The Hurrians had a reputation in metallurgy. The Sumerians borrowed their copper
terminology from the Hurrian vocabulary. Copper was traded south to Mesopotamia
from the highlands of Anatolia. The Khabur Valley had a central position in the metal
trade, and copper, silver and even tin were accessible from the Hurrian-dominated
countries Kizzuwatna and Ishuwa (horse Sanskrit asva) situated in the Anatolian
highland.
The Hurrians adopt Sanskrit words for technical terms related to the horse.  Hurrian.
tab‑i-ri ‘caster, (copper)smith’ > Sumerian. tibira, tabira ‘sculptor,’ scil. ‘metal furniture-
maker / craftsman working in metal and wood.  non-native Sumerian word tabira
‘metallurgy’, which has obvious and strong connections with the following set of Hurrian
words: tab ‘to melt (metal)’, tabiri ‘metal-melter’ and tabrenni (copper)smith’.

Sanskrit tambA (fr. %{tAmrA})  
tAmraguhA f. N. of a mythical cave Ka1ran2d2. xi.
guha m. E. of Skanda & Civa. f. {gu3hA} = prec. + cave, pit, mine, fig. the heart. Instr.
{gu3hA} in secret, secretly; w. {kR & dhA} conceal, remove.
tAmragarbha n. sulphate of copper L.
tAmraja mf(%{A})n. made of copper VarYogay. vi , 4 ; %{-jA7kSa} m. `" copper-
eyed "'N. of a son of Kr2ishn2a by Satya-bha1ma1 Hariv. 9184.
tAmraka m. N. of a Gandharva Gal. ; n. copper Ya1jn5. i , 296 VarBr2S. civ , 15 ; (%
{ikA}) f. (= %{-mrI}) a kind of clepsydra L. ; Abrus precatorius L.
tAmrakaNTaka m. `" red-thorned "' , a kind of Acacia Npr.
tAmrakAra m. a copper-smith L.
tAmrakuTTa m. = %{-kAra} R. (G) ii , 90 , 25 ; (%{I}) f. a female copper-smith Para1s3. ,
Paddh.
tAmrakuTTa m. coppersmith (f. {I}).
tAmracUDa mfn. red-crested (a cock) MBh. iii , ix [443,2] ; m. a cock Sus3r. iv , vi
VarBr2S. lxxxviii , 44 Das3. ; Blumea lacera L. ; = %{-daka} PSarv. Mantram. xix ; N. of
a Pari-vra1jaka Pan5cat. ii , 1 , 0/1 ; (%{A}) f. N. of one of the mothers attending on
Skanda MBh. ix , 2636 ; %{-bhairava} m. a form of Bhairava.
Sumerain Tibra (hand) Hand was prior
tAmracUDa a. red-crested; m. cock.
tAmracUDaka m. a particular position of the hand.
kuTilaka mfn. bent , curved , crisped Pan5cat.  a tool used by a blacksmith Pa1n2. 4-4 ,
18 Ka1s3.

tAmra  Copper and tin kuTTa  a black smith

(mwd)
tamara n. tin L.  
Tamil  (otl)
tarA  01 alloy of 8 parts of copper to 5 of tin, used for making metal vessels
kuTila mf(%{A})n. bent , crooked , curved , round , running in curved lines , crisped ,
curled Ka1tyS3r. MBh. &c. ;
the metal "tin"

Related words for this metal are found in almost all Germanic languages, such as
German Zinn, Swedish tenn, and Old English tin (the source of the Modern English
word). Together, these Germanic words suggest the reconstruction of a Proto-Germanic
word *tinam, "tin," . Latin has a vaguely similar-sounding word for tin, stagnum (also
spelled stannum), that may have been borrowed from a Celtic source. These facts
suggest that the Germanic word for tin may originate in a pre-Indo-European.
Greek tin = tenekes
language of Western Europe.
stannum + tenn = tinam = Tama

Sumerian KU (g),AN.A (k)
Akkadian ANAKU
Hebrew 'ANAK
Arabic 'ANUK
Armenian ANAG
Sanskrit NAGA
nAga m. (prob. neither fr. %{na-ga} nor fr. %{nagna}) a snake , (esp.) Coluber Naga
S3Br. MBh. &c. tin
nAgaja n. `" born "' , red lead , tin L.
nAgajIvana n. tin L. ; %{-zatru} m. foe of tin "' , orpiment L.
nAgatamanI f. = %{-yaSTi} L.

tAmraka m. N. of a Gandharva Gal. ; n. copper Ya1jn5. i , 296 VarBr2S
Hittite ; dankuli "tin"
originally dark  Hittite ; dankui 'dark'
OHG ; tunkal 'dark'
German ; dunkel
timira mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{tamar} [Old Germ. {demar}] = %{ta4mas}) dark , gloomy MBh.
vi , 2379 R. vi , 16 , 104  
tamra mf(%{A4})n. oppressing , darkening , x , 73 , 5.  
tAmradhUmra mf(%{A})n. dark-red AV. x , 2 , 11.
tAmraratha mfn. having a dark red carriage TA1r. i , 12 , 4.
tAmravarNa mfn. copper-coloured , darkred TA1r.i , 12 , 4 MBh. i ; = %{-rNaka} L. ; = %
{-parNa} q.v. ; see %{-pakSa} ; (%{A}) f. the China rose L. ; (%{I}) f. the blossom of
sesamum W.
tAmraka m. N. of a Gandharva Gal. ; n. copper Ya1jn5. i , 296 VarBr2S
tAmasakIlaka m. pl. (in astron.) N. of particular Ketus VarBr2S. iii , 7 ; xi , 22.
tAmrazAsana n. an edict (or grant &c.) inscribed on copper Das3. ii , 48.


taijasa mf(%{I})n. originating from or consisting of light (%{te4jas}) , bright , brilliant S3Br.
xiv Ma1n2d2Up. MBh. &c. ; consisting of any shining substance (as metal) , metallic
A1s3vGr2. Gaut. Mn. Ka1tyS3r. Sch.  ; n. metal L. ; vigour W. ;  %{-sA7vartanI} , %{-
tinI} f. a crucible L.  

tij cl. 1. %{te4jate} (%{-ti} Dha1tup. xxiii , 2 ; p. %{te4jamAna} ; Ved. inf. %{te4jase})
to be or become sharp RV. i , 55 , 1 ; iii , 2 , 10 and 8 , 11 (%{te4tijAna} , `" sharp "' VS.
v , 43) ; to sharpen , x , 138 , 5: Caus. %{tejayati} id. Dha1tup. xxxii , 109 ; to stir up ,
excite R. iii , 31 , 36 Ragh. ix , 38: Desid. %{ti4tikSate} (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 5 ; 1. pl. %{-
kSmahe} MBh. v , 3427 ; fut. %{-kSiSyate} S3Br. iii ; ep. also P. e.g. p. %{-kSat}
BhP. iii) `" to desire to become sharp or firm "' , to bear with firmness , suffer with
courage or patience , endure RV. ii , 13 , 3 ; iii , 30 , 1 AV. viii &c.: Intens. %{te4tikte}
(Pa1n2. 7-4 , 65 ; p. %{-tijAna} see above) to sharpen RV. iv , 2 3 , 7 ; [cf. $ ; Lat. {dis-
tinguo} , &c.]

COPPER svarNaja n. `" gold-produced "' , the metal tin L.
svarNarIti f. gold-like brass , bell metal L.
svarNaja n. `" gold-produced "' , the metal tin L.
svarNavaGga m. a partic. preparation made of tin L.

svar = Sumerian Sivar Sibar

Sumerian KAxUD.BAR (or) UDxKA.BAR (or) SI.BAR
Latvian varš (pronounced "varsh"), dim. VARiņš
Lithuanian varis viz. varias
Old Prussian wargien
Latvian svars "weight" < *sa-VARS
Akkadian SIPARRU Hebrew SEPER
Arabic SIFRun

Sumerian URUDU ? ("copper, copper colored?)
Latvian RUDU- "copper colored"
Latvian  RUDVARIS (var. RUDU VARA )




Sumerian
Ur III Dynasty fell after an Elamite invasion in 2004/1940 BC
Akkadian era 2334 B.C.E. — circa 2154 B.C.E
tibira    [SCULPTOR] (82x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. tibira "sculptor" Akk. qurqurru
Nippur (Sumerian: Nibru, often logographically recorded as ������, EN.LÍLKI, "Enlil City;"[1]
Akkadian: Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Sumerian cities.
[citation needed] It was the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god Enlil, the
"Lord Wind," ruler of the cosmos, subject to An alone. Nippur was located in modern
Nuffar in Afak, Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate, Iraq.
tibira  LEX/Old Babylonian/Nippur tibira# OB Nippur Lu 674; [[tibira]] = = URUDU.
NAGAR = gu-ur-gu-ru-um OB Diri Nippur 165. LEX/Old Babylonian/unknown [[tibira]] = =
[DUB].NAGAR# = ku-ur-ku-ru-um OB Diri "Oxford" 571. ELA/ED IIIb/Nippur 2(aš@c)
tibira OSP 1, 137 o iii 2. ELA/Old Akkadian/Nippur [x] tibira-[e] OSP 2, 128 o i 8; tibira-e
gu7-de3 OSP 2, 142 5. ELA/Ur III/Drehem 1(diš)-še3 sag!-bi šu tibira#-a bi2-ra-a MVN
13, 127 10; 1(diš) tibira PDT 1, 179 5; 3(diš) tibira 1(u) gin2-ta PDT 1, 624 2; mu-DU e-la-
la tibira SET 296 3. ELA/Ur III/Girsu šu-diškur tibira alan# damar-dsuen dim2-ma CT 07,
16 BM 017765 o ii 21; tibira-me DAS 085 11; tibira-bi 3(diš)-am3 DAS 183 16. ELA/Ur
III/Umma ša3-gal tibira MVN 13, 276 4; igi dšara2-a-mu-DU-e tibira-še3 Nebraska 63 6;
igi inim-dšara2 tibira Nebraska 63 7; 4(diš) gin2 lu2-dnin-šubur tibira OrSP 06, 60 Wengler
48 6; ša3-gal tibira-e-ne Syracuse 407 5; 3(diš) al-la tibira TCL 5, 6166 o ii 4. ELA/Ur
III/Ur sa-du11 tibira-ne UET 3, 0117 6; [...] tibira UET 3, 1474 1; 1(diš) ba-an-zi-ge tibira
UET 3, 1475 1. ELA/Early Old Babylonian/unknown giri3 lu2-dda-mu tibira BIN 09, 260
4. unknown/Ur III/Girsu 1(ban2) kaš 1(ban2) 1(diš) sila3 zi3 tibira-bi 2(diš) BM Messenger
180 3; 3(diš) sila3 tibira alan lugal SAT 1, 063 2. unknown/Ur III/Lagash mu nin-a-na
tibira-še3 Rochester 219 4. unknown/Ur III/Umma 4(barig) 3(ban2) še-ba tibira#
Princeton 1, 289 10.



Sumerian words for copper and Smith prior to 2300 BC.

adhal [COPPER] wr. ad-hal "copper" Akk. erû

armatum [~DOOR] (7x: Ur III) wr. urudar-ma-tum; ar-ma-tum "a door part" Akk. armatu

bulugKINgur [LANCET] (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. bulug-KIN-gur4 "lancet" Akk. marşadu

nun [OBJECT] (4x: Old Babylonian) wr. nun "a metal object" Akk. nunnu

urud [COPPER] (992x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian, unknown) wr. urud; urud2 "copper" Akk. erû

uš [VESSEL] wr. uš15 "a copper vessel" Akk. uššu

UŠLAGABU [OBJECT] wr. uruduUŠ.|LAGAB×U| "a copper object"

zermušku [WORKER] (4x: ED IIIa) wr. zermuškux(|TAK4.ALAN|); urudzermušku "metal
worker, copper smith" Akk. qurqurru
dinig [KILN] wr. dinig; dinig3; di-ni-ig "smith, metalworker; kiln, furnace; air vent" Akk.
kūru; nappašu; nappāhu

kugdim [SMITH] (227x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old
Babylonian) wr. kug-dim2 "gold or silver smith" Akk. kutīmu

namsimug [SMITH] (3x: Old Babylonian) wr. nam-simug "the craft of the smith"

saĝĝasimug [SMITH] (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. saĝĝa-simug "chief smith"

simug [SMITH] (396x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Ebla, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian,
Old Babylonian) wr. simug "smith, metalworker" Akk. nappāhu

simuggal [SMITH] "chief smith"

simuggal [SMITH] (9x: Old Akkadian) wr. simug-gal; simuggalx(|GAL.UMUM|); simug
"head smith"

zermušku [WORKER] (4x: ED IIIa) wr. zermuškux(|TAK4.ALAN|); urudzermušku "metal
worker, copper smith" Akk. qurqurru
1. to burn, fire (13x/100%)
~ LEX/Old Babylonian/Sippar [[tab]] = = = ha-ma-[ţu2-um] MSL 14, 122-127 09 492.
unknown/Old Babylonian/unknown [[tab]] = = = şa-ra-pu MSL 09, 124-137 vii
461; [[tab]] = = = ha-ma-ţu2 MSL 09, 124-137 vii 462.

See:bappir ud tab.

2. to dye (red)               See ETCSL: tab2=to burn.
TAK.ALAN [CRAFTSMAN] wr. |TAK4.ALAN| "craftsman
Armenian: Old Armenian: հայ (hay, “Armenian”) (possibly)
Germanic: *aiz
Indo-Iranian: Indic: Sanskrit: अयस् (ayas)
Iranian: Kurdish: asin / hesin (iron)
Persian: آهن (âhan)
Italic: *aos, *aeznos Latin: aes, aēnus

"tAmarasa n. a day-lotus MBh. iii , 11580 Hariv. 5771 R. iii Ragh. (ifc. f. %{A} , ix , 36)
&c. ; gold L. ; copper (cf. %{tAmra}) L. ; a metre of 4 x 12 syllables ; m. Ardea nivea L. ;
(%{I}) f. a lotus pond MBh. iv , 220 ; %{-se7kSaNA} f. a lotus eyed woman Bha1m. ii ,
153.
69 tAmra mf(%{A})n. ( %{tam} Un2.) of a coppery red colour VS. xvi (Naigh. iii , 7) MBh.
&c. (%{tAmrA@tvac} , the 4th of the 7 membranes with which an embryo is covered
Sus3r. iii , 4 , 2) ; mf(%{I})n. made of copper R. iii , 21 , 17 Sus3r. Mn.vi , 53/54 BhavP.
; m. a kind of leprosy with large red spots , Karmavip. ; N. of a son of Naraka Bhauma
BhP. x , 59 , 12 ; = %{-dvIpa} MBh. ii , 1172 Romakas. ; n. = %{-tA} L. ; copper Kaus3.
Mn. &c. ; a coppery receptacle MBh. ii , 61 , 29 ; = %{-dru} W. (cf. R. ii , 83 , 17) ; (%
{A}) f. Rubia Munjista Npr. ; a red kind of Abrus ib. ; a kind of pepper L. ; N. of a
daughter of Daksha (one of the wives of Kas3yapa and mother of various birds) MBh. i ,
2620 Hariv. R. iii BhP. vi , 6 , 25 ff. VP. ; N. of a river MBh. iii , 12909 ; vi , 335 ; (%{I})
f. a kind of clepsydra (cf. %{-mra-pAtra}) L.
70 tAmradhAtu m. red chalk Npr. ; (%{dhAtu@tAmra} , `" red metal "' , copper R. iii , 21
, 17).
71 tAmradvIpa m. `" copper-island "' , Ceylon DivyA7v. xxxvi.
72 tAmragarbha n. sulphate of copper L.
73 tAmraja mf(%{A})n. made of copper VarYogay. vi , 4 ; %{-jA7kSa} m. `" copper-eyed
"'N. of a son of Kr2ishn2a by Satya-bha1ma1 Hariv. 9184.
74 tAmraka m. N. of a Gandharva Gal. ; n. copper Ya1jn5. i , 296 VarBr2S. civ , 15 ; (%
{ikA}) f. (= %{-mrI}) a kind of clepsydra L. ; Abrus precatorius L.
75 tAmrakAra m. a copper-smith L.
76 tAmrakuNDa n. a copper bason Un2. i , 114/115. =
77 tAmrakuTTa m. = %{-kAra} R. (G) ii , 90 , 25 ; (%{I}) f. a female copper-smith
Para1s3. , Paddh.
78 tAmramAraNa n. the decomposition of copper and its application as a remedy W.
79 tAmramaya mf(%{I})n. coppery. Sus3r. iv , 29 VarBr2S.lx , 5 Pan5cat. BhP. Ma1rkP.
80 tAmramRSTAnulepin mfn. smeared with coppery red unguents R. ii , 83 , 17.
81 tAmramukha mfn. copper-faced W. ; fair-complexioned W. ; m. a European W.
82 tAmrapAtra n. = %{-kuNDa} MBh. xiii , 6026 f. Sus3r. vi , 12 , 38 ; (used as a kind of
clepsydra) Su1ryas. xiii , 23 ; %{-maya} mfn. formed with copper vessels Hcat. i , 7 ,
133.
83 tAmrapaTTa m. a copper plate Ya1jn5. i , 318 (used for inscribing land-grants &c.)
DivyA7v. xxxv.
84 tAmrapattra n. a copper plate W. ; m. `" red-leaved "'N. of a pot-herb L.
85 tAmrarajas n. copper filings Car. vi , 25.
86 tAmrArdha n. `" half-copper , bellmetal L.
87 tAmrAruNa m. a coppery red dawn Buddh. L. ; n. N. of a Ti1rtha MBh. iii , 8132 ; (%
{A}) f. N. of a river , xiii , 7647.
88 tAmratA f. a coppery red Ka1d. vi , 1175.
89 tAmrATavI f. `" copperwood "'N. of a mountain DivyA7v. viii.
90 tAmratuNDa m. `" copper mouthed "' , a kind of monkey Npr.
91 tAmratva n. `" copper-colour "' , redness R. v , 85 , 2.
92 tAmravarNa mfn. copper-coloured , darkred TA1r.i , 12 , 4 MBh. i ; = %{-rNaka} L. ;
= %{-parNa} q.v. ; see %{-pakSa} ; (%{A}) f. the China rose L. ; (%{I}) f. the blossom of
sesamum W.
93 tAmrAvatI f. `" containing copper "'N. of a river , iii , 14231.
94 tAmrAyasa n. `" copper-iron "' , a kind of weight , S3ulbParis3. vii , 27.
95 tAmrazAsana n. an edict (or grant &c.) inscribed on copper Das3. ii , 48.
96 tAmrika mfn. coppery Mn.viii , 136 Ya1jn5. i , 364 ; = %{-mra-kAra} L. ; (%{A}) see %
{-mraka}.