vaizAkha m. (fr. %{vi-zAkhA}) one of the 12 months constituting the Hindu1 lunar year (answering to April-May and in
some places , with Caitra , reckoned as beginning the year) S3Br. La1t2y. MBh. &c. ; a churning-stick S3is3. xi , 8 ;
the seventh year in the 12 years "' cycle of Jupiter VarBr2S.  

zukla mf(%{A})n. (later form of %{zukra} , for which it is sometimes w.r.) bright , light (with %{pakSa} = %{zukla-p-}
q.v.) Ka1tyS3r. Mn. MBh. &c. ; white , whitish AitBr. &c. &c. ; pure , spotless , unsullied MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; m. the
bright half of a lunar month or any day in it Gr2S3rS. Mn. MBh. &c. ; the month Vais3a1kha BhP. (Sch.) ; white (the
colour) L.  

mAdhava mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{madhu} ; f. %{A} only in %{mAdhavA} [= %{madhavyA}] %{tanUH} Pa1n2. 4-4 , 129 Sch.)
relating to spring , vernal Hariv. Vikr. Katha1s. ; belonging or peculiar to the descendants of Madhu i.e. the
Ya1davas Hariv. ;
vizvavistA f. N. of the 15th day of the light half of the month Vais3a1kha L.

vizvambhara mf(%{A4}) n. all-bearing , all-sustaining AV. S3Br. Ca1n2. (also applied to the Supreme Being) ; fire S3Br. KaushUp. ; a kind of scorpion or similar animal Sus3r. Car. ;

vizvambharaka m. a kind of scorpion or similar animal VarBr2S.

vRzcana m. (fr. %{vrazc}) a scorpion L.  

vRzcika m. a scorpion , &c. &c. ; the zodiacal sign Scorpio VarBr2S. Pur. ; the month when the sun is in Scorpio W. ; a kind of caterpillar covered with bristles L. ; a sort of beetle found in
cow-dung W. ; a centipede ib. ; N. of various plants (Boerhavia Procumbens = %{madana} &c.) L. ; (%{A}) f. Boerhavia Procumbens L. ; (%{I}) f. a female scorpion L. ; (%{A} or %{I}) f. an
ornament for the toes Gal.
vRzcikAlI f. a line of scorpions ib. ; Tragia Involucrata L.
vRzcikarAzi m. the zodiacal sign Scorpio Va1s.
vRzcikeza m. `" ruler of the (zodiacal sign) Scorpio "' N. of the planet Mercury VarBr2S.



ambara n. circumference , compass , neighbourhood RV. viii , 8 ,14 ; (ifc. f. %{A}) clothes , apparel , garment
MBh. &c. ; cotton L. ; sky , atmosphere , ether Naigh. MBh. &c. ; (hence) a cipher Su1ryas. ; N. of the tenth
astrological mansion VarBr2. ; the lip ; saffron L. ; a perfume (Ambra) L. ; N. of a country MatsyaP. ; (a1s) m.
pl.N. of a people VarBr2S.

ambudaiva n. `" having the waters as deity "'N. of the astrological mansion Purvasha1dha1 VarBr2S.
ambudeva or n. `" having the waters as deity "'N. of the astrological mansion Purvasha1dha1 VarBr2S.
ambarapuSpa n. `" a flower in the sky "' , anything impossible (cf. %{abhra-puSpa}.)
ambarazaila m. a high mountain (touching the sky).

ambarISa %{as} , %{am} m. n. a frying pan TS. v , KstySr. ; m. N. of a hell Jain. ; remorse L. ; war , battle L. ; a
young animal , colt L. ; the sun R. v , 3 , 5 , sky , atmosphere Comm. on Un2. ; the hog-plum plant (Spondias
Magnifera) L. ; N. of a Ra1jarshi (son of the king Vr2ishagir , and composer of the hymns RV. i , 100 and ix ,
98) RV. i , 100 , 17 , of a descendant of Manu Vasvasvata and son of Na1bha1ga (celebrated for his devotion
to Vishn2u) MBh. &c.N. of a Ra1jarshi (descendant of Sagara and ancestor of Das3aratha) R. ; N. of a son of
the patriarch Pulaha Va1yuP. &c. ; N. of Siva L. ; of Vishn2u L. ; of Gan2es3a Katha1s.

ambaSTha m. (fr. %{amba} and %{stha}? Pa1n2. 8-3 , 97) N. of a country and of its inhabitants MBh.
VarBr2S. &c. ; of the king of that country MBh. vii , 3399 seqq.  an elephant-driver BhP.) Mn. x Ya1jn5. &c. ;
(%{A}) f. Jaiminum Auriculatum L. ;

ambA f. (Ved. voc. %{a4mbe} [VS.]or %{amba} [RV.] , in later Sanskrit %{amba} only , sometimes a mere
interjection A1s3vS3r.) , a mother , good woman (as a title of respect) ; N. of a plant ; N. of Durga1 (the wife of
S3iva) ; N. of an Apsaras L. ; N. of a daughter of a king of Ka1si MBh. ; N. of one of the seven Kr2ttika1s TS.
Ka1t2h. TBr. ; a term in astrol. (to denote the fourth condition which results from the conjunction of planets?).
In the South Indian languages , %{ambA} is corrupted into %{ammA} , and is often affixed to the names of
goddesses , and females in general [Germ. {Amme} , a nurse ; Old Germ. {amma} , Them. {ammo7n} ,
{ammU7n}] ,

ambara n. circumference , compass , neighbourhood RV. viii , 8 ,14 ; (ifc. f. %{A}) clothes , apparel , garment
MBh. &c. ; cotton L. ; sky , atmosphere , ether Naigh. MBh. &c. ; (hence) a cipher Su1ryas. ; N. of the tenth
astrological mansion VarBr2. ; the lip ; saffron L. ; a perfume (Ambra) L. ; N. of a country MatsyaP. ; (a1s) m.
pl.N. of a people VarBr2S.
39 (cap) ambara n. garment, (also m.) sky; abl. {-tas}.

asaMbAdha mf(%{A})n. unconfined , spacious , wide , large AV. xii , 1 , 2 ChUp. MBh. &c. ;

From Sam-Barana this word became the spelling for Si-va.
sitAmbara mf(%{A})n. clothed in whñwhite garments S3a1rn3gP. ; m. `" a monk wearing whñwhite
gñgarments "'N. of one of the two great divisions of Jaina monks (= %{zvet-} q.v.) L.
The VRATYA TRADITION
In Atharva Veda 15th chapter there is a description of Vratyas who are said to be unversed in Vedic tradition and ritual and
belonging to Licchavi, Natha and Malla clans.
Licchavi (also Lichchhavi, Lichavi) was an ancient kingdom in Nepal, which existed in the Kathmandu Valley The language of
Licchavi inscriptions is Sanskrit, and the particular script used is closely related to official Gupta scripts, suggesting that the other
major kingdoms of the Classical Period to the south were a significant cultural influence. This was likely through Mithila - the
northern part of modern Bihar, India. The term 'Licchavi' probably derives from Rikshavi possibly Sanskritized to Rkshvavati. Riksha
or Rksha in Sanskrit means Star.
The clans of Licchavi, Natha and Malla.
Here Rishabha is R-Ikshva and Malla is Mallinatha and Natha was Parsvanatha founder of the Nirgrantha Kumaraputtas, Kumara is
the name of Mallinatha. Krishna became related the family of Ugrasena and Neminatha the Twenty-second Tirthankar.  Krishna
moves to Dvarka, Krishna's wive Satyabhuma Moves to Bhogavati, I belive this is what changed these two places are the same and
Home of Mallinatha. King of Varanasi was Parsvanatha while Neminatha came from Sauripura and or Suryapur on the Yamuna river
same as Mathura of the Yamuna river, while Mathura is the capital of Sura-sena country.
Jain sources have Neminatha's family as Harivamza from Mahadeva-Harivamza the author same as Harivamza-kavi and Kavi was
son of Rishabha the solar race Bhrigu and Sukra religions. All three related to Rishabha; Neminatha, Mallinathe and Parsvanatha.

Dr. Guseva, the Russian scholar in her ethnological monograph Jainism states

" Ancient Indian literature contains indications of the deep antiquity of the sources of Jainism and it also indicates that the Ksatriyas
and ascetics from Vratyas i.e. non-Aryans played noticeable role in establishing non-Vedic teachings.

In Atharva Veda 15th chapter there is a description of Vratyas who are said to be unversed in Vedic tradition and ritual and
belonging to Licchavi, Natha and Malla clans.

Dr. Guseva, the Russian scholar in her ethnological monograph Jainism states

" Ancient Indian literature contains indications of the deep antiquity of the sources of Jainism and it also indicates that the Ksatriyas
and ascetics from Vratyas i.e. non-Aryans played noticeable role in establishing non-Vedic teachings.

From the dialogue between Udaka and Gautama, it appears that the followers of Parsvanatha and the disciples of Mahavira were
respectively known as the Nirgrantha Kumaraputtas and the Nirgrantha Nathaputtas.


In the Buddhist scriptures, there is a reference to the four vows (Chaturyama Dharma) of Parsvanatha. The Buddhists could not
have used the term Chaturyama Dharma for the Nigganthas unless they had heard it from the followers of Parsvanatha. This proves
the correctness of the Jaina tradition that the followers of Parsvanatha, in fact, existed at the time of Mahavira.

According to Svetambaras, Parshva was married to Prabhavati, the daughter of Prasenajit the king of Kaushala. But according to
Digambaras, Parshva was unmarried. He lived for thirty years in great splendor and happiness as a householder, and then,
forsaking all his wealth, became an ascetic. After 84 days of intense meditation, he attained the perfect knowledge of a Tirthankar,
and from that time, he lived for about seventy years in the state of most exalted perfection and sainthood. At last, he attained
NirvaaNa (liberation) in 777 B.C. on the summit of Mount Sammed shikhara, now named Parsvanatha hill after him.

A man of practical nature, Parsvanatha was remarkable for his organizing capacity. He organized the Sangha (Organization)
efficiently for the propagation of Jainism. He is said to have visited many cities for the dissemination of Jainism.
Neminatha is the same as Aristanemi author of hymn of RV. prior to Krishna and a Gandharva Jain as a
Muni Kazyapi the race of Garuda that is always represented over the Naga's.


ariSTanemi (%{a4riSTa-}) mfn. the felly of whose wheel is unhurt (N. of Ta1rkshya) RV. , (%{is}) m. N. of
a man (named together with Ta1rkshya) VS. xv , 18 , (said to be the author of the hymn RV. x , 178)
RAnukr. ; N. of various princes MBh. VP. ; of a Gandharva BhP. ; of the twenty-second of the twenty
four Jaina Tirtham2karas of the present Avasarpin2i.
2 kAzyapi m. id.N. of Ta1rkshya Katha1s. xc , 110 ; of Garud2a L. ; of Arun2a L.  
3 kSIrAbdhi m. = %{-ra-dhi} VP. Katha1s. xxii , 186 ; %{-ja} m. the Amr2ita or any of the precious objects
produced at the churning of the ocean L. ; the moon L. ; S3esha L. ; Ta1rkshya L. ; (%{A}) f. Lakshmi1
(cf. %{-ra-sAgara-sutA}) L. ; (%{am}) n. sea-salt L. ; a pearl L. ; %{-tanayA} f. = %{-jA} L. ; %{-putrI} f. id.
Gal. ; %{-mAnuSI} f. id. L.
4 tArkSya m. N. of a mythical being (originally described as a horse with the epithet %{a4riSTa-nemi}
[RV. i , 89 , 6 ; x , 178 , 1 Naigh. i , 14 Kaus3. 73] , later on taken to be a bird [RV. v , 51 , interpol.
A1s3vS3r. x , 7] and identified with Garud2a [MBh. Hariv. &c.] or called his elder brother [L.] or father
[BhP. vi , 6 , 2 and 21 ; see also %{-putra}] ; mentioned with Arisht2a-nemi VS. xv , 18 ; with
Arisht2a-nemi , Garud2a , Arun2a and A1run2i as offspring of Kas3yapa by Vinata1 MBh. i , 2548 and
4830 Hariv. 12468 and 14175 ; called a Yaksha VP. ii , 10 , 13 ; a Muni with the N. Arisht2a-nemi MBh.
iii , 12660 and 12665 ; xii , 10615 ; pl. a class of demi-gods grouped with the Gandharvas , Yakshas ,
and Ca1ran2as R. i , 16 , 9) ; N. of the hymn RV. x , 178 (ascribed to Ta1rkshya Arisht2anemi)
A1s3vS3r. ix Sa1n3khS3r. xi f. La1t2y. i ; a horse Naigh. i , 14 ; a cart L. ; a bird MBh. vi , 71 Sus3r. iv ,
28 , 5 ; a snake L. ; = %{-prasava} , vi , 51 , 19 (%{-kSa} ed.) ; a sort of antidote , v , 5 , 66 ; gold L. ; =
%{netrA7Jca@keza} Npr. ; S3iva ; N. of a man Pravar. ii , 3 , 6 (A1p. and A1s3v.) ; pl. N. of a people
MBh. ii , 1871 ; n. = %{-ja} Sus3r. iv , 9 , 45.
5 tArkSyAyaNabhakta mfn. inhabited by the Ta1rkshya1yan2as g. %{aiSukAry-Adi}.
6 vaipazcita m. (fr. %{vipaz-cit}) patr. of Ta1rkshya A1s3vS3r.  
7 vaipazyata mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{vi-pazyat}) belonging or peculiar to a wise man Hcar. ; (%{-ta4}) m. patr.
of Ta1rkshya S3Br. S3a1n3khS3r.  
8 zalabha m. (cf. %{zarabha}) a grass-hopper , locust (fabled to be the children of Pulastya or of
Ta1rkshya and Ya1mini1) , a kind of moth (such as is attracted by a lighted candle?) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ;
N. of a Deva-gandharva MBh. ; of an Asura ib. ; (%{I}) f. N. of one of the Ma1tr2is attendant on Skanda
ib.

ariSTanemi (%{a4riSTa-}) mfn. the felly of whose wheel is unhurt (N. of Ta1rkshya) RV. , (%{is}) m. N. of
a man (named together with Ta1rkshya) VS. xv , 18 , (said to be the author of the hymn RV. x , 178)
RAnukr. ; N. of various princes MBh. VP. ; of a Gandharva BhP. ; of the twenty-second of the twenty
four Jaina Tirtham2karas of the present Avasarpin2i.

cakranemi f. `" wheel-felly "'N. of one of the mothers attending on Skanda MBh. ix , 2623.

gabhastinemi m. `" the felly of whose wheel is sharp-edged (?) "'N. of Kr2ishn2a MBh. xii , 1512.

kAlanemi m. `" felly of the wheel of time "'N. of an Asura (slain by Kr2ishn2a , identified with Kan6sa)
MBh. Hariv. &c. [278,3] ; N. of a Rakshas R. vi , 82 , 64 ; N. of a son of the Bra1hman Yajn5a-soma
Katha1s. x , 7 ; %{-purANa} n. N. of a legendary work ; %{-ripu} , %{-han} , %{-hara} , %{-(nemy-)ari} m.
`" destroyer of Ka1la-nemi "'N. of Kr2ishn2a or Vishn2u L.

nemi f. ( %{nam}) the felly of a wheel (also %{-mI} L.) , any circumference or edge or rim (ifc. `"
encircled "' or `" surrounded by "') RV. &c. &c. ; a windlass or framework for the rope of a well (also
%{-mI}) L. ; a thunderbolt L. ; the foundation of a wall Gal. (cf. %{ne7ma}) ; m. Dalbergia Ougeinensis L.
; N. of a Daitya BhP. ; of a Cakra-vartin Buddh. (cf. %{nimi}) ; of 22nd Arhat of present Ut-sarpin2i L.

nemighoSa m. the noise of (the felly of) a wheel , the din of a carriage Mr2icch.

pradhi m. the felly of a wheel (also pl.) RV. &c. &c. ; orb , disc (of the moon) RV. x , 138 , 6 ; a segment
S3ulbas. ; %{-maNDala} n. the circumference of (the felly of) a wheel MW. ; %{-dhy-anIka} n. the centre
of a segment S3ulbas. ; a well L.  

pramaNDala n. (prob.) the felly of a wheel MBh.  

rathAGga n. any part of a chñchariots Gr2S. MBh. ; a chñchariots-wheel MaitrS. Ka1v. Sa1h. ; a discus
(esp. that of Kr2ishn2a or Vishn2u) MBh. Hariv. BhP. ; a potter's wheel MBh. ; m. the Anas Casarca or
ruddy goose (= %{cakra-vAka} q.v.) Vikr. Ra1jat. ; N. of a poet Sadukt. ; (%{A}) f. see %{rathA7hvA} ;
(%{I}) f. a species of medicinal plant L. ; %{-tulyA7hvayana} m. `" having the same name as a
chñchariots-wheel "' , the above bird Hariv. ; %{-dhvani} m. the rattling of chñchariots-wheels Ragh. ;
%{-nAmaka} (L.) or %{-nAman} (Ka1v. Katha1s.) m. = %{-ga-tulyA7hvayana} above ; %{-nemi} f. the
circumference or felly of a chñchariots-wheel S3ak. ; %{-pANi} m. `" having a discus in his hand "'N. of
Vishn2u Hariv. BhP. &c. ; %{-bhartR} m. `" discus-bearer "' ib. MW. ; %{-zroNi-bimbA} f. having circular
or rounded buttocks MW. ; %{-saMjJa} (R.) or %{-sA7hva} (MBh.) , or %{-gA7hva} (R.) or %{-gA7hvaya}
(L.) m. = %{-ga-tulyA7hvayana} above ; %{-gA7hvayana} mfn. having the name `" wheel "' ; (with
%{dvija}) m. the ruddy goose R. ; %{-gin} m. `" one who possesses a discus "'N. of Vishn2u , Pracan2d2.
The Rig Veda and Yajur Veda,  
mention Rishabhadeva and
Aristanemi.  Neminatha was
Aristanemi.  The Rig Veda and Yajur
Veda are prior to Krishna. The Jain
tradition refers to Rishabhadeva as
Maha-Vratya, to suggest he was the
great leader of the Vratyas.Yet
according to the Jain tradition
Rishabhadeva is the first Tirthankara
of the present age (avasarpini); and,
Aristanemi is the twenty-second
Tirthankara.  According to Atharva
Veda, Vratya is a srotriya, a student of
the scriptures, (of at least one
recession), and a learned person
faithful to his vows (vratas). In
summary, the passages ask:



” Let the king , to whose house the
Vratya who possesses such knowledge
comes as a guest , honor him as
superior to himself, disregarding his
princely rank or his kingdom.

Let him, to whose house the Vratya
possessing such knowledge comes as
a guest, rise up of his own accord to
meet him, and say “Vratya, where didst
thou pass the night? Vratya, here is
water; let it refresh thee .Vratya let it
be as thou pleasest. Vratya, as thy
wish is so let be it done.”

[From Hymns of the Atharva Veda, by
Ralph T.H. Griffith…Hymn x and xi of
Book 15]
http://www.sacred-texts.
com/hin/av/av15011.htm
vaizikha mfn. (fr. %{vi-zikhA}) g.
%{chattrA7di}.  

vaizvadha mfn. (fr. %{vizva-dhA}) g.
%{chattrA7di}.  
akSayatRtIyA f. N. of a festival (the third day of the bright half of Vais3a1kha , which is
the first day of the Satya-yuga , and secures permanency to actions then performed).
satyayuga n. the first or Kr2ita age Ka1v. ; %{-gA7dyA} f. the third day of the light half
of Vais3a1kha (on which the commencement of the Kr2ita-yuga is celebrated) MW.
11 sAvitrIvrata or n. a partic. fast (kept by women on the fifth day of the second half of
Vais3a1kha , or of the dark half of Jyaisht2ha , to preserve them from widowhood)
Hariv.
12 sAvitrIvrataka n. a partic. fast (kept by women on the fifth day of the second half of
Vais3a1kha , or of the dark half of Jyaisht2ha , to preserve them from widowhood)
Hariv.  
Nigganthas means unattached, without possessions, an ancient name for the Jain community.

Buddhist texts refer to the existence of large numbers of Nigganthas (unattached ones) who followed the
Samvara.

Samvara = Sambara = this word became Siva
Uma-swati also known as Umaswami was the chief disciple of Acharya Kundakunda.[1] He is the author of Tattvartha
Sutra (that which is), which is one of the most important Jain text. It is likely that at this time no clear division of the Jain
community had emerged, and thus both sects may be right in claiming him. He was conferred with the title of Acharya.

The early Jainism divided between those that ware clothing and those that do not after the Uma-swati that was the time
of Mallanatha.  In the time of Mallanatha you have six or seven kings in the fashion of Rishabha as teachers and
reformers, there religion goes to Mesopotamia Parsvanatha's seven layers of Hell.  Neminatha also his name has roots
prior to Krishna.  

शिरीष
śirīṣa [ zirISa ]

m. Acacia Sirissa ( n. its flower ) cf. ṢaḍvBr. etc.

m. pl. N. of a village cf. Pat. on cf. Pāṇ. 1-2, 51