. Bhpr. ; N. of a king Katha1s. ;
mAnasya        m. patr. fr. %{manas} g. %{gargA7di}.
mAnavya        m. patr. fr. %{manu} g. %{gargA7di} ; n. w.r. for %{mANvya}

mAnAyya        m. %{mAnAyyAyanI} f. g. %{gargA7di} and %{lohitA7di}.
aSTavarga        mfn. being in rows of eight each Ka1tyS3r. ; m. a class of eight principal medicaments (viz. R2ishabha , Jivaka , Meda1 , Maha1meda1 ,
R2iddhi , Vr2iddhi , Ka1koli , and Kshiraka1koli) L.
Oldenlandia is a cure for snake poision.
janeSTa      ; the Jatuka1 plant (Oldenlandia) L. ; the medicinal plant %{vRddhi} L. ; t
jatukRt        f. lac-maker "' , a kind of Oldenlandia (the lac insect forms its nest in this tree) Bhpr. v , 2 , 127.
vaJjulaka        m. a kind of plant BhP. (also %{-druma} Hariv.) ; a sort of bird R. ; (ika1) f. Oldenlandia Herbacea L.
vijjUlikA        f. a species of Oldenlandia L. (prob. w.r. for %{vaJjulikA}).
yAj-Jatu-ra  m. (fr. %{yajJa-tura}) patr. of R2ishabha S3Br. ; N. of a Sa1man A1rshBr

vijJAta        mfn. discerned , understood , known &c.
vijJAtR        mfn. one who knows , a knower , understander S3Br. MBh. &c. [961,2]
vyaJj        P.A1. %{-anakti} , %{-aGkte} , (A1.) to anoint thoroughly RV. ; to decorate , adorn , beautify ib. ; (P. A1.) to cause to appear , manifest , display RV.
&c. &c.:
ud-vRSabhayajJa        m. a particular sacrifice Comm. on Jaim. Comm. on Nya1yam.
yajJaturaMga        m. a horse for a sñsacrifice Ma1lav.

caraka        m. a wanderer , wandering religious student S3Br. xiv Pa1n2. 5-1 , 11 Lalit. i , 28 ; a spy Naish. iv , 116 ; a kind of ascetic VarBr2. xv , 1 ; a kind of
medicinal plant L. ; N. of a Muni and
physician (the Serpent-king S3esha , who was the recipient of the A1yur-veda ; once on visiting the earth and
finding it full of sickness he became moved with pity and determined to become incarnate as the son of a Muni for alleviating disease ; he was called Caraka
because he had visited the earth as a kind of spy or %{cara} ; he then composed a new book on medicine , based on older works of Agni-ves3a and other pupils
of A1treya Bhpr.) ; N. of a lexicographer ; m. pl. (cf. Pa1n2. 4-3 , 107) N. of a branch of the black Yajur-veda (the practises and rites-enjoined by which are
different in some respects from those in S3Br.) S3Br. iv La1t2y.v , 4 , 20 Sch. on VS. and S3Br. Va1yuP. i , 61 , 10 ; (%{I}) f. a kind of venomous fish Sus3r. v , 3
, 8 ; N. of an evil

ratnatraya        n. `" jñjewels-triad "' , the three jñjewels or excellent things (with Buddhists , viz. %{buddha} , %{dharma} and %{saMgha} ; or with Jainas , viz. %
{samyag-darzana} , %{
sñsaMgha-jJAna} and %{samyak-cAritra} ;

cAritra        m. (%{car} cf. %{zAmitra}) `" moving "'N. of a Marut Hariv. 11547 ; n. (= %{car-}) proceeding , manner of acting , conduct R. iii , iv Pan5cat. (ifc. f. %
{A}) ; good conduct , good character , reputation Hariv. 10204 Nal. R. &c. (`"
life in accordance with the 5 great vows "' Jain.) ; peculiar observance ,
peculiarity of customs or conditions W. ; a ceremony Buddh. L. ; (%{A}) f. the tamarind tree L.
upacaritavya        mfn. to be attended or waited upon Bhartr2. ; to be treated Car. ; to be respected or revered or treated with attention MBh. R. Mn. Pan5cat.
&c. ; (%{A}) f. service , attendance ;
attendance on a patient ; practice of medicine.
      mf(%{A})n. endless , boundless , eternal , infinite ; m. N. of Vishn2u ; of S3esha (the snake-god) ; of S3esha's brother Va1suki ; of Kr2ishn2a ; of his
brother Baladeva ; of S3iva ; of Rudra ; of one of the Vis3va-devas ; of the 14th Arhat , &c.
; the plant Sinduva1ra , Vitex Trifolia ; Talc ; the 23rd lunar
asterism , S3ravan2a ; a silken cord (tied round the right arm at a particular festival) ; the letter %{A} ; a periodic decimal fraction? (%{A}) f. the earth ; the
number one ; N. of Pa1rvati1 and of various females ,
the plant S3a1riva1 ; Periploca Indica or Asclepias Pseudosarsa or Asthmatica (the root of which
supplies a valuable medicine) ;

 m. N. of a race (said to have been descendants of Yadu ; they are described in the Pura1n2as as separated into 5 divisions , viz. the
Ta1lajan3ghas , Vi1ti-hotras , A1vantyas , Tun2d2ikeras , and Ja1tas ; they are , said to have overrun parts of India along with the S3akas or Scythian tribes)
MBh. R. Pur. &c. ; a king of the Haihayas (esp. applied to Arjuna Ka1rtavi1rya , who is said to have had a thousand arms ; see %{kArtavIrya}) ib. ; N. of a son of
Sahasrada Hariv. ; of a son of S3ata-jit Pur. ;
(?) of a medical author Cat.

m. N. of a people (regarded as degraded Kshatriyas and said to be "' descendants of Dravid2a ,
sons of Vr2ishabha-sva1min S3atr.)and of a district on the east coast of the Deccan Mn. Var. MBh. &c. ;
collect. N. for 5 peoples , viz. the A1ndhras , Karn2a1t2akas ,
Gurjaras ,Tailan3gas , and Maha1ra1sht2ras
(cf. %{dAviDa} below)  m. pl. the DñDra1vida people MBh. R. Pur. ; also collect. N. for the above 5
peoples ,

drAviDa mf(%{I})n. Dra1vidian , a Dra1vida MBh. Ra1jat. &c. ; m. pl. the DñDra1vida people MBh. R. Pur.
; also collect. N. for the above 5 peoples , and of the 5 chief DñDra1vida languages , Tamil , Telugu ,
Kanarese , Malaya1lam and Tulu ; m. sg. a patr. fr. Dravid2a S3atr. ;

nakula        mfn. (in spite of Pa1n2. 6-3 , 75 prob. not fr. %{na} + %{kula}) of a partic. colour (perhaps that of the ichneumon) TS. RPra1t. ; m. the Bengal
mungoose or Viverra Ichneumon (enemy of mice and of serpents from whose venom it protects itself by a medic. plant ; cf. %{nAkulI}) AV. MBh. &c. ;; of a Vedic
poet with the patr. Va1ma-deva (%{-vya}) or Vais3va1mitra (%{-lasya} %{vAmadevasya@pre7Gkha} m. N. of a Sa1man) A1rshBr. [524,1] ; of a physician (author
of a wk. on horses) Cat. ; (%{A}) f. N. of S3iva's wife L. ;

paunarvasava        mfn. relating to the physician Punar-vasu ; m. (with %{yuvan}) a student of medicine Hcar.

jayanta        mf(%{I})n. victorious S3is3. vi , 69 ; m. the moon L.; of R2ishabha's wife (received from Indra) BhP. v , 4 , 8 MatsyaP. vl , 26  the 12th night of
Punar-vasu Nirn2ayas. i , 391/392 ;

jIvanta        mfn. long-lived L. ; m. life L. ; a drug Un2. Sch. ; = %{-va@zAka} AV.xix , 39 , 3 ; N. of a man Pa1n2. 4-1 , 103 ; g. %{karNA7di} ; (%{I4}) f. N. of an
asterism Ma1nGr2. i , 14 ;
of a medicinal and edible plant AV. viii , 2 , 6 and 7 , 6 MBh. ii , 98 Sus3r. ; Cocculus cordifolius L. ; Prosopis spicigera or Mimosa
Suma L. ; = %{-va-priyA} L. ; a parasitical plant L. ; = %{DoDI} L.

jIvana        mf(%{i})n. vivifying , giving life , enlivening S3Br. ii , 3 , i , 10 MBh. (said of wind , the sun , &c. ; of S3iva , xiii , 1236) BhP. x Katha1s. ; m. a living
being W. ; wind L. ; a son L. ; the plant %{kSudraphalaka} L. ; the plant %{jIvaka} L. ; N. of the author of Ma1nasa-nayana ; n. life RV. i , 48 , 10 ; x , 161 , 1 AV.
S3Br. ix &c. ;

dhurya        mfn. (w.r. %{dhUrya}) fit o be harnessed , able to draw or bear (Pa1n2. 4-4 , 77) being at the head of , foremost , best AV. MBh. &c. ; eminently fit
for or distinguished by (comp.) Ba1lar. iii , 2/3 ; m. beast of burden , horse , bullock &c. Mn. MBh. &c. ; minister , charge d "' affaires W. (with %{mantrin} Katha1s.
ix , 14) ; leader , chief (cf. %{kula-}) MBh. &c. ;
a kind of medic. plant (= %{RSabha}) L. ; n. forepart of a pole R.
                                                                                                                                                      Isa-usha trikhanda    vasu=Ushas vasava
ukSan        %{A} m. an ox or bull (as impregnating the flock ; in the Veda especially as drawing the chariot of Ushas or dawn) RV. AV. TS. Ka1tyS3r. MBh. Kum.
&c. ; N. of the Soma (as sprinkling or scattering small drops) ; of the Maruts ; of the sun and Agni RV.
; one of the eight chief medicaments (%{RSabha}) L. ;
N. of a man ; (mfn.) large L. ; [cf. Zd. {ukhshan} ; Goth. {auhsa} and {auhsu} ; Armen. {es2n}.]
Ushas dawn vAsava    east    mf(%{I})n. (fr. 1. %{vasu}) relating or belonging to the Vasus
 uSas        %{As} f. (nom. pl. %{uSA4sas} and %{uSa4sas} ; instr. pl. %{uSa4dbhis} RV. i , 6 , 3 ; see Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 7-4 , 48) morning light , dawn , morning
(personified as the daughter of heaven and sister of the A1dityas and the night) RV. AV. S3Br. S3ak. &c. ; the evening light RV. x , 127 , 7 ; N. of a wife of Bhava
(= $) or Rudra VP. ; (%{uSA4sau} , %{-A4sA} , and %{-a4sA}) f. du. night and morning RV. VS. &c. ; (%{sI}) f. the end of day , twilight L. ; (%{as}) n. daybreak ,
dawn , twilight Un2. iv , 233 L.
(%{mRga4-}) n. N. of the
3rd (or 5th) Nakshatra
(q.v.) containing 3 stars
(one of which is $ Orionis ;
it is figured by an
antelope's head) AV.
Gr2S3rS. VarBr2S. ; mfn.
born under that
NakshñNakshatra Pa1n2.

trikhaNDa        the
inhabited earth as divided
into 3 portions
(%{iSustrikANDA}) f. `" the
threefold arrow "'N. of a
constellation (perhaps the girdle of
Orion) AitBr.
Research Paper
A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilisation
Authors:  Vasant Shinde,  Rick J Willis
A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC), discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an
important type not previously described.

The nine plates below I believe to be per-prescription's by a physician, that is proper weight and substance.
They are not seals but Print engravers, the substance is weighted by the tablet than printed on flat bark, like
the Kabul manuscript.
Om Namo Bhagavate Vasudevaya, in one tradition the Rishi is Narada wrote the mantra.  In poetry he is called a
Deva-gandharva or a Gandharva-ra1ja or simply Gandharva) ; of a son of Vis3va1-mitra MBh.
I believe the Gandharva's are from Ganadhara.

dvAdazapattraka        n. N. of a Yoga or partic. religious observance in which the 12 syllables
%{oM@namo@bhagavate@vAsudevAya} are connected with the
12 signs of the zodiac and with the 12 months Va1mP.

nArada        or %{nArada4} m. N. of a Rishi (a Ka1n2va or Ka1s3yapa , author of RV. viii , 13 ; ix , 104 ; 105 Anukr. ; as a
Devarshi often associated with Parvata and supposed to be a messenger between gods and men MBh. Hariv. Ka1v. &c. ;
among the 10 Praja1-patis as a son of Brahma1 Mn. i , 35

naradika        mfn. dealing in the substance called Narada ib.
nalada        (%{na4-}) m. or n. Nardostachys Jatamansi , Indian spikenard AV. Sus3r. &c. (also %{A} f. L. ; cf. %{narada}) ; the
root of Andropogon Muricatus Naish. (%{-tva} n. ib.)

kANvazAkhA        f. the Ka1n2va branch or school of the White Yajur-veda.
of one of the 7 sages under Manu Sa1varn2a ib.

nArAyaNa        m. (patr. fr. %{na4ra} q.v.) the son of the original Man and with Jainas as the 8th of the 9 black Va1sudevas
Ma1rgas3i1rsha ; (with %{cUrNa}) a partic. medicinal powder Bhpr. ; (with %{taila}) a medic. oil expressed from various plants

nArAca        m. (fr. ?) an iron arrow , any añarrow MBh. Ka1v. &c. (cf. %{ardha-}) ; water-elephant (= %{jale7bha}) L. ; a bad
or cloudy day (?) L. ; (%{I}) f. a goldsmith's scales ; n. a kind of metre Col. (cf. %{nar-}) ; a partic. medicament Car.
nArAcacUrNa        n. and N. of partic. medicaments (cf. above).
nArAcaghRta        and n. and þn. and þm. N. of partic. medicaments (cf. above).
nArAcarasa        m. N. of partic. medicaments (cf. above).
camasa       a
vessel used at
sacrifices for
drinking the Soma
, kind of flat dish
cup or ladle ;
N. of a
son of
R2ishabha BhP.
v , xi ;

Camsa is Patra
Twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a
tree with twelve branches.
Sangam period,
. 3rd - 1st
century BCE
vRSanAman        (of unknown
meaning) RV. ix , 97 , 54 (accord. to
Sa1y. %{vRSa} = %{varSaNa} , and
%{nAman} = %{namana}).
nakhaka        m. N. of a Na1ga-ra1ja
L.vyADAyudha        n. Unguis
Odoratus L.
vyAghranakha        m. a tiger's claw
W. ; Tithymalus or Euphorbia
Antiquorum L. ; m.n. a root or a partic.
root L. ; m. or n. a kind of perfume ,
Unguis Odoratus Sus3r. VarBr2S.
Bhpr. ; (in this sense also i1 f. W.) ; n.
= next L.
vyAlanakha        m. a kind of herb
(Unguis Odoratus) L.
Kabul manuscript
Tell Asmar Cylinder seal
University of Chicago Press, no. 642.
Museum Number: IM14674 3.4 cm.
high. Glazed steatite. ca. 2250 - 2200
Panchala Kingdom, Bhumimitra,
Copper double karshapana, c. 1st
century BCE
Weight: 15.52 gm., Diam: 25 mm.
Deity (Bhumi?) on a pedestal /
Three Panchala symbols, Brahmi
legend below: Bhumimitrasa
Ref: MAC 4545