Panchakarma a new look at the Indus valley script

Daniel F. Salas. danielyogi7 – At – yahoo.com

मगरमच्छ  चमगादड़-कान

jatUkarNa (g. %{gargA7di} v.l. %{jAt-}), bat-eared “N. of a physician (pupil of Bharadva1ja Kapisht2hala) Ca

ग्राह इन राक्षसों को भगाने के लिए चिकित्सा विज्ञान, ग्रहों की संख्या के अनुसार नौ वर्गों में बांटा गया है Sus3r.) MBh. &c. एक मगरमच्छ MBh. xvi , 142 R. iv f. BhP. viii; 

जतुकर्ण . (g. %{गर्गआदि} v.l.%{जाट-}), चमगादड़-कान वाला . ऑफ़ ए भारद्वाज कपिष्टहला का शिष्य : ऋग्वेद i , १ , २९ (v.l.%{जातुकर्ण)।एक चिकित्सक का नाम

This study looks at the Indus Valley script being used for medical purposes. The methodology I employed was first, I believed the seal’s dates for commerce, and then with the new findings in the Indus Valley script, discussed below, I am convinced the dates have a medical purpose. The Indus Valley script glyphs have a visual relationship with the star constellations along the ecliptic. The Indus script has an established visual relationship with the Polynesian Easter Island script. The Polynesians used the stars to navigate, the use of the same pictorial image of the stars points to a very old navigational system. These constellations I then matched to the old Sanskrit names for those constellations. 

यह अध्ययन चिकित्सा प्रयोजनों के लिए इस्तेमाल की जा रही सिंधु घाटी लिपि को देखता है। मैंने जो पद्धति अपनाई वह पहले थी, मेरा मानना था कि मुहरें वाणिज्य के लिए तारीखें हैं, और सिंधु घाटी लिपि में नए निष्कर्षों के साथ, नीचे चर्चा की गई है, मुझे विश्वास है कि तारीखों का एक चिकित्सा उद्देश्य है। सिंधु घाटी लिपि के ग्लिफ़ का एक्लिप्टिक के साथ तारा नक्षत्रों के साथ एक दृष्टिगत संबंध है। सिंधु लिपि का पोलिनेशियन ईस्टर द्वीप लिपि के साथ एक स्थापित दृश्य संबंध है। पॉलिनेशियन ने नेविगेट करने के लिए सितारों का इस्तेमाल किया, सितारों की एक ही सचित्र छवि का उपयोग एक बहुत पुरानी नेविगेशन प्रणाली की ओर इशारा करता है। इन नक्षत्रों का मैंने तब उन नक्षत्रों के पुराने संस्कृत नामों से मिलान किया।

jatUkarNa (g. %{gargA7di} v.l. %{jAt-}), bat-eared “‘N. of a physician (pupil of Bharadva1ja Kapisht2hala) Car. 1, 29 (v.l. %{jAtUkarN}).

चमगादड़-कान

जतुकर्ण . (g. %{गर्गआदि} v.l.%{जाट-}), चमगादड़-कान वाला . ऑफ़ ए भारद्वाज कपिष्टहला का शिष्य : ऋग्वेद i , १ , २९ (v.l.%{जातुकर्ण)।एक चिकित्सक का नाम 

जतु. (चमगादड़)  a bat, VS. xxiv, 25 and 36 ; AV. ix, 2, 22; 

 gargara the fish Pimelodus Gagoras3r.; N. of a plant with a poisonous root ib.; (%{ikA}) f. N. of a plant and its fruit g. %{harItaky-Adi} (Ka1s3.)

gArga mfn. fr. %{gArgya} (with %{saGgha} , %{aGka} , and %{lakSaNa}) Pa1n2. 4-3, 127; (with %{ghoSa}) Va1rtt. 1; m. contemptuous metron. fr. %{gArgI}, 1 , 147 Sch. (%{gArgya} , 6 Ka1s3.) ; mf(%{I})n. composed by Garga (the astronomical Sam2hita1); m. (in music) a kind of measure ;

जतुकर्ण . (g. %{गर्गआदि} v.l.%{जाट-})

garga m. N. of an old sage (descendant of Bharad-va1ja and An3giras, author of the hymn RV. vi, 47); of an astronomer AV. Paris3. (called `” the old one “‘, %{vRddha-}) MBh. ix, 2132 ff. VarBr2S. ; of a physician ; of a teacher of law; of a son [Hariv. 1732 BrahmaP. 

गर्ग ।(%{ गार्ग्य } ( %{ सङ्घ } , %{ अङ्क } , %{ लक्षण }) Pa1n2. 4-3, 127; ( साथ %{घोष} )Va1rtt. 1; m. तिरस्कारपूर्ण मेट्रोन. %{ गार्गी } से }  1 , 147 Sch. (%{गार्ग्य} ,6 Ka1s3.) ; गर्ग (खगोलीय संहिता) द्वारा रचित; (एक प्रकार का उपाय) एक प्रकार का उपाय;

Garga combines astronomical values for medical treatments.

चिकित्सा उपचार के लिए गर्ग खगोलीय मूल्यों का उपयोग करता है।

The Chikitsa sthana composed by Charaka is divided into four sections (or sub-chapters). The first chapter describes several medicine preparations by means of which one can prevent and retard aging and live a longer, happier life. Chikitsa is a Sanskrit term, broadly defined as ‘therapy,’ but also understood as the application of consciousness or caring. It is a concept prominent to all major Ayurvedic texts, many of which have a Chikitsa Sthana or ‘section relating to therapy’.

चरक द्वारा रचित चिकित्सा स्थान को चार खंडों (या उप-अध्यायों) में विभाजित किया गया है। पहले अध्याय में कई औषधियों का वर्णन किया गया है जिनके द्वारा व्यक्ति वृद्धावस्था को रोक सकता है और मंद कर सकता है और एक लंबा, सुखी जीवन जी सकता है। चिकित्सा एक संस्कृत शब्द है, जिसे मोटे तौर पर ‘चिकित्सा’ के रूप में परिभाषित किया गया है, लेकिन इसे चेतना या देखभाल के अनुप्रयोग के रूप में भी समझा जाता है। यह सभी प्रमुख आयुर्वेदिक ग्रंथों के लिए प्रमुख अवधारणा है, जिनमें से कई में एक चिकित्सा स्थान या ‘चिकित्सा से संबंधित अनुभाग’ है।

cikita m. (g. %{gargA7di}) N. of a man A1s3vS3r. xii.

चिकित । (ग्। %{ गर्गादि }) ण्। अ मन् आ१स्३व्ष्३र्। ऌइइ।

  cikitsita mfn. treated medically, cured W.; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} (not in Ka1s3.); n. = %{-tsA} Mn. x, 47 MBh. iii, 1460; iv, 318 Sus3r. &c.; (pl.) the chapters of the therapeutical section (of med.) Sus3r. (ifc. f. a1, I, 13, 6).

चिकित्सित। चिकित्सकीय उपचार किया गया, %{ गर्गादि }ठीक किया गया

jatu n. lac, gum Kaus3. 13 MBh. i , xii Sus3r. ; (%{U4s}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1, 71 Pat.) a bat VS. xxiv , 25 and 36 AV. ix , 2 , 22 ; [cf. Lat. {bitumen} ; Germ. {Kitt}.]

जतु चर्मचटका चमगादड़ (Bat)

The word ‘Jatuhu’ is used for male bat and the word ‘jatoohu’ is used for female. 

mAnuSa or %{mAnuSa4} mf(%{I}) n. (fr. %{manus}) belonging to mankind, human RV. &c. &c.; favorable or propitious to men, humane RV. AV.; m. (ifc. f. %{A}) a man, human being (pl. the races of men, 5 in number) RV. &c. &c. ;(scil. %{cikitsA}), human medicine “‘, a branch of medicine, the administering of drugs (opp. to %{AsurI} and %{daivIcik-}) W.

Asura 1 mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{asura}) , spiritual , divine RV. VS. AV. ; ; a division of medicine (surgery , curing by cutting with instruments , applying the actual cautery) ;

mAnasya m. patr. fr. %{manas} g. %{gargA7di}.

मानस्य म्। %{मनस्} ग्। %{गर्गादि}।

mAnavya m. patr. fr. %{manu} g. %{gargA7di} ; n. w.r. for %{mANvya}.

मानव्य म्। %{मनु} ग्। %{गर्गा७दि} ; %{माङ्व्य}।

mAnAyya m %{mAnAyyAyanI} f. g. %{gargA7di} and %{lohitA7di}.77

maNDu m N. of a Rishi S3a1n3khGr2. (cf. g. %{gargA7di} and %{mANDavya}).

mAntavya m patr. fr. %{mantu} g. %{-gargA7di}.

mAntritya m. patr. fr. %{mantrita} g. %{gargA7di}

jatUkarNa m. (g. %{gargA7di} v.l. %{jAt-}) , bat-eared “‘N. of a physician (pupil of Bharadva1ja Kapisht2hala) Car. i , 1 , 29 (v.l. %{jAtUkarN}).

जातूकर्ङ । ( ऋर्। %{ जत्-}? ग्। %{ गर्गादि }।) प्राचीन शिक्षक ( एक प्राचीन शिक्षक का नाम ) Vफ्। इइइ , ३ , १९ ; वि , ८ , ४७ [%{-ङ्य}] Vअ१युफ्।इ , १ , ८ ; २३ , २०१[%{-ङ्य}] ; अउत्होर् । श्च्ह्। ; [%{-ङ्य} फ१र्घ्र्२। श्च्ह्।] ; ङ्।(अ प्ह्य्सिचिअन् ) भ्ह्। इइ , १०९ ःचिकित्सक २३६४ भ्ह्फ्। वि , १५ , १३ ; (= आग्नि-वेस्य) इऌ , २ , २१ ; ङ्। श्३इव ; (%{ई}) भ्हव-ब्हुति’स् मोत्हेर् ंअ१लतिइम्। इ , ५॑६

jAtUkarNa m. (fr. %{jat-}? g. %{gargA7di} v.l.) N. of an ancient teacher (one of the 28 transmitters of the Pura1n2as VP. iii , 3 , 19 ; vi , 8 , 47 [%{-Nya}] Va1yuP.i , 1 , 8 ; 23 , 201[%{-Nya}] Devi1bhP. ; author of a law-book Ya1jn5. Sch. ; [%{-Nya} Pa1rGr2. Sch.] ; N. of a physician) MBh. ii , 109 Hariv. 2364 BhP. vi , 15 , 13 ; (= Agni-ves3ya) ix , 2 , 21 ; N. of S3iva ; (%{I}) f. N. of Bhava-bhu1ti’s mother Ma1latiim. i , 5/6 ; mf(%{I})n. of %{-Nya} g. %{kaNvA7di}.

जातुकर्ण्य म्। ( %{जतू-कर्ण} ग्। %{गर्गादि}) णमे का सेवेरल् उपदेशक, ग्रम्मरिअन्स्; ३भ्र्। क्षिव् ख१त्य्३र्। इव् , क्ष्क्ष् , क्ष्क्ष्व् Vफ्रत्। अन्ख्३र्। ; अन्ख्घ्र्। , इव्, १०, ३ आइतार्। व्, ३ भ्रह्म। ई, १२; प्ल्। झतुकर्न्य’स् परिवार । वि, १ अन्द् ६।

jAtukarNya m. (fr. %{jatU-karNa} g. %{gargA7di}) N. of several preceptors and grammarians (see also %{-Na}) S3Br. xiv Ka1tyS3r. iv , xx , xxv VPra1t. S3a1n3khS3r. ; Sa1n3khGr2. , iv, 10, 3 AitA1r. v, 3 BrahmaP. ii, 12; pl. Ja1tu1karn2ya’s family Pravar. vi, 1 and 6.

bhaiSajya m. patr. fr. %{bhiSaj} , or %{bhiSaja} g. %{gargA7di} (Ka1s3.) ; n. creativeness, healing efficacy VS.; a partic. ceremony performed as a remedy for sickness Kaus3. ; any remedy, drug, or medicine (`” against “‘ gen.) S3Br. Sus3r. ; the administering of medicines &c. MW.

bhaiSNajya m. patr. fr. %{bhiSNaja} g. %{gargA7di} (v.l. %{bhaiSaja}

cikita m. (g. %{gargA7di}) N. of a man A1s3vS3r. xii.

चिकित (ग्। %{गर्गादि}) की ​अ मन् आ१स्३व्३र्। क्षी

cikitsita mfn. treated medically, cured W.; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di} (not in Ka1s3.) ; n. = %{-tsA} Mn. x, 47 MBh. iii , 1460 ; iv , 318 Sus3r. &c. ; (pl.) the chapters of the therapeutical section (of med.) Sus3r. (ifc. f. a1, I, 13, 6).

daivahavya m. patron. fr. Deva-hu1 g. %{gargA7di}.

devahU mfn. invoking the gńgods (superl. %{-tama}) RV. VS.; m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di}; f. (scil. %{dvAr}) N. of the northern aperture of the human body, i.e. of the left ear (which is turned northwards if the face is directed towards the east) BhP. iv , 25 , 51 &c. (cf. %{pitR-}).

jAtukarNya m. (fr. %{jatU-karNa} g. %{gargA7di}) N. of several preceptors and grammarians (see also %{-Na}) S3Br. xiv Ka1tyS3r. iv , xx , xxv VPra1t. S3a1n3khS3r. ; Sa1n3khGr2. , iv, 10, 3 AitA1r. v, 3 BrahmaP. ii, 12; pl. Ja1tu1karn2ya’s family Pravar. vi, 1 and 6.

kauNDinya m. patr. fr. %{kuNDina} (or metron. fr. %{kuNDinI} g. %{gargA7di}) S3Br. xiv A1s3vS3r. Pravar. MBh. ii, 111 Lalit. DivyA7v. xxxii ; N. of an old grammarian TPra1t. i , 5 and ii , 5 ff. ; (%{vyAkaraNa-}) Buddh. ; of Jaya-deva (cf. %{vidarbhI-k-} and %{AjJAta-k-}) ; mfn. coming from Kun2d2ina Prasannar.

trirAtra n. sg. 3 (nights or) days S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. cf. %{azva-} , %{garga-} , %{baida-} ; (%{am}) ind. for 3 days , during 3 days Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vGr2. Mn. &c. ;

त्रिरात्र n. एसजी ३ (रातें या) दिन S3Br. Ka1tyS3r। कौस3. सीएफ %{अश्व-} , %{गर्ग-} , %{बैद-} ;३ दिन 3 दिनों के दौरान Ka1tyS3r। ए1एस3वीजीआर2. एम.एन. &सी। ; त्रिरात्र

Above is a seal, when pressed into clay it becomes a mirror image, opposite of the direction above. The first is night, then day, night, day and night, altogether two and a half days or three nights “Triratra”. The word swastika comes from Sanskrit: स्वस्तिक, romanized: svastika, meaning “conducive to well-being”. In Hinduism, the right-facing symbol (卐) is called swastika, symbolizing Surya (“sun”), prosperity, and good luck, while the left-facing symbol (卍) is called sauwastika, symbolizing night or tantric aspects of Kali. In Jainism, a swastika is a symbol for Suparshvanatha – the seventh of 24 Tirthankaras (spiritual teachers and saviors), while in Buddhism it symbolizes the auspicious footprints of the Buddha.

ऊपर एक मुहर है, जब मिट्टी में दबाया जाता है तो यह ऊपर की दिशा के विपरीत एक दर्पण छवि बन जाती है। पहली रात है, फिर दिन, रात, दिन और रात, कुल मिलाकर ढाई दिन या तीन रातें “त्रिरात्र”। स्वस्तिक शब्द संस्कृत से आया है: स्वस्तिक, रोमनकृत: स्वस्तिक, जिसका अर्थ है “कल्याण के लिए अनुकूल”। हिंदू धर्म में, दाहिने मुंह वाले प्रतीक (卐) को स्वस्तिक कहा जाता है, जो सूर्य (“सूर्य”), समृद्धि और सौभाग्य का प्रतीक है, जबकि बाईं ओर के प्रतीक (卍) को सौवास्तिका कहा जाता है, जो रात या काली के तांत्रिक पहलुओं का प्रतीक है। जैन धर्म में, स्वस्तिक 24 तीर्थंकरों (आध्यात्मिक शिक्षक और उद्धारकर्ता) में से सातवें – सुपार्श्वनाथ का प्रतीक है, जबकि बौद्ध धर्म में यह बुद्ध के शुभ पैरों के निशान का प्रतीक है।

बाहु . (f., L. ) (fr. √ बह्, बंह्; for 2. बाहु See col.3) हाथ, (विशेषकर) प्रकोष्ठ, कोहनी और कलाई के बीच की भुजा (विपरीत प्र-गण्ड q.v.; चिकित्सा में शरीर के पूरे ऊपरी छोर, सक्थि के विपरीत, निचला छोर), आरवी।

त्रिदोष पूरे शरीर में मौजूद होते हैं, लेकिन उनकी उपस्थिति विशेष भागों में विशेष रूप से देखी जाती है। यदि आप शरीर को तीन भागों में विभाजित करते हैं, तो छाती तक शीर्ष भाग में कफ दोष का प्रभुत्व होता है, छाती और नाभि के बीच पित्त का प्रभुत्व होता है, नाभि के नीचे के भाग में वात का प्रभुत्व होता है।

Graha-graha to Garga

graha; crocodile MBh. xvi , 142 (ifc. f. %{A}) R. iv f. BhP. viii ;

grAha (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 143) mf(%{I})n. ifc. seizing, holding, catching, receiving Ya1jn5. ii, 51 R. iv, 41, 38; m. a rapacious animal living in fresh or seawater, any large fish or marine animal (crocodile, shark, serpent, Gangetic alligator, water elephant, or hippopotamus) Mn. vi, 78 MBh. &c. (ifc. f. %{A}, iv, 2017; xvi R. ii); a prisoner L.; the handle (of a sword &c.) Gal. ; seizure, grasping, laying hold of Pan5cat. i , 10 , 1 (v.l. for %{graha}) ; morbid affection , disease S3Br. iii ; paralysis (of the thigh , %{Uru-grAha4} AV. xi , 9 , 12 [%{ur-} MSS.] MBh. v , 2024 and vi , 5680) ; `” mentioning “‘ see %{nAma-} ; fiction , whim Bhag. xvii, 19; conception, the notion of (in comp.) Vajracch. 6 and 9 ; (%{am}) ind. see s.v. ; (%{I}) f. a female marine animal or crocodile R. vi, 82,

hradagraha m. `” lake-monster “‘, a crocodile, alligator L.

graha (Pa1n2. 3-3 , 58 ; g. %{vRSA7di}) mfn. ifc. (iii , 2 , 9 Va1rtt. 1) seizing, laying hold of, holding BhP. iii , 15 , 35 (cf. %{aGkuza-} , %{dhanur-} , &c.) ; obtaining , v , vii ; perceiving , recognising , iv , 7 , 31 ; m. `” seizer (eclipser) “‘, Ra1hu or the dragon’s head MBh. &c. ; a planet (as seizing or influencing the destinies of men in a supernatural manner; sometimes 5 are enumerated, viz. Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, and Saturn MBh. vi, 4566 f. R. I, 19, 2 Ragh. iii, 13 &c. ; also 7 i.e. the preceding with Ra1hu and Ketu MBh. vii , 5636 ; also 9 i.e. the sun [cf. S3Br. iv, 6, 5, 1, and 5 MBh. xiii, 913; xiv, 1175] and moon with the 7 preceding Ya1jn5. I, 295 MBh. iv, 48 VarBr2S.; also the polar star is called a Graha, Garg. (Jyot. 5 Sch.) ; the planets are either auspicious %{zubha-}, %{sad-}, or inauspicious %{krUra-}, %{pApa-} VarBr2S.; with Jainas they constitute one of the 5 classes of the Jyotishkas); the place of a planet in the fixed zodiac W.; the number `” nine “‘; it falls within the province of medical science to expel these demons; those who esp. seize children and cause convulsions &c. are divided into 9 classes according to the number of planets Sus3r.) MBh. &c. ; ; a crocodile MBh. xvi , 142 (ifc. f. %{A}) R. iv f. BhP. viii; any ladle or vessel employed for taking up a portion of fluid (esp. of Soma) out of a larger vessel Mn. v, 116 Ya1jn5. i, 182; N. of the 8 organs of perception (viz. the 5 organs of sense with Manas, the hands, and the voice) S3Br. xiv Nr2isUp. i , 4 , 3 , 22 ; (= %{gRha}) a house R. vii , 40 , 30 (cf. %{a-} , %{khara-} , %{-druma} and %{-pati}) ; a crocodile MBh. xvi , 142 (ifc. f. %{A}) R. iv f. BhP. viii ;

From the Johns Hopkins University on the Ayurveda; a natural system of medicine, originated in India more than 3,000 years ago. The term Ayurveda is derived from the Sanskrit words ayur (life) and veda (science or knowledge). Thus, Ayurveda translates to knowledge of life. Based on the idea that disease is due to an imbalance or stress in a person’s consciousness, Ayurveda encourages certain lifestyle interventions and natural therapies to regain a balance between the body, mind, spirit, and the environment.

Ayurveda treatment starts with an internal purification process, followed by a special diet, herbal remedies, massage therapy, yoga, and meditation.

The concepts of universal interconnectedness, the body’s constitution (prakriti), and life forces (doshas) are the primary basis of ayurvedic medicine. Goals of treatment aid the person by eliminating impurities, reducing symptoms, increasing resistance to disease, reducing worry, and increasing harmony in life. Herbs and other plants, including oils and common spices, are used extensively in Ayurvedic treatment. 

Panchakarma (“Pancha” means five and “karma” means actions) is essentially 5 karmas or actions done to detoxify the body according to Ayurveda. It includes Vaman, Virechan, Basti, Raktamokshan, and Nasya. However, some other procedures are also involved in the list of Panchakarma, and the list goes beyond 5. Outside the tradition of the Vedas, Buddhism, and Jainism also shared some ideas with the Ayurvedic texts from ancient India. 

raktamokSa m. or bloodletting, bleeding, venesection &c., Sus3r.

Virecita mfn. (fr. Caus.) purged, emptied, evacuate

Vamana the act of vomiting or ejecting from the mouth Sus3r. ; emitting, emission Ka1lid. ; `” causing vomiting “‘, an emetic Katha1s. Sus3r. &c. ; offering oblations to fire L.; pain.

Vasti       3 mf. (also written %{basti}; perh. connected with 2. %{vasti} see p. 932, col. 3) the bladder AV. &c. &c.; the lower belly &c. &c. ; the lower belly, abdomen VarBr2S. Ka1s3i1Kh. ; the pelvis MW.; an injection-syringe made of bladder or the injection itself Katha1s. Sus3r. &c. [Cf. Lat. {venter} , {vesica} ; Germ. {wanast}, {Wanst}.]

nasya mfn. belonging to or being in the nose (%{as the} breath) S3Br. ; (%{A}) f. nñnose-cord Ya1jn5. Sch. (cf. %{nAsya}) ; the nose L. ; n. the hairs in the nñnose VS.; a sternutatory, errhine MBh. R. Sus3r.

In Vajasaneyi Samhita 21.40 (Yajurveda), Varuna is called the patron deity of physicians, one who has “a hundred, a thousand remedies”. Varuna and Mitra are the gods of societal affairs including the oath and are often twinned Mitra-Varuna. Both Mitra and Varuna are classified as Asuras in the Rigveda (e.g., RV 5.63.3), although they are also addressed as Devas as well (e.g., RV 7.60.12). Varuna, being the king of the Asuras, was adopted or made the change to a Deva after the structuring of the primordial cosmos, imposed by Indra after he defeats Vrtra. 

maitra mf(%{I}) n. (fr. %{mitra}, of, which it is also the Vr2iddhi form in comp.) coming from or given by or belonging to a friend, friendly, amiable, benevolent, affectionate, kind Mn. MBh. &c.; evacuation of excrement (presided over by Mitra; %{maitraM} 1. %{kR}, to void excrement) Mn. iv, 152. 

मैत्र ; मित्र, मित्रवत, मिलनसार, परोपकारी, स्नेही, से आने या दिए गए या उससे संबंधित; गुदा,मित्रा की अध्यक्षता में मलमूत्र की निकासी; मैत्रं √ १. कृ, शून्य करने के लिए

 mUtrazakRt n. sg. du. pl. urine and excrement Mn. vi, 76; xi, 154 (cf. g. %{gavA7zvA7di}) ; %{-So7ccAra} and %{-So7sarga} m. voiding urine and excrement Cat.

मूत्रषक्त् ; मूत्र और मलमूत्र

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In the Panchakarma, the first two divisions of five are an emetic, the night, for Varuna, a purge for the day, Mitra. Standing Mitra as Purisha samgrahaniya (fecal astringents)

UbhayabhAga having a part in both (night and day); %{-hara} mfn. taking two shares or parts; applicable to two purposes; (%{am}) n. a medicine that acts in two ways (as an emetic and a purge).

ardharAtram. midnight Mn. &c. ; %{ardharAtrA7rdhadivasa} m. the time when day and night are half and half. i.e. equal , the equinox R.

ardha-candraka m. (= %{ardhacandra}) the hand bent into a semicircle for grasping any one’s throat “‘ ifc. %{dattA7rdhacandraka} mfn. `” seized at the throat “‘ , Kat2ha1s. ; (%{am}) n. the semilunar point of an arrow , Sa1rn3g. ; (%{ika}) f. N. of a climbing plant (Gynandropsis Pentaphylla or Convolvulus Torpethum ;

Ardharatrikapaksa has the same numbers for yoga and the moon, and Jupiter, it gives Saturn 146564, mars 2296824, Venus 7022388, and Mercury 17937020.

ardhacandanalipta candra m. half moon ; the semi circular marks on a peacock’s tail L. ; the semicircular scratch of the finger nail L. ; an arrow , the head of which is like a half-moon MBh. R. Katha1s. ; the hand bent into a semicircle or the shape of a claw (as for the purpose of seizing anybody by the neck ; generally acc. %{-am} with 1. %{da} , to seize any one by his neck) Katha1s. Pan5cat. Vet. ; N. of the Anusva1ra (from its being written in the older MSS. in a semilunar form) Ra1matUp. ; N. of a constellation VarBr2S. ; (%{A}) f. the plant Convolvulus Torpethum ;

ArdharAtrika. (fr. %{ardha-rAtra}) , happening at midnight , midnight Su1ryas. ; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of an astronomical school who reckoned the beginning of the motions of the planets from midnight.

camasa m. (n. g. %{ardharcA7di} ; %{I} f. L. Sch. ; fr. %{cam}) a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking the Soma, ; (g. %{gargA7di}) N. of a son of R2ishabha BhP. v , xi ;

kaSAya
mfn. astringent MBh. xiv, 1280 and 1411 R. Sus3r. Pan5cat. BhP. ; fragrant Megh. 31 ; red, dull red, yellowish red (as the garment of a Buddhist Bhikshu) MBh. Hariv. Mr2icch. Ya1jn5. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. (g. %{ardharcA7di}) an astringent flavor or taste Sus3r. ;

ऊभयभाग (रात और दिन) दोनों में भाग लेना; %{-हारा} एमएफएन. दो शेयर या हिस्से लेना; दो उद्देश्यों के लिए लागू; (%{am}) एन. एक दवा जो दो तरह से काम करती हैउबकाई की – शुद्ध करना

doSA 1^ f. darkness, night RV. AV. &c. (%{A4m} & %{A4} [instr.; cf. g. %{svar-Adi}] ind. in the evening, at dusk, at night); Night personified

दोआ. अँधेरा, रात: RV. AV. &c. शाम को, शाम को, रात में; रात का व्यक्तित्व

 doSa 2 m. rarely n. (%{duS}) fault, vice, deficiency, want, inconvenience, disadvantage Up. Mn. MBh. Ka1v. &c. [498,3]; badness, wickedness, sinfulness Mn. R.: offense, transgression, guilt, crime (acc. with %{R} or %{labh}, to incur guilt), SrS. Mn. MBh. &c.; alteration, affection, morbid element, disease (esp. of the 3 humors of the body, viz. %{pitta}, %{vAyu}, and %{zleSman}, 1 [cf. %{tridoSa} and %{dhAtu}], applied also to the humors themselves) Sus3r.

दोष. शरीर के तीन ह्युमर, %{पिट्टा}, %{वायु}, %{श्लेष्मन्},

त्रिदोष पूरे शरीर में मौजूद होते हैं, लेकिन उनकी उपस्थिति विशेष भागों में विशेष रूप से देखी जाती है। यदि आप शरीर को तीन भागों में विभाजित करते हैं, तो छाती तक शीर्ष भाग में कफ दोष का प्रभुत्व होता है, छाती और नाभि के बीच पित्त का प्रभुत्व होता है, नाभि के नीचे के भाग में वात का प्रभुत्व होता है।

ubhayataHzIrSan mf(%{zIrSNI4})n. having a head towards, either way, two-headed VS. iv, 19 ; %{-zIrSa-tva4} n. the state of having two heads MaitrS. iii.

The Tigers below are facing each other.  Below urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat/bird are three arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel). adho-mārga the Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through the downward channel). Below three arrows pointing up and down 3 humors of the body, viz. %{pitta}, %{vAyu}, and %{zleSman}, 1 [cf. %{tridoSa} and %{dhAtu}

वाजसनेयी संहिता २१.४० (यजुर्वेद) में, वरुण को चिकित्सकों का संरक्षक देवता कहा जाता है, जिनके पास “एक सौ, एक हजार उपचार” हैं। वरुण और मित्रा शपथ सहित सामाजिक मामलों के देवता हैं और अक्सर मित्र-वरुण जुड़वाँ होते हैं। मित्र और वरुण दोनों को ऋग्वेद में असुरों के रूप में वर्गीकृत किया गया है (जैसे, आरवी 5.63.3), हालांकि उन्हें देव के रूप में भी संबोधित किया जाता है (जैसे, आरवी 7.60.12)। वरुण, असुरों के राजा होने के नाते, इंद्र द्वारा वृत्र को हराने के बाद लगाए गए आदिम ब्रह्मांड की संरचना के बाद एक देव को अपनाया गया था या बदल दिया गया था

UbhayabhAga having a part in both (night and day); %{-hara} mfn. taking two shares or parts; applicable to two purposes; (%{am}) n. a medicine that acts in two ways (as an emetic and a purge).

abhayajAta m. N. of a man , (g. %{gargA7di} , q.v.)

AbhayajAtyamf(%{I})n. descended from Abhaya-ja1ta , g. %{gargA7di} (Pa1n2. 4-1 , 105).

वरुण रात है। मित्रा दिन है

वरुण को चिकित्सकों का संरक्षक देवता कहा जाता है, जिनके पास “एक सौ, एक हजार उपचार” हैं। वरुण और मित्र शपथ सहित सामाजिक मामलों के देवता हैं और अक्सर मित्र-वरुण जुड़वाँ होते हैं। ऋग्वेद में मित्र और वरुण दोनों को असुरों के रूप में वर्गीकृत किया गया है

Above the fish glyph and the crocodile image are shown to be related, while the fish glyph is part of the script, meaning graha; crocodile.

Two fish replace two lines and fish.

The Samgha coin below from southern India the same two lines and fish brought south with the spread of Buddhism and Jainism through the Maurya Empire.

I found the samgraha with the standing (shown above left) Mitra as Purisha samgrahaniya, fecal astringents (sitting Mitra shown right side above).The sitting Mitra; mutra samgrahaniya (anti-diuretic), mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenter), and mutra virechaniya(diuretic).

In both seals below the sitting Mitra has his penis exposed.

The location the Ghaggar-Hakra River

IVC के दौरान, घग्गर-हाकरा नदी प्रणाली एक बड़ी ग्लेशियर-आधारित हिमालयी नदी नहीं थी, बल्कि एक मानसून-आधारित नदी थी। सिंधु घाटी सभ्यता तब समृद्ध हुई जब नदियों को पोषित करने

वाले मानसून लगभग 5,000 साल पहले कम हो गए थे, और परिपक्व सिंधु घाटी सभ्यता (2600-1900 ईसा पूर्व) से बड़ी संख्या में स्थल (सूखे) हाकरा के मध्य पाठ्यक्रम के साथ पाए जाते हैं। पाकिस्तान में।

चरक (चरक) आयुर्वेद के प्रमुख योगदानकर्ताओं में से एक था, प्राचीन भारत में विकसित चिकित्सा और जीवन शैली की एक प्रणाली। उन्हें चिकित्सा ग्रंथ, चरक संहिता के लेखक के लिए जाना जाता है। चरक पंचानदा (पंजाब) में इरावती (रावी नदी) और चंद्रबाघा (चिनाब नदी) नदियों के बीच स्थित कपिस्थल (जालंधर) के निवासी थे। महाभारत में पंजाब का नाम पंचानदा था। उन्हें “चिकित्सा के भारतीय पिता” के रूप में जाना जाता है। कहा जाता है कि चरक ने प्राचीन तक्षशिला विश्वविद्यालय में अध्ययन किया था और वहां अभ्यास किया था।

घर्घर

चरक शब्द “भटकने वाले विद्वानों” या “भटकने वाले चिकित्सकों” पर लागू होने वाला एक लेबल है। चरक के अनुवादों के अनुसार, स्वास्थ्य और रोग पूर्व निर्धारित नहीं हैं और जीवन को मानव प्रयास और जीवन शैली पर ध्यान देकर लंबा किया जा सकता है। भारतीय विरासत और आयुर्वेदिक प्रणाली के अनुसार, सभी प्रकार की बीमारियों की रोकथाम में उपचार की तुलना में अधिक प्रमुख स्थान है, जिसमें जीवन शैली के पुनर्गठन को प्रकृति और छह मौसमों के साथ संरेखित करना शामिल है, जो पूर्ण कल्याण की गारंटी देगा। ऐसा लगता है कि चरक “इलाज से बेहतर है रोकथाम” सिद्धांत के शुरुआती समर्थक रहे हैं। निम्नलिखित कथन चरक को जिम्मेदार ठहराया गया है:

Charaka​ (चरक ​)  was one of the principal contributors to ​Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in ​Ancient India​. He is known for authoring the medical treatise, Charaka​ Samhita.

jatUkarNa m. (g. %{gargA7di} v.l. %{jAt-}) , bat-eared “‘N. of a physician (pupil of Bharadva1ja Kapishthala) Car. i , 1 , 29

Charaka was a resident Kapisthal ( ​Jalandhar), located between Iravati (​Ravi River) and Chandrabagha (​Chenab River) rivers in Panchanada (​Punjab​).

kApiSThala m. a son or descendant of Kapisht2hala Comm. on Nir. iv , 14 ; (%{As}) m. pl. Name of a people (cf. $) VarBr2S.
kApiSThalaka Tha m. pl.N. of a school of the Yajur-veda.

 Kapisthal ( ​Jalandhar), name derives from the vernacular term ​Jalandhar​, meaning area inside the water, i.e., tract lying between the two rivers Satluj and Beas.​​The whole of Punjab and the area of present Jalandhar District was part of the Indus Valley Civilization. ​Harappa​ and ​Mohenjo-daro​ are the other sites where remains of the ​Indus Valley Civilization have been found extensively. The archaeological exploration made in the recent years has pushed the antiquity of the Jalandhar District of the Harappa period.

According to ancient history traced to Vedas, the Ravi River was known as  Iravati (also spelt Eeravati; : इरावती, परुष्णि) The Ravi was known as Purushni or Iravati to Indians in Vedic times.

Part of the Battle of the Ten Kings was fought on a river, which according to Yaska (Nirukta 9.26) refers to the Iravati River (Raavi River) in the Punjab.

चरक ; आयुर्वेद के प्रमुख योगदानकर्ताओं में से एक था, प्राचीन भारत में विकसित चिकित्सा और जीवन शैली की एक प्रणाली। उन्हें चिकित्सा ग्रंथ, चरक संहिता के लेखक के लिए जाना जाता है। चरक पंचानदा (पंजाब) में इरावती (रावी नदी) और चंद्रबाघा (चिनाब नदी) नदियों के बीच स्थित कपिस्थल (जालंधर) का निवासी था।

Panchanada was the name of Punjab in Mahabharata.​  ​He is well known as the “Indian father of medicine”.​  ​ Charaka is said to have studied at the University of Ancient Taxila​ and practiced there.

The region around Taxila was settled by the neolithic era, with some ruins at Taxila dating to 3360 BCE. Ruins dating from the Early Harappan period around 2900 BCE have also been discovered in the Taxila area, though the area was eventually abandoned after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Taxila was in ancient times known in Pali as Takkasila,  and in Sanskrit as Takshashila (Takṣaśilā).

गर  %{ग्} निगलने . Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 3-3 , 29 and 57, कोई भी पेय, पेय, तरल पदार्थ S3Br. xi , 5 , 8 , 6 ; एक मारक W. L, एक प्रकार की बीमारी जिसे शायद निगलने में कठिनाई होती है, सामान्य रूप से बीमारी  L. Sus3r. i , iv ; vi , 39 , 208 : छिड़काव, ( %{करण}) W.

गर  %{ग्} एक जिले का नाम %{ गौरादि }

मत्स्य । (ऋ। %{मत्स} %{मच}) एक मछली RV. एक लोगों और देश के: RV. 

देश के राजा का नाम मत्स्य: (%{मत्स}) ; %{मत्स} अन्द् ग्। %{गौरा७दि}।

घर्घर घोग्र नदी L.

घार । (१। %{ घ् }) छिड़काव,

गर  %{ग्} निगलने : छिड़काव, ( %{करण}) W.

ग्रह मगरमच्छ MBh. xvi , 142 (ifc. f. %{A}) R. iv f. BhP. viii ; पकड़ना, पकड़ना, पकड़ना  BhP. iii , 15 , 35 बच्चों और वयस्कों पर हमला करने वाले राक्षस आक्षेप पैदा करते हैं और ग्रहों की संख्या के अनुसार 9 वर्गों में विभाजित होते हैं. MBh चिकित्सा विज्ञान : ध्रुवीय तारे को ग्रह कहा जाता है

र्ग एक बूढ़ा ऋषि, एक खगोलशास्त्री : एक पोते का VP. MatsyaP. BhP. ix , 21 , 1 and 19: चिकित्सक

आरट मृ(%{ई} [गन %{गौरादि} फ१न्२। ४-१ , ४१])

आरट्ट पंचनाडा या पंजाबी में लोग और देश MBh.

पांच नदियां सता-द्रु, विपास, इरावती, चंद्रभागा, और वितस्ता, सतलुज, ब्यास, रावी, चिनाब, और झेलम या बेहुत।

मछली का चिन्ह और मगरमच्छ एक क्रिया का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं जब्त

घर्घर

The fish is graha and two fish are samgraha with the standing Mitra as Purisha samgrahaniya (fecal astringents)(sitting Mitra shown above).The sitting Mitra; mutra samgrahaniya(anti-diuretic), mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenter), and mutra virechaniya(diuretic).

 गरघ्न. विष या गरज नामक रोग को दूर करने वाला. Sus3r. i , 45 , 11 , 11 

एक प्रकार की मछली जिसे आमतौर पर गराई कहा जाता है. W. Bhpr.

घ्न MBh. xiii , 2397 Hariv. 9426 ; हड़ताली, हत्या, हत्यारा, हत्यारा  ix , 232 MBh. R. iii %{गर-} , %{गुरु-} , %{गो-}

Vaman 103g, Virechan 107g, Basti 109g facing left, Raktamokshan, and Nasya 113.6g facing right.

The weights of the new nine copper tablets follow the order of the first line of the Kabul manuscript, starting with the written first two tablets 103 grams and 107 grams, then the Humped bull, Rhino, and the 135.8 grams. The humped bull copper tablet and the example that was given (on the right) of a random seal probably the most unique of an example was the exact writing of the third-place of the five divisions of the first line of the Kabul Manuscript.

Research Paper A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilization Authors: Vasant Shinde, Rick J Willis Abstract A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC), discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an important type not previously described.

kaMsa %{as} , %{am} m. n. (%{kam} Un2. iii, 62) , a vessel made of metal, drinking vessel, cup, goblet AV. x, 10, 5 AitBr. S3Br. &c. a metal, tutanag or white copper, brass , bell-metal ; 

kAMsya mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{kaMsa}) consisting of white-copper or bell-metal or brass Ka1tyS3r. MBh. xiii , 94 , 91 R. Mn. iv , 65 ; (%{am}) n. white copper or bell-metal or brass, queen’s metal, any amalgam of zinc and copper Mn. v , 114 ; xi , 167 ; xii , 62 Ya1jn5. i, 190 Sus3r. ; a drinking vessel of brass, goblet S3a1n3khS3r. MBh. R. ;

camasa m. (n. g. %{ardharcA7di} ; %{I} f. L. Sch. ; fr. %{cam}) a vessel used at sacrifices for drinking the Soma, ; (g. %{gargA7di}) N. of a son of R2ishabha BhP. v , xi ;

cAmasya m. patr. fr. %{camasa4} g. %{gargA7di}.32

The cup or vessel to the left of sitting Garga.

The nine copper plates above I believe to be pre-prescriptions by a physician, that is proper weight and substance. They are not seals but Print engravers, the substance is weighted by the tablet than printed on flat bark, like the Kabul manuscript.

A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC), discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an important type not previously described. The plates are significantly larger and more robust than those comprising the corpus of known copper plates or tablets, and most significantly differ in being inscribed with mirrored characters. One of the plates bears 34 characters, which is the longest known single Indus script inscription. Examination of the plates with x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrophotometry indicates metal compositions, including arsenical copper, consistent with Indus Valley technology. Microscopy of the metal surface and internal structure reveals detail such as pitting, microcrystalline structure, and corrosion, consistent with ancient cast copper artifacts. Given the relative fineness of the engraving, it is hypothesized that the copper plates were not used as seals, but have characteristics consistent with use in copper plate printing. As such, it is possible that these copper plates are by far the earliest known printing devices, being at least 4000 years old. 

https://www.ancient-asia-journal.com/articles/10.5334/aa.12317/print/

https://www.academia.edu/36577928/Kabul_birchbark_mss_and_Nine_copper_plates_from_Mohenjo_daro_are_authentic_Indus_Script_Inscriptions

https://www.academia.edu/28951696/Long_Harappa_Script_inscriptions_signify_8_to_39_Meluhha_hypertexts_are_Dharma_sa%E1%B9%81j%C3%B1%C4%81_Corporate_guild_badges_of_responsibility

The nine copper tablets found in Pakistan first published on 08 Oct. 2014 and Lucy Zuberbuehler’s Kabul birch-bark mss. first published on July 31, 2009.

Lucy Zuber Buehler writes the comparison manuscript in 2009, prior to that the artifact was part of a 5-year-old collection. This makes a possible range around 2009 – 5 = 2004 and 2014 – 2004 = 10 years of prior knowledge.  

Below are the small inscribed copper tablets found at Mohenjo-Daro, three types that I believe learning plates for matching symbolism to the writing, expressing weight and substance, the weight is based on these smallest units.

Below, the five forked railings, in combination with a swastika, meaning Trirata three nights, as in a prescription. The five swastikas is an artfully done seal where just the five forked glyph would have sufficed, both having the same meaning Trirata. The Indus glyphs have a weight associated with them thus used in the later coinage.

Body purification therapy is indicated before rasayana therapy. This treatment is intended to remove toxins and prepare the body for accepting the rasayana formulations for rejuvenation. A specific bowel cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus emblica (amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger are prescribed. After the proper evacuation of bowels, the person shall take gruel prepared with barley for three to seven days. [Cha.Sa.Chikitas Sthana/1/25-28] After this procedure, suitable rasayana formulations can be administered. The desired benefits cannot be obtained without proper purification of body and mind. [Cha.Sa.Chikitas Sthana/4/38]

Below coinage found in southern India bears a striking similarity to Indus Valley Script. The word Sangam found on a coin is a Sanskrit loan word, its meaning is gathering. This word “is not” found in any of the Sangam literature. The Sangam period has three parts only the last can be found. 

The Sangam period or age (Tamil : சங்ககாலம், caṅkakālam ), or the third Sangam period, is the period of the history of spanning from c. 6th century BCE to c. 3rd century CE. It was named after the famous Sangam academies of poets and scholars centered in the city of Madurai. The Sangam literature is the historic evidence of indigenous literary developments in South India in parallel to Sanskrit, and the classical status of the Tamil language. While there is no evidence for the first and second mythical Sangams, the surviving literature attests to a group of scholars centered around the ancient Madurai (Maturai) that shaped the “literary, academic, cultural and linguistic life of ancient Tamil Nadu”, states Zvelebil.

दो मछलियाँ दो पंक्तियों वाली एक मछली बन जाती हैं

Mitra standing with Cassiopeia with Picses the double fish constellation (samgraha) the standing Mitra as Purisha samgrahaniya (fecal astringents

 purisha samgrahaniya fecal astringent), purisha virajaniya (fecal de-pigmenter), mutra samgrahaniya(anti-diuretic), mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenter), and mutra virechaniya(diuretic).

The two lines and the fish are the constellation of Pisces.

मीन राशि के ठीक ऊपर नक्षत्र कैसिओपिया है

The image of Cassiopeia has the same position of the legs and right arm as the Indus Bowing person. In the image of the Greek version the right arm is double stared at the elbow and arm like the Indus version.

Cassiopeia  01h 00m 00s, +60° 00′ 00″  Pisces 01h 00m 00s, +15° 00′ 00
Cassiopeia, the Enthroned Queen, is a sitting figure, at times suspended upside-down in the sky in a very undignified position, she is depicted firmly bound to her throne and refrained from falling out of it, in going around the pole head downward (rather like being on a Ferris wheel I imagine). Greeks knowing it as KassiepeiaE tou thronou, ‘Cassiopeia, She of the Throne‘; and Hyde gave it the title Inthronata. The constellation is often referred to as Cassiopeia’s throne because the stars clearly outline the chair, or throne, upon which the queen sits. The word ‘throne‘ comes from the Indo-European root *dher ‘To hold firmly, support’. Derivatives: farmfermata (in music the prolongation of a tone, chord), firm¹firmamentaffirmconfirmfurlinfirminfirmary, (these words from Latin firmus, firm, strong), throne (from Greek thronos, seat, throne < ‘support’), dharma (from Sanskrit dharma, statute, law < ‘that which is established firmly’), dharna (the practice of protesting against an injustice by sitting and fasting outside the door of the offender, from Prakrit dharana, a holding firm), Darius (from old Persian darayava(h)us, ‘holding firm the good’, from daraya– to hold firm, uphold). [Pokorny 2. dher– 252. 

The Egyptian word for ‘throne‘ or ‘seat’ is ‘KXA’ (‘kazhaa‘) which looks like it could be pronounced ‘cassa’, resembling Cassiopeia’s name.The word ‘dharma‘ (from *dher) is related to the word throne. The “dharma in Hinduism and Buddhism is the principle or law that orders the universe, also the body of teachings expounded by the Buddha”. Hindus called this constellation Casyapi (Kasyapi, similar to Cassiopeia or Kassiopeia). In the Buddhist tradition there is a monk Kasyapa (Kashyapa, Kasiapa) whom Zen Buddhists consider their First Patriarch and the founder of their lineage, of whom the Buddha remarked that he alone of all his students had received his teaching (dharma), and should thereafter be known as Mahakasyapa, the Buddha said: “I have true dharma, and I transmit my dharma to Mahakasyapa” .

In the Indus script, the kneeling man is (Phaseolus trilobus). According to Ayurveda fruit Phaseolus Trilobus is cooling, dry, bitter, aphrodisiac, astringent, styptic, anthelmintic and good for the eyes. 

kAyastha`” dwelling in the body “‘, the Supreme Spirit L.; Myrobalanus Chebula L.; Emblica Officinalis 

kaSAyavasana n. the yellowish-red garment of Buddhist mendicants (forming with head-shaving their distinctive badge, cf. %{kaSAya} n. above, and %{kASAya-v-}) Ya1jn5. i , 272.

kaSAya
mfn. astringent MBh. xiv, 1280 and 1411 R. Sus3r. Pan5cat. BhP. ; fragrant Megh. 31 ; red, dull red, yellowish red (as the garment of a Buddhist Bhikshu) MBh. Hariv. Mr2icch. Ya1jn5. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. (g. %{ardharcA7di}) an astringent flavor or taste Sus3r. ; a yellowish red color Ya1jn5. i , 272 Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 4-2 , 1 ; an astringent juice, extract of juice S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Mn. xi , 153 ; a decoction or infusion Sus3r. (the result of boiling down a mixture consisting of one part of a drug and four or , according to some , eight or sixteen parts of water until only one quarter is left Sus3r.) ; any healing or medicinal potion Bhpr. ; exudation from a tree , juice , gum , resin L. ; ointment , smearing , anointing L. ; colouring or perfuming or anointing the person with cosmetics MBh. ; dirt , filth ; stain or impurity or sin cleaving to the soul ChUp. BhP. ; dulness , stupidity Veda1ntas. ;

According to Ayurveda fruit Phaseolus Trilobus is cooling, dry, bitter, aphrodisiac, astringent, styptic, anthelmintic and good for the eyes. 

Below Mitra standing with Cassiopeia with Picses the double fish constellation (samgraha) the standing Mitra as Purisha samgrahaniya (fecal astringents

The Samarra culture ( Samarra bowl below) is a Late Neolithic archaeological culture of northern Mesopotamia, roughly dated to between 5500 and 4800 BCE. It partially overlaps with Hassuna and early Ubaid. Samarran material culture was first recognized during excavations by German Archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld at the site of Samarra.

The early continual cultural phase in the Indus starts in the area around 7000 BCE. The aceramic Neolithic (Mehrgarh I, Baluchistan, Pakistan, also dubbed “Early Food Producing Era”) lasts c. 7000 – 5500 BCE. The ceramic Neolithic lasts up to 3300 BCE, blending into the Early Harappan  (Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age) period.

Above an Indus bowl as a measurement of a medicine.

matsyavedhana
n. fñfish-piercing “‘ , a fñfish-hook , angle L. ; (%{I}) f. id. L. ; a cormorant L.

जलकाग और जंगल में घूमने वाला आदमी दोनों पेड़ों की टहनियों में बार-बार आते हैं।

Both the cormorant ( parNa-mRga) and the man who wanders in the wild (AraNya -MRga) are frequenting the boughs of trees. The other symbols for (Phaseolus trilobus) is the hrasva
mf(%{A})n. short , small , dwarfish next to Mitra. The dwarfish indicates a small measure. The monkey seals of Mohenjo-Daro, parNa-mRga frequenting the boughs of trees.

araNya n. (fr. 1. %{a4raNa} ; fr. %{R} Un2.) , a foreign or distant land RV. i , 163 , 11 and vi , 24 , 10 ; a wilderness , desert , forest AV. VS. &c. ;

मत्स्यवेधन मत्स्य—वेधन n. ‘f°-piercing’, a f°-hook, angle, L. जलकाग, पनकौवा

madgu
m. (accord. to Un2. i , 7 fr. %{majj}) a , diver-bird (a kind of aquatic bird or cormorant ; cf. Lat. {mergus}) VS. &c. &c. (also %{-guka} R.) ; a species of wild animal frequenting the boughs of trees (= %{parNa-mRga}) Sus3r. ; a kind of snake L. ; a partic. fish Ni1lak. पर्ण-मृग

mudga m. (accord. to Un2. i , 127 fr. %{mud}) Phaseolus Mungo (both the plant and its beans) VS. &c. &c. ; a cover, covering, lid L. ; a kind of seabird L. (prob. w.r. for %{madgu} q.v.)

Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus): Jeevaniya, Shukra

Phaseolus Trilobus is a wild vine that is frequenting the boughs of trees (= %{parNa-mRga}).

मुद्ग ;एक समुद्री पक्षी

mudgaparNI f. Phaseolus Trilobus Bhpr.

AraNyamudga. a kind of bean , Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L.

Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus): Jeevaniya, Shukra

मुद्गापर्णी पौधा (Phaseolus trilobus)

रण्यमुद्ग पौधा (Phaseolus trilobus)

matsyavedhana
n. fñfish-piercing “‘ , a fñfish-hook , angle L. ; (%{I}) f. id. L. ; a cormorant L.

matsya

(cf. %{matsa} and %{maccha}) a fish RV. &c. &c. (personified as a prince with the patr. %{sAmmada} S3Br.) ; a partic. species of fñfish L. ; (in astron.) the figure of a fñfigure (= %{timi}) Su1ryas. ; a partic. luminous appearance ; (du.) the 12th sign of the zodiac (Pisces) Jyot. ; a partic. figure (= %{svastikamadhyA7kRti}) Hcat. ; (pl.) N. of a people and country (which accord. to Mn. ii , 19 forms part of Brahmarshi) RV. &c.&c. ; a king of the Matsyas (cf. %{matsa}) ; N. of Vira1t2a (as having been found by fishermen , along with his sister Matsya1 or Satya-vati1 , in the body of the Apsaras Adrika1 , metamorphosed into a fish) MBh. ; N. of a pupil of Deva-mitra S3skalya Cat. ; (%{A}) f. a female fish Un2. iv , 104 Sch. ; N. of the sister of king Vira1t2a (cf. above) MBh. ; (%{I}) f. see %{matsa} and g. %{gaurA7di}.

mIna
m. (derivation fr. 1. %{mI} very doubtful in spite of Un2. iii , 3 , ) a fish Mn. MBh. &c. ; the sign of the zodiac Pisces R. VarBr2S. Pur. ; N. of a teacher of Yoga Cat. ; (%{A}) f. a stick L.; N. of a daughter of Usha1 and wife of Kas3yapa Pur.
mInamatsya
m. du. the zodiacal sign Pisces Var. Sch.
antyabha
n. the last Nakshatra (Revati); the last sign of the zodiac, the sign Pisces.
antya.
mfn. (fr. %{an-anta} Pa1n2. 5-4 , 23) , infinite, eternal MBh. &c. ; bestowing infinite reward A1rshBr. ; (%{am}) n. infinity, eternity S3Br. Mn. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. ; immortality, future happiness MBh. &c.

Vanamudgā (वनमुद्गा) is another name for Mudgaparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Vigna radiata (mung bean or green gram) from the Fabaceae, or “pea family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.34-36 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Vanamudgā and Mudgaparṇī, there are a total of fifteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

vana n. (once m. R. v , 50 , 2 ; for 2. see p. 919 , col. 1) a forest, wood, grove, thicket, the quantity of lotuses or other plants growing in a thick cluster (but in older language also applied to a single tree) RV. &c. &c. ; plenty , abundance R. Katha1s. ; a foreign or distant land RV. vii , 1 , 19 (cf. %{araNya}) ;

araNya n. (fr. 1. %{a4raNa} ; fr. %{R} Un2.) , a foreign or distant land RV. i , 163 , 11 and vi , 24 , 10 ; a wilderness, desert, forest AV. VS. &c.

AraNyaka mfn. forest, wild, forest-born, produced in a forest, relating to a forest or a forest animal, (the %{AraNyakam@parva} of the Maha1-bha1rata is either the whole third book or only the first section of it); m. a forester, an inhabitant of the woods MBh. Ragh. &c. ;

araNyamudga m. a kind of bean L.
AraNyamudga f. a kind of bean , Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L.

araNyadvAdasi f. the twelfth day of the month Margasirsha ; with or without %{-vrata} n. N. of a ceremony performed on this day BhavP.

The six seals top a crocodile in the center, two buffalos at the top, rhino in the middle. A tiger looking back (bottom right) and a monkey at the bottom left.

parNamRga any animal which frequents the boughs of trees (as a monkey , squirrel &c.) Sus3r.

Phyllanthus Emblica the tree above and the tiger.

मुद्गपर्णी एक पेड़ पर बैठा आदमी

आमलक पेड़

AraNyamudga. a kind of bean , Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L.

Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus) frequenting the boughs of trees (= %{parNa-mRga}) He is perched on the gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica.

Mudgaparni

Mrugagandha (Phaseolus trilobus) Having the smell of an animal

Mahamarjara Gandhika (Phaseolus triobus) is a smell of a variety of cat.

Phaseolus trilobus Ait. (Family: Fabaceae) commonly-known as Ranmoong or Mudgparni found throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. It is an important gradient of a well-known ayurvedic health promotive, diseases preventive product ‘Chyavanprash’. Another main ingredient of Chyavanprash is Phyllanthus Emblica.

This association with Phyllanthus Emblica and Phaseolus trilobus goes back to Chyavanprash .

च्यवनप्राश के लिए ऐतिहासिक रूप से प्रलेखित पहला सूत्र प्राचीन आयुर्वेदिक ग्रंथ चरक संहिता में प्रकट होता है

The first historically documented formula for chyavanprash appears in the Charaka Samhita, the ancient Ayurvedic treatise.

Vanamudgā and Cya-vana

cyavana moving , moved , ii , 12 , 4 ; causing to move , shaking , 21 , 3 ; vi , viii , x AV. vii , 116 , 1 ; promoting delivery (a %{mantra}) Sus3r. iv , 15 , 2 ; m. one who causes to move , shaker RV. viii , 96 , 4 ; N. of a demon causing diseases Pa1rGr2. i , 16 , 23 ; (later form for %{cya4vAna}) N. of a R2ishi (son of Bhr2igu , author of RV. x , 19) AitBr. viii , 21 S3Br. iv , 1 , 5 , 1 Nir. MBh. (father of R2icika , xiii , 207) &c. ; of an astronomer Na1rS. i , 3 Nirn2ayas. i , 563 ; of a physician BrahmaP. i , 16 , 17 ; of the author of a law-book (see %{-smRti}) Pa1rGr2. Sch. Introd. ; of a Saptarshi in the 2nd Manv-antara Hariv. (v.l. for %{niz-cy-}) ; of a son (of Su-hotra, 1803 BhP. ix , 22 , 5 ; of Mitra7yu , 1) ; n. motion Sus3r. i , 15 , 1 ; the being deprived of (in comp.) BhP. viii , 20 , 5 falling from any divine existence for being reborn as a man Jain. [403,3] ; dying Buddh. ; trickling, flowing W.; cf. %{duz-cyavana4}.

Phaseolus trilobus Ait. (Family: Fabaceae) commonly known as Ranmoong or Mudgparni found throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. It is an important gradient of a well known ayurvedic health promotive, diseases preventive product ‘Chyavanprash’. Another main ingredient of Chyavanprash is Phyllanthus Emblica.

Chyavanaprasha Rasayana

Chyanaprasha is prepared from the pulp of 500 amalaki fruits, with addition of 36 other medicines used for kvatha (decoction) and fine powders of four other medicines added at the end. It is specifically useful for maintaining youth and vigor. It helps to build body tissues in children, old and emaciated persons. Ignites agni and Improves beauty. Also useful in disorders of voice, diseases of chest, heart diseases, and disorders of urinary tract and genital organs.

Below two Samgrahas, in the Kubal manuscript, the right side is a purge, the left side has to be the two different enema’s, bloodletting has no ingredients with last being a Nasya. Below hr-sea and asva horse.

Sam – graha

sama 2 mf(%{A4})n. (prob. originally identical with prec. ; cf. %{samAna}) even , smooth , flat , plain , level , parallel (%{karNa-s-} “‘ , on a level with the ear “‘ ; %{bhUmi-} or %{bhUmeH@samaM-kR} “‘ , to make level with the earth “‘) RV. &c. &c. ; same , equal , similar , like , equivalent , like to or identical or homogeneous with (instr. e.g. %{mayA@sama} “‘ , like to me ; or gen. , rarely abl.) , like in or with regard to anything (instr. gen. loc. , or %{-tas} , or comp. ; %{samaM-kR} , " to make equal , balance "') ib. ; always the same , constant , unchanged , fair , impartial towards (loc. or gen.) ib. ; even (not” odd “‘) , a pair VarBr2S. ; having the right measure , regular , normal , right , straight (%{samaM-kR} “‘ , to put right or in order “‘) AitBr. &c.&c. ; equable , neutral , indifferent VarBr2S. ; equally distant from extremes , ordinary , common , middling Mn. MBh. &c. ; just , upright , good , straight , honest ib. ; easy , convenient Pan5cat. ; full , complete , whole , entire L. ; m. peace (perhaps w.r. for %{zama}) R. Ka1m. ; the point of intersection of the horizon and the meridian line Gol. ; N. of partic. zodiacal signs (esp. Vr2isha , Karkat2a , Kanya1 , Vr2is3cika , Makara , and Mina) MW. ; a kind of straight line placed over a numerical figure to mark the process of extracting the square root ib. ; (in music) a kind of time Sam2gi1t. ; a grass-conflagration L. ; a Jina Gal. ; N. of a son of Dharma VP. ; of a son of Dhr2itara1sht2ra MBh. ; of a king of the Nandi-vegas (v.l. %{zama}) ib. ; (%{A}) f. a year see %{samA} p. 1153 ; (%{am}) n. level ground , a plain (%{same4@bhU4myAH} , " on level ground "') AV. S3Br. Mn. MBh. R. ; equability , equanimity , imperturbability MBh. ; likeness , similarity , equality (%{ena} "' , equally , in the same manner "') Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 2-3 , 18 ; right measure or proportion (%{ena} ,” exactly , precisely “‘) S3Br. ; settlement , compensation Mn. viii , 177 ; good circumstances Mr2icch. ; (in rhet.) a partic. figure , sameness of objects compared to one another Prata1p Kuval. ; (in geom.) a mean proportional segment (described as a fourth proportional to the two perpendiculars and the link or segment , and used for solving problems in a trapezium) Col. ; = %{samA} f. a year (see %{pApa-s-} , %{puNya-s-} , and %{su-Sama}) ; (%{sama4m}) ind. in like manner , alike , equally , similarly RV. &c. &c. ; together with or at the same time with or in accordance with (instr. or comp.) S3Br. Mn. MBh. &c. ; just , exactly , precisely Mn. VarBr2S. BhP. ; honestly , fairly R. [Cf. Gk. $ , $ , $ ; &348455[1152 ,1] Lat. {similis} ; Germ. {same} , {-sam} ; Eng. {same}.]

Above (the fourth glyph from the left) the glyph for Sam ( two perpendiculars and the link or segment) it is between (third glyph from the left) Trivut and the bow man dhanuryAsa m. Alhagi Maurorum, both are a laxative.

samacaturazra (or %{-asra}) mf(%{A})n. having four equal angles , square A1s3vGr2. VarBr2S. BhP. &c. ; m. n. a rectangular tetragon , square S3ulbas. A1ryabh. Hcat. ; an equilateral tetrñtetragon MW. ; (%{I}) ind. (with %{kR}) to transform into a square Hcat. samacaturbhuja mfn. having four equal sides ; m. or n. (?) a square or rhombus Col.
saMyavana n. mixing , mingling Jaim. VS. Sch. ; a square of four houses (= or w.r. for %{saMjavana}) MW.

Above 103 g. and #5 below have the five forked railings meaning Triratra. Samgraha is part of four a Purge. Karttika is the first month and the ripening season for the fruits above.
The Rhinos horn becomes the triangle glyph

Above the Tiger with the three arrows pointing down, below the goat with the three arrows pointing up, like the Varuna, Mitra seal below with the Tiger over the goat. Both B12 and B8 are copper tablets found at Mohenjo-Daro, that break down the Varuna, Mitra seal.

mArgabandhana n. obstruction of a road or way Ka1m.

samgraha with the standing Mitra as Purisha samgrahaniya (fecal astringents) the ingedints are Phaseolus Trilobus and Embelia ribes the bulls above under Mitra.

AraNyamudga. a kind of bean , Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L.

Phaseolus Trilobus is a astringent.

araNyadvAdasi f. the twelfth day of the month Margasirsha ; with or without %{-vrata} n. N. of a ceremony performed on this day BhavP.

Embelia ribes (vidanga) the constellation Taurus. ; vRSabha the zodiacal sign Taurus VarBr2S.; a partic. drug (described as a root brought from the Hima7laya mountains, resembling the horn of a bull, of cooling and tonic properties, and serviceable in catarrh and consumption) Bhpr. ;mfn. (cf. %{RSabha}) manly, mighty, vigorous, strong (applied like %{vRSan} to animate and inanimate objects) RV. AV. ; m. (ifc. f. %{A}) a bull (in Veda epithet of various gods, as of Indra, Br2ihas-pati, Parjanya &c. ; according to Sa1y. = %{varSayitR} , `” a showerer of bounties, benefactor “‘) RV. &c. 

vRSa1 m. (prob. later form of %{vRSan}) a man , male , husband Ka1s3i1Kh. ; the male of any animal (see %{azva-v-}) ; a bull (in older language only ifc.) Mn. MBh. &c. [1012,1] ; the zodiacal sign Taurus VarBr2S. ;
vRSanAzanam. Embelia Ribes L.
bandhura  a bird ; a goose ; Ardea Nivea ; Pentapetes Phoenicea ; Embelia Ribes ;

bandhura mf(%{A})n. (Un2. i , 42 Sch. ; cf. Va1m. v , 2 , 42) bent , inclined Ka1v. Pan5cat. ; curved , rounded , pleasant , beautiful , charming Inscr. Ka1lid. Caurap. ; (ifc.) adorned with Ka1d. ; undulating , uneven L. ; deaf L. (cf. %{badhira}) ; injurious , mischievous W. ; m. (only L.) a bird ; a goose ; Ardea Nivea ; Embelia Ribes ;

Two seals on the left only contain letters, not a pictorial image, the same as the right (Indus Valley examples) one is shown 103 g. example of 107 g.
ubhayabhAga mfn. having part in both (night and day) ; %{-hara} mfn. taking two shares or parts; applicable to two purposes ; (%{am}) n. a medicine that acts in two ways (as an emetic and a purge).

ul-likhana n. an emetic Bhpr.

ul-lekhana mfn. delineating, making lines, making visible or clear Sarvad. ; (%{am}) n. the act of marking by lines or scratches, furrowing Ka1tyS3r. ; scratching open or up, scraping Mn. Ya1jn5. ; bringing up, vomiting [219,3]; an emetic Sus3r. ; mentioning, speaking of L.

lekhanavasti f. a kind of enema for reducing corpulency Sus3r. Sa1rn3gS.
recaka mf(%{ikA})n. emptying , purging , aperient , cathartic L.
UrdhvabhAga m. upper part, higher part, subsequent part Hcat. ; Comm on Pa1n2. ; (mfn.) effective towards the upper part, emetic Car.

p-UrvArdha
m. (later n.) the front or upper part; eastern side (opp. to %{jaghanA7rdha} , %{uttarA7rdha} &c.) TS. S3Br. Gr2S3rS. &c. ; the fore or first half (of a hemistich) S3rutab. ; (with %{dinasya}) forenoon Bhartr2. &c. ; %{-kAya} m. the front or upper part of the body MBh. ; %{-bhAga} m. the upper part, top Ragh. ; %{-lambin} mfn. having the foremost half inclined, leaning forward MW.
lekhana
mf(%{I}) n. scratching, scraping, scarifying, lancing Sus3r. ; exciting, stimulating, attenuating ib. S3a1en3gS. Bhpr. ; m. Saccharum Spontaneum (a sort of reed of which pens are made) W. ; (%{I}) f. id. L.; an instrument for writing or painting, reed-pen, painting-brush, pen, pencil MBh. VarBr2S. Hcat. (m.c. also %{-ni}) ; a spoon, ladle (cf. %{ghRta-I-}) ; n. the act of scratching or scraping, lancing, scarifying Car. Sus3r. ; touching, coming in contact (said of heavenly bodies) AV.Paris3. ; writing down, transcribing Katha1s. Pan5cat. ; an instrument for scraping or furrowing Kaus3. ; Betula Bhojpatra (the bark of which is used for writing) L. ;
kRtti
f. skin, hide RV. viii, 90, 6 VS. AV.; a garment made of skin (fr. 3. %{kRt}?) Nir. v, 22; the hide or skin on which the religious student sits or sleeps, &c. (usually the skin of an antelope) W.; the birch tree L.; the bark of the birch tree (used for writing upon, for making hooka pipes, &c.) W.; (= %{kR4ttikA}) one of the lunar mansions (the Pleiads) L.; a house Naigh. iii, 4 (probably with reference to RV. viii , 90 , 6 ; but cf. %{kuTI}) ; food Nir. v , 22 ; fame (%{yazas}) ib. ; [cf. Hib. {cart} ; Lat. {cortex}.)

bhUrja m. a species of birch (the Bhoj tree , Betula Bhojpatra , the bark of which is used for writing on) Ka1t2h. Ka1v. Var. &c. ; n. a leaf made of birch bark for writing on Ka1ran2d2. ; a written deed , document , Lokapr. [Cf. Slav. {bre7za} ; Lith. {be4rzas} ; Germ. {bircha} , {Birke} ; Eng. {birch}.]

The Kubal Manuscript Is made of birch tree bark, showing a tradition that extends to the Indus valley.

lekha
m. (cf. %{rekha}) a line, stroke Ma1nGr2. ; (also pl.) writing, letter, manuscript, a written document of any kind Hariv. Ka1v. VarBr2S. &c. (cf. %{kUTa-l-}) ; a god , deity S3is3. ; = %{Abhoga} L. ; N. of a man g. %{zivA7di} ; of a poet Cat. ; pl. N. of a class of gods under Manu Ca1kshusba Pur. ; (%{A}) f. see below.
lekhA
f. (cf. %{rekhd}) a scratch, streak, line, stroke, stripe, furrow S3Br. &c , &c. ; the pale or faintly discernible streak of the young moon’s crescent Kir. (cf. %{candra-} and %{zazA7Gka-l-} , the act of delineation, drawing, painting S3ak. (v.l.) ; writing, handwriting L. ;

Abhoga 1 m. winding , curving , curve , crease MBh. R. &c. ; a serpent RV. vii , 94 , 12 ; the expanded hood of the Cobra Capella (used by Varun2a as his umbrella) MBh. Hcar. ; circuit , circumference , environs , extension , fulness , expanse S3ak. Bhartr2. &c. ; variety , multifariousness Bhartr2. ; effort , pains L. ; (for 2. %{A-bhoga} see s.v.)
Abhoga 2 m. (2. %{bhuj}) , enjoyment , satiety , fulness , completion L. ; N. of wk. ; (mfn.) ifc. enjoying , eating TA1r. ; (for 1. %{A-bhoga} see %{A-} 1. %{bhuj}.)
Abhogaya mfn. to be enjoyed RV. i , 110 , 2 ; [m. food , nourishment NBD.]

lekha m. (cf. %{rekha}) a line , stroke Ma1nGr2. ; (also pl.) a writing , letter , manuscript , written document of any kind Hariv. Ka1v. VarBr2S. &c. (cf. %{kUTa-l-}) ; a god , deity S3is3. ; = %{Abhoga} L. ; N. of a man g. %{zivA7di} ; of a poet Cat. ; pl. N. of a class of gods under Manu Ca1kshusba Pur. ; (%{A}) f. see below.
2 rekhA f. a scratch , streak , stripe , line Gr2ihya1s. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. ; a continuous line , row , range , series MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; the first or prime meridian (considered to be a line drawn from Lan3ka1 to Meru i.e. from Ceylon [supposed to lie on the equator] to the north pole) Su1ryas. ; a right or straight position of all the limbs in dancing Sam2gi1t. ; delineation , outline , drawing , sketch Ka1v. Katha1s. ; appearance (%{rekhayA} ifc. under the appñappearance of Ba1lar. ; %{rekhAM@na-labh} ,

Karttika is the first month and the ripening season for the fruits above.

kArttikazAlim. rice ripening in the month Ka1rttika (forming the principal harvest in India) W.
phalaparivRttif. a fruitful harvest A1p.

phalgunIpUrvasamaya m. the time when the moon is in the NñNakshatra Purva-Phalguni1 MBh.

The triangle glyph turns into the horn of the Rhino. The horn/triangle is Purva the first preparation before the medication.  PurvaPhalgun (Jupit

The triangle glyph turns into the horn of the Rhino. The horn/triangle is Purva the first preparation before the medication.  PurvaPhalgun (Jupiter). (purvakarma) performed before purification therapies

kRSi-phalan. harvest Megh. 16.
phalan. (ifc. f. %{A} or %{I}) fruit (esp. of trees) RV. &c. &c. ; the kernel or seed of a fruit , A1mar. ; a nutmeg Sus3r. ;
the 3 myrobalans (= %{tri-phalA} q.v.) L. 

phalAgama m. `” access of fruits “‘ , production of fñfruit , load of fñfruit S3ak. ; the fruit season , autumn R.

The killing of the bull Vrsa.
jaranta
m. an old man L. ; a buffalo Un2. Sch.
Gruel for krimi (worm infestation)
विडङ्गपिप्पलीमूलशिग्रुभिर्मरिचेन च|
तक्रसिद्धा यवागूः स्यात् क्रिमिघ्नी ससुवर्चिका||२३||
jaramAna m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di}.

Gruel prepared with Vidanga (Embelia ribes), Pippalimoola (Piper longum), Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.), Maricha (Piper nigrum) and Souvarchala lavana (black salt) along with buttermilk is beneficial in treating krimi (worm infestations).

 jantughna
mfn. killing worms Sus3r. i , 46 , 4 , 41 ; m. %{-mArin} L. ;
n. = %{-nAzana} L. ; Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{I}) f. id. 

vRSanAzana m. Embelia Ribes L.

The Mitra side a purge, the glyph with twelve dashs, AraNyamudga f. a kind of bean , Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L.

araNyadvAdasi f. the twelfth day of the month Margasirsha ; with or without %{-vrata} n. N. of a ceremony performed on this day BhavP.

  • Second glyph right side, vRSanAzana m. Embelia Ribes L. is Taurus glyph above is a purge. Embelia root bark is acrid, astringent, anthelmintic, antifertility, antioestrogenic, carminative, digestive, laxative, soothing, stimulant, stomachic, and thermogenic.
  • The third glyph is Samgarha, the forth glyph is the tail of the goat Pippali.
  • On the Varuna side, the emetic the fruit of Embelia ribes the Rhino, the fruit of the three myrobalans the bird, and the fruit of the Pippali the goat. It is the fruit of the piper lognum and unlike many other fruits and spices, it is more beneficial to your health when it is still unripe.
  • There are thirty chapters in Chikitsa Sthana.first chapter is on Rasayana Chikitsa (rejuvenation therapy), further divided into four sections (or sub-chapters). The chapter describes a number of medicine preparations by means of which one can prevent and retard aging and live a longer, happier life. Rasayana measures promote physical and mental health and provide general immunity to prevent diseases as well as strength to the tissues to be able to fight diseases effectively. Thus this chapter highlights principles of geriatrics and old-age care as well as prevention of the aging process.

Prerequisite for rejuvenation therapy (Rasayana)

Body purification therapy is indicated before Rasayana therapy. This treatment is intended to remove toxins and prepare the body for accepting the Rasayana formulations for rejuvenation. A specific bowel cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (Vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger are prescribed. After the proper evacuation of bowels, the person shall take gruel prepared with barley for three to seven days. [Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/1/25-28] After this procedure, suitable Rasayana formulations can be administered. The desired benefits cannot be obtained without proper purification of body and mind. [Cha. Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/4/38]

 Haritaki (2 tola), Vibhitaki (1 tola) and Amalaki (1/2 tola). 

bodhana mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower), arousing, exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r. ; enlightening , teaching , instructing (cf. %{bAla-bodhinI}) ; m. the planet Mercury W.; N. of a mountain VP. ; (%{I}) f. intellect, knowledge L.; long pepper L.; = %{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP.; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ; 

bodhavAsara m. `” waking-day “‘, the 11th day in the light half of the month Ka1rttika (in which Vishn2u awakes from his sleep; cf. %{bodhanI}) SkandaP.

kAyastha`” dwelling in the body “‘, the Supreme Spirit L.; Myrobalanus Chebula L.; Emblica Officinalis Bhpr. ; Ocimum sanctum L.; a drug (commonly Ka1koli1) L.; cardamoms L. ; (%{I}) f. the wife of a Ka1yath or writer L.

Terminalia chebula (haritaki) and Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki) are from the same family Myrobalan.

Literally, the term Kaya comprehends the entire process of metabolism, rather than either anabolism as denoted by Deha or catabolism denoted by Sharira. Therefore, the word “Kaya-chikitsa” indicates medical management of diseases caused by impaired “Agni”. The medical practice of Kayachikitsa is based upon an intimate understanding of nutrition and the factors responsible for digestion, absorption, and metabolism. Chikitsa Sthana is the most important section focusing on the objectives of Ayurveda for the preservation of health and treatment of the diseased.

amala mf(%{A})n. spotless, stainless, clean, pure, shining ; (%{as}) m. crystal (cf. %{amara-ratna}) BhP.; N. of a poet; of Na1ra1yan2a L. ; (%{A}) f. N. of the goddess Lakshmi1 L. ; ( %{amarA} q.v.) the umbilical cord L.; the tree Emblica Officinalis Gaertn. L. ; the plant Saptala1 L. ; (%{am}) n. talc L.
The Agni Purana in sarvarogahara 34b-36a. (Though) it is said that phlegm, bile and wind have their places above and below the umbilical region and the regions of the anus and the buttocks (respectively) in the body, they are capable of coursing through the entire body. Especially wind (can do so).

The goat above has a umbilical cord to the center hole both amara and amala. Possible monkey with horns?

amara (%{A} Mn. ii , 148 ; %{I} R. i , 34 , 16)n. undying , immortal , imperishable S3Br. xiv , &c. ; m. a god , a deity MBh. &c. ; hence (in arithm.) the number 33 ; N. of a Marut Hariv. ; the plant Euphorbia Tirucalli Sus3r. ; the plant Tiaridium Indicum L. ; a species of pine L. ; quicksilver L. ; N. of Amarasin6ha ; of a mountain (see %{-parvata}) ; mystical signification of the letter %{u} ; (%{A}) f. the residence of Indra L. [80,3] ; the umbilical cord L. ; after-birth L. ; a house-post L. ; N. of several plants , panicum Dactylon , Cocculus Cordifolius , &c. L. ; (%{I}) f. the plant Sanseviera Roxburghiana L.

anilasArathi [MBh.] m. `” the friend of wind “‘ N. of fire.

anala m. ( %{an}) , fire; the god of fire, digestive power, gastric juice; bile L.; wind L.; N. of Vasudeva; of a Muni; of one of the eight Vasus; of a monkey; of various plants (Plumbago Zeylanica and Rosea; Semicarpus Anacardium); the letter %{r}; the number three ; (in astron.) the fiftieth year of Br2ihaspati’s cycle; the third lunar mansion or Kr2ittika1 (?).

Anala n. (fr. %{anala}), `” belonging to Agni “‘N. of the constellation Kr2ittika1 VarBr2S.

Amalaka m. and %{I} f. (g. %{gaurA7di} Pa1n2. 4-1, 41) Emblic Myrobalan, Emblica Officinalis Gaertn. ; (%{am}) n. the fruit of the Emblic Myrobalan MBh. Sus3r. ChUp. &c. ; m. another plant, Gendarussa Vulgaris L.4

amRta (cf. Pa1n2. 6-2, 116) mfn. not dead MBh. ; immortal RV. &c. ; imperishable RV. VS.; beautiful, beloved L.; m. an immortal, a god RV. &c. ; N. of S3iva; of Vishn2u MBh. xiii; of Dhanvantari L.; the plant Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. ; the root of a plant L. ; (%{A}) f. a goddess RV. &c. ; spirituous liquor L.; Emblica Officinalis, Terminalia Citrina Roxb. , Cocculus Cordifolius, Piper Longum, Ocymum Sanctum; N. of the mother of Parikshit MBh. i, 3794; of Da1ksha1yan2i1 MatsyaP.; of a sister of Amr2itodana Buddh. ; of a river Hcat. ; of the first %{kalA} of the moon BrahmaP. ; (%{am}) n. the collective body of immortals RV.; the world of immortality, heaven, eternity RV. VS. AV. ; (also %{Ani} n. pl. RV. i, 72, 1 and iii, 38, 4); immortality RV.; final emancipation L.; the nectar (conferring immortality, produced at the churning of the ocean), ambrosia RV. (or the voice compared to itN. Ragh.) ; nectar-like food; antidote against poison Sus3r. ; N. of a medicament S3is3. ix , 36, medicament in general Buddh. ; quicksilver L.; poison L.; a particular poison L.; a ray of light Ragh. x , 59N. of a metre RPra1t. ; of a sacred place (in the north) Hariv. 14095, of various conjunctions of planets (supposed to confer long life) L.; the number, `” four “‘ L.

amRtaphala m. a pear tree L.; the plant Trichosanthes Dioeca Roxb, (%{am}) n. a pear L.; the fruit of Trichosanthes D. Roxb, ; (%{A}) f. the vine L.; the plant Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.

AmarAkSasI f. a particular remedy against dysentery.

Amarakta m. dysentery.

AmAtisAra m. dysentery or diarrhea produced by vitiated mucus in the abdomen (the excretion being mixed with hard and fetid matter) Sus3r. 

Prerequisite for rejuvenation therapy (Rasayana)

bhasmaka mfn. (with %{agnI}) = %{bhasmA7gni} , S3a1rn3gS. ; n. a partic. the disease of the eyes or morbid appetite from over-digestion (cf. %{bhasmA7gni}) L.; gold L.; the fruit of Embelia Ribes L.3

Embelia Ribes needs ghee or fat, milk is Bhasa like in metallurgy bringing tin and copper together.

gorabhasa (%{go4-}) mfn. strengthened with milk (Soma) RV. i , 121 , 8.

candrabhAsa m. (= %{-hAsa}) `” moon-brilliant “‘, a sword L.; N. of a hero of Ka1lika1 Virac. xxx.39

candrahAsa m. (= %{-bhAsa}) , `” moon-derider “‘ , a glittering scimitar Sa1h. vi, 27/28; Ra1van2a’s sword R. vii, 16, 43; N. of a prince, JaimBha1r. lxv-lxxv; of a hero of Ka1lika1 Virac. xxx; n. silver L. ; (%{A}) f. = %{-puSpA} Bhpr. ; Cocculus cordifolius L. 

candra mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{zcandra4} q.v.) glittering , shining (as gold) , having the brilliancy or hue of light (said of gods , of water [RV. x , 121 , 9 TS. vi] and of Soma) RV. VS. TS. vi TBr. i ; m. the moon (also personified as a deity Mn. &c.) VS. S3Br. &c. (ifc. f. %{A} MBh. ix R. Cocculus cordifolius (%{guDUcI}) ;

Chikitsa sthana composed by Charaka the first chapter is for anti-aging medicines. The first chapter by charaka looks like it is first because the fruits used are harvested in Krittika the first month. Above is the first part of the Kubal Manuscript left side the extra moon sign or candra glyph on the left side of one the nine new seals, this the candra glyph is above the five forked sign for five half days, Cocculus cordifolius (%{guDUcI}) after five half days of the prior medicines.

bhASAcitraka n. a play on words, conundrum Ba1lar.

bhASA f. speech, language (esp. common or vernacular speech, as opp. to Vedic or in later times to Sanskr2it) Nir. Pa1n2. Mn. MBh. ; any Pra1kr2it dialect or a partic. group of 5 of them (viz. Ma1ha1ra1sht2ri , S3auraseni , Ma1gadhi , Pra1cya1 , and Avanti , also called Pan5ca-vidha1 Bha1sha1 ;

The sign for Cocculus cordifolius (%{guDUcI}) and fruit of Embelia Ribes on a scimitar. candrahAsa m. (= %{-bhAsa}) , `” moon-derider “‘ , a glittering scimitar.

bhasmaka mfn. (with %{agnI}) = %{bhasmA7gni} , S3a1rn3gS. ; n. a partic. the disease of the eyes or morbid appetite from over-digestion (cf. %{bhasmA7gni}) L.; gold L.; the fruit of Embelia Ribes L.3

cANDAla m. = %{caND-} (Ved. Pa1n2. 5-4 , 36 Va1rtt. 1) VS. xxx , 21 S3Br. xiv Kaus3. Mn. &c. ; the worst among (in comp. Mn. ix , 87 MBh. xii f. ; gen. Ca1n2.) ; (%{I}) f. a Can2d2a1la woman Mn. viii , 373 BhP. vi , 3 , 12 ; (said of a woman on the first day of her courses) Vet. i , 10 ; the plant Lin3gini1 L. ; (with %{bhASA}) the language of the Can2d2a1las Sa1h. vi , 163.

bhasman mfn. chewing , devouring , consuming , pulverizing RV. v , 19 , 5 ; x , 115 , 2 ; n. (also pl.) " what is pulverized a or calcined by fire "' , ashes AV. &c. &c. (%{yuSmAbhir@bhasma@bhakSayitavyam} ,” you shall have ashes to eat “‘ i.e. " you shall get nothing "' Hit. ; %{bhasmani-huta}. mfn.” sacrificed in añashes “‘ i.e. " useless "' Pa1n2. 2-1 , 47 Sch.) ; sacred ashes (smeared on the body ; cf. %{bhasma-dhAraNa}).

bhasmazuddhikara m.” performing purification with ashes “‘N. of S3iva S3ivag.

bhasmezvara m. a partic. medicinal preparation Bhpr. ; N. of S3iva as a future Tatha1-gata Ka1ran2d2.
devanirmitamfn. `” god-made “‘ , created , natural W. ; (%{A}) f. Cocculus Cordifolius Bhpr.

amara mf(%{A} Mn. ii , 148 ; %{I} R. i , 34 , 16)n. undying , immortal , imperishable S3Br. xiv , &c. ; m. a god , a deity MBh. &c. ; hence (in arithm.) the number 33 ; (%{A}) f. the residence of Indra L. [80,3] ; the umbilical cord L. ; after-birth L. ; a house-post L. ; N. of several plants , panicum Dactylon , Cocculus Cordifolius , &c. L. ; (%{I}) f. the plant Sanseviera Roxburghiana L.
amRta (cf. Pa1n2. 6-2 , 116) mfn. not dead MBh. ; immortal RV. &c. ; imperishable RV. VS. ; beautiful , beloved L. ; m. an immortal , a god RV. &c. ; N. of S3iva ; of Vishn2u MBh. xiii ; of Dhanvantari L. ; the plant Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. ; the root of a plant L. ; (%{A}) f. a goddess RV. &c. ; spirituous liquor L. ; Emblica Officinalis , Terminalia Citrina Roxb. , Cocculus Cordifolius , Piper Longum , Ocymum Sanctum ; N. of the mother of Parikshit MBh. i , 3794 ; of Da1ksha1yan2i1 MatsyaP. ; the nectar (conferring immortality , produced at the churning of the ocean) , ambrosia RV. (or the voice compared to itN. Ragh.) ; nectar-like food ; antidote against poison Sus3r. ; N. of a medicament S3is3. ix , 36 , medicament in general Buddh. ; , of various conjunctions of planets (supposed to confer long life) L. ; the number , `” four “‘ L.
amRtavallarI or f. the creeping plant Cocculus Cordifolius.
amRtavallI [Sus3r.] f. the creeping plant Cocculus Cordifolius.

somalatikA f. Cocculus Cordifolius L.
somavallI f. the Soma plant ; Cocculus Cordifolius ; Coc. Tomentosus &c. VarBr2S. Bhpr. &c. ; %{-yogA7nanda} m. N. of wk.

Attaining Rasayana effect through purification therapies (samshodhana)

Attaining Rasayana effect by pacifying the aggravated Dosha or disease (samshamana) [Dalhana on Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 27/2]

The word virechana is used often for vamana and samshodhana as well. 

triphala mfn. having 3 fruits Ka1m. viii, 42 ; (%{A}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1, 64 Va1rtt. 3) the 3 Myrobalans (fruits of Tertminalia Chebula, Tantras Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica sudhodbhava m. `” nectar-source “‘N. of Dhanvantari (q.v.) L. ; (%{A}) f. Terminalia Chebula L.

bhUtasAra m. a species of Calosanthes Indica L. ; (%{I}) f. collective N. of the 3 myrobolans (Terminalia Chebula, TñTerminalia Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica)

sarvabhUtamfn. being , everywhere Pur. ; n. pl. (or ibc.) all beings TA1r. S3a1n3khGr2. MBh. &c. ; %{-kRt} mfn. framing all beings Mn. i , 18 ; m. n. the maker or cause of all things or beings W. ; %{-guhA-zaya} mfn. being in the heart of all beings S3vetUp. ;; %{-ruta-grahaNI} f. `” comprising the sounds of all bñbeings “‘ , a kind of writing (cf. %{sarva-ruta-saMgrahiNi-lipI}) Lalit. 

bhUtasaMsAra m. the course or circuit of existence (through continuous states of being) Mn. i , 50.

bahudosha (signs of aggravated dosha), samshodhana (purification therapy), vishuddha koshtha (purified bowel),

Emblica is reported to work as an anti-oxidant at all five levels viz. suppress free radical formation, break chain initiation, break chain propagation, reconstitute membrane, and repair damage. Phyllanthus emblica (Amalaki) and Tinospora cordifolia (guduchi) are proven for their immunomodulatory activity. 

Embelia ribes (vidanga)

Terminalia Bellerica,

terminalia chebula harItak

Tigers are the three myrobolan

triphala mfn. having 3 fruits Ka1m. viii, 42 ; (%{A}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1, 64 Va1rtt. 3) the 3 Myrobalans (fruits of Tertminalia Chebula, Tantras Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica sudhodbhava m. `” nectar-source “‘N. of Dhanvantari (q.v.) L. ;

Phyllanthus Emblica

Phyllanthus emblica above and below.

triphala

Tri-Phal the three

AraNyamudga. a kind of bean , Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L.

Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus) frequenting the boughs of trees (= %{parNa-mRga}) He is perched on the gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica.

Phaseolus trilobus Ait. (Family: Fabaceae) commonly known as Ranmoong or Mudgparni found throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. It is an important gradient of a well known ayurvedic health promotive, diseases preventive product ‘Chyavanprash’. Another main ingredient of Chyavanprash is Phyllanthus Emblica.

This association with Phyllanthus Emblica and Phaseolus trilobus goes back to Chyavanprash .

च्यवनप्राश के लिए ऐतिहासिक रूप से प्रलेखित पहला सूत्र प्राचीन आयुर्वेदिक ग्रंथ चरक संहिता में प्रकट होता है

The first historically documented formula for chyavanprash appears in the Charaka Samhita, the ancient Ayurvedic treatise.

One should regularly consume shashtika rice (Oryza sativum), shali rice(varieties of Oryza sativum rice), Green gram (mudga, Vigna radiata), rock-salt, Indian-gooseberry (amalaka, Phyllanthus emblica ), barley (yava Hordeum vulgare-), water, milk, ghee, flesh of animals of arid habitat (jangala) and honey. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 5/12]

bhUtasaMsAra m. the course or circuit of existence (through continuous states of being) Mn. i, 50.

sAraNa mf(%{I})n. id. L.; cracked, split L.; having five hair-tufts on the head L.; m. dysentery, diarrhea L.; wind during the autumn L. ;

vAtAtisAra m. dysentery produced by vitiated wñwind MW.

zleSmAtisAra m. dysentery or diarrhea produced by vitiated phlegm Sus3r.

taNDulaphalA f. long pepper L.

sArataNDula m. rice in whole grains slightly boiled Ka1tyS3r. [1208,2]

citrataNDula m. Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{a}) f. id. Bhpr. v , 1 , 112.

dulA f. `” shaking “‘, one of the 7 Kr2ittikas TS. Comm.

vAsara mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{vasar} , 2. %{vas}) relating to or appearing in the morning, matutinal, early RV.; m. n. day (as opp. to `” night “‘), a day (in general), a week-day Gr2S. Ka1v. Katha1s. &c. 

kRttikA%{As} f. pl. (rarely sg. MBh. iii, 14464 BhP. vi, 14, 30)N. of a constellation (the Pleiads, originally the first, but in later times the third lunar mansion, having Agni as its regent; this constellation, containing six stars, is sometimes represented as a flame or as a kind of razor or knife; for their oldest names see TS. iv, 4, 5, 1; in mythology the six Kr2ittika1s are nymphs who became the nurses of the god of war, Ka1rttikeya) AV. TS. S3Br. &c. ;

The first month was autumn the ripening season for those fruits used for zodhana.

sAraNa mf(%{I})n. id. L.; cracked, split L.; having five hair-tufts on the head L.; m. dysentery, diarrhea L.; wind during the autumn L. ;

The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes Ahimsa in Jainism. The word in the middle is “ahiṃsā” (non-injury). The wheel represents the dharmachakra, which stands for the resolve to halt the saṃsāra through the relentless pursuit of Ahimsa.

Below samsara is the circle inside the hand.

saMsAra m. going or wandering through, undergoing transmigration MaitrUp. ; course, passage, passing through a succession of states, the circuit of mundane existence, transmigration, metempsychosis, the world, secular life, worldly illusion (%{A@saMsArAt}, `” from the beginning of the world “‘) Up. Mn. MBh. &c. [1119,3] ; w.r. for %{saM-cAra} Bhartr2

Triratra

anilasArathi `” the friend of wind “‘ N. of fire.

anUrusArathi m. whose charioteer is Anu1ru i.e. the sun S3is3.

indrasArathi (%{i4ndra-}) mfn. Indra’s companion N. of Va1yu RV. iv, 46, 2 and 48, 2

sara mf(%{A})n. (fr. %{sR}) fluid, liquid VS.; cathartic, purgative, laxative Sus3r. Va1gbh. ; (ifc. f. %{I} Pa1n2. 3-2 , 18) going , moving &c. (cf. %{anu-} , %{abhi-} , %{puraH-s-}) ; m. going, motion L.; a cord, string (cf. %{prati-} , %{maNi-} , %{muktA-maNi-} , and %{mauktika-s-}) ; a short vowel (in prosody) Col. ; salt L. ; N. of Va1yu or the wind L. ; a waterfall L. ; often v.l. or w.r. for %{zara} (also in comp. %{sara-ja} &c. for %{zara@ja} &c.) ; (%{A4}) f. moving or wandering about Gal. ; a brook AV. TS.; a cascade, waterfall L. ; Paederia Foetida L. ; (%{I}) f. a cascade (cf. %{sari}) L.; n. a lake, pool (also irregularly in comp. for %{saras}) Un2. iv , 188 Sch. ; milk L.

sarvamf(%{A})n. (perhaps connected with %{sAra} q.v. ; inflected as a pronoun except nom. acc. sg. n. %{sarvam} , and serving as a model for a series of pronominals cf. %{sarva-nAman}) whole , entire , all , every (m.sg. `” every one “‘ ; pl. `” all “‘ ; n. sg. `” everything “‘ ; sometimes strengthened by %{vizva} [which if alone in RV. appears in the meaning `” all “‘ , every “‘ , `” every one “‘] 

सर्वावसर. `”सार्वभौमिक अवकाश”‘ , मध्यरात्रि L

वरुण के नीचे आधी रात उनके सिर के ऊपर का चक्र है।

sarvAvasara m. `” universal leisure “‘, midnight L. ; (%{am}) ind. on evñevery occasion Vet.

Midnight above Varuna’s head (sarvAnubhUti), Varuna and the two Tigers are the three myrobolans.

ardhacandraka m. (= %{ardhacandra}) the hand bent into a semicircle for grasping any one’s throat “‘ ifc. %{dattA7rdhacandraka} mfn. `” seized at the throat “‘ , Kat2ha1s. ; (%{am}) n. the semilunar point of an arrow , Sa1rn3g. ; (%{ika}) f. N. of a climbing plant (Gynandropsis Pentaphylla or Convolvulus Torpethum ;

sarvAnubhUti.  सर्वानुभूति. सार्वभौमिक अनुभव पौधा त्रिवृत a white variety of the Tri-vr2it plant ib. ; Convolvulus Turpethum Car. ;
sara f. a kind of plant( = %{kriSNa-trivRtA}) L. the root of Trivrta is black.

sAra 2 m. n. (ifc. f. %{A} ; perhaps to be connected with 1. %{sAra} above ; prob. fr. a lost root meaning. " to be strong "') the core or pith or solid interior of anything RV. &c. &c. ; firmness , strength power , energy AV. &c. &c. ; the substance or essence or marrow or cream or heart or essential part of anything , best part , quintessence (ifc. =” chiefly consisting of or depending on &c. “‘ [cf. %{para}] e.g. %{dharma-sAraM@jagat} , " the world chiefly depends on justice "' ; %{tUSNIM-sAra} mfn.” chiefly silent “‘ ; %{sArat@sAram} , " the very best "') AitBr. &c. &c. ; the real meaning , main point MW. ; a compendium , summary , epitome (often ifc. in titles of books) ; a chiefingredient or constituent part of the body (causing the peculiarities of temperament ; reckoned to be 7 , viz. %{sattva} , %{zukra} , %{majjan} , %{asthi} , %{medas} , %{mAMsa} , %{rakta}) Sus3r. VarBr2S. ; any ingredient Sus3r. ; nectar R. BhP. ; cream , curds L. ; worth , value (%{eNa} ,” in consideration of. “‘ , according to “‘) Mn. Ya1jn5. &c. ; wealth , property , goods , riches Ka1v. Pur. Ra1jat.; (%{A}) f. a kind of plant( = %{kriSNa-trivRtA}) L. ; Kus3a grass L. ; (%{I}) f. see under %{sAri} and %{sArI} (next p.) ; mf(%{A})n. hard , firm solid strong MBh. Ra1v. &c. ; precious , valuable Das3. ; good , sound , best , excellent BhP. Pan5car. ; sound (as an argument , thoroughly proved) W. ; full of (instr.) VarBr2S. ; motley , speckled (= %{zAra}) Sus3r. Ka1d.

sarvabhUta mfn. being , everywhere Pur. ; n. pl. (or ibc.) all beings TA1r. S3a1n3khGr2. MBh. &c. ; ; %{-ruta-grahaNI} f. `” comprising the sounds of all bñbeings “‘ , a kind of writing (cf. %{sarva-ruta-saMgrahiNi-lipI}) Lalit

Varuna the night the circle above his head is Sara and Sarva. Sarvabhūtaguhāśaya (सर्वभूतगुहाशय).—[adjective] dwelling in the heart of all beings. bhUtasAra m. a species of Calosanthes Indica L. ; (%{I}) f. collective N. of the 3 myrobolans (Terminalia Chebula, TñTerminalia Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica). Above the Varuna seal is the night “emitic” he holds the tigers by the neck. This seal is without Embelia Ribes.

sarvAtisArinmfn. suffering from diarrhoea caused by all the humours Sus3r.

sAra %{A}) f. a kind of plant( = %{kriSNa-trivRtA}) L. ;

 trivrut Trivruta, Suvaha (Operculina terpethum): #1 Asthapanopaga,

#2 Bhedaniyani, #3 Vishaghna

Roots occur in pieces, 1.5-15 cm long, 1-5 cm dia., usually unbranched,
cylindrical, elongated, bearing thin rootlets;

ratha 1 m. (4. %{R}) `” goer “‘ , a chariot , car , esp. a two-wheeled war-chariot (lighter and swifter than the %{anas} q.v.) , any vehicle or equipage or carriage (applied also to the vehicles of the gods) , waggon , cart RV. &c. &c.

The one horned unicorn Pazu domestic use Convolvulus Turpethum.
vRttamfn. turned , set in motion (as a wheel) RV. ; round , rounded , circular S3Br. &c. &c. ; 

suvRtta
mf(%{A})n. well rounded , beautifully globular or round MBh. VarBr2S. &c.
suvivartitamfn. well rounded Lalit.
suvartitamfn. well turned or rounded R. ; well arranged or contrived MBh. ; 
suvAhamfn. easy to be borne (meaning also `” having beautiful horses “‘ and `” having handsome arms “‘ ; cf. %{bAha}) Va1s. ;
trivrut Trivruta, Suvaha (Operculina terpethum): #1 Asthapanopaga,

saraNa (for %{sa-raNa} see p. 1183) going , moving , running GopBr. ;; (%{A}) f. a sort of convolvulus L. ;

sarvAnubhUtif. universal experience MW. ; a white variety of the Tri-vr2it plant ib. ; Convolvulus Turpethum Car. ; m. `” all-perceiving , (with Jainas) N. of two Arhats L.

suvratamf(%{A})n. ruling well RV. VS. ; strict in observing religious vows , very religious or virtuous (often in voc.) MBh. R. &c. 
sArvabhaumA
mfn. (fr. %{sarva-bhUmi}) relating to or consisting of or ruling over the whole earth
sarvasvarNamayamf(%{I})n. entirely golden Ka1v.

saM-sArAt suvrata mahA-sArathi

saraTf. see %{sara4gh} ; (prob.) m. `” wind “‘ or `” a cloud “‘ Un2. i , 133 Sch.
sAratA
f. firmness , solidity R. ; strong confidence in (loc.) ib. ; worth , value Hit. S3a1rn3gP. ; highest degree R. Ra1jat. ; the being a chief ingredient (in the body ; see %{sAra}) Car.
sauratamfn. (fr. %{su-rata}) relating to sexual enjoyment BhP. ; n. sexual enjoyment ib. ; m. mild wind L.
vAtasArathim. `” having the Wind as charioteer “‘ , Agni or Fire L.
vAta
1 mfn. (for 2. see p. 939 , col. 3) blown &c. ; (%{vA4ta}) m. wind or the wind-god (pl. also `” the Maruts “‘ , cf. %{vAyu}) RV. &c. &c. ;wind or air as one of the humours of the body
suvRtmfn. turning or running well (as a chariot) RV. TBr.

sarvAnubhUti the Tri-vr2it plant 

dhanuryAsa m. Alhagi Maurorum

Below the humped bull and the Dholivara sign post have similair writing, The signpost was made out of Ammonite Svaranabha used in medicine, also it means a spell written on weapons. This is hump or middle treatment off the Pancha- Karma. The bull seal below with the circle  trivrut  Trivruta, Suvaha (Operculina terpethum): Asthapanopaga, Bhedaniyani, Vishaghna, this is the middle Panchakarma the hump a corrective enema. Asthapanopaga.

Dholavira (Gujarati: ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) south of it. This village is 165 km (103 mi) from Radhanpur. Also known locally as Kotada timba, the site contains ruins of a city of the ancient Indus Valley.

Above the humped bull and the Dholivara signpost have similar writing, The signpost was made out of Ammonite Svaranabha used in medicine, also it means a spell written on weapons.

svanAbhaka m. N. of a spell pronounced over weapons R.
svarNalAbha m. a partic. spell recited over weapons (cf. %{-nAbha}) R.
svarNanAbha m. ammonite MBh. ; a partic. spell recited over weapons R.

svarNajan. `” gold-produced “‘ , the metal tin L.
97svarNarItif. gold-like brass , bell metal L.
98svAyasamfn. made of good metal (as a knife) RV. AV.

Below are two short swords.

sarvaloha mfn. entirely red Mn. Sch. ; m. an iron arrow L. ; n. (ibc.) all kinds of metal Cat. ; %{-maya} mf(%{I})n. entirely of iron Pan5cat.

surusura mfn. " ruling "' or” shining “‘ (= %{surat}) L.

sur (rather Nom. fr. %{sura} below) cl. 6. P. %{surati} , to rule , possess supreme or superhuman power Dha1tup. xxviii , 50 ; to shine ib. ; cl. 10. P. %{surayati} , to find fault (v.l. for %{svar}) , xxxv , 11.

surASTra (%{su4-}) mf(%{A})n. having good dominion &c. TS. ; m. N. of a country on the western side of India (commonly called Surat) MBh. Hariv.

saurASTramf(%{A} , or %{I})n. (fr. %{surASTra}) belonging to or coming from the country of Sura1t VarBr2S. ; m. the resin of Boswellia Thurifera L. ; pl. the inhabitants of Sura1t AV. Paris3. VarBr2S. Ra1jat. ; (%{A} or %{I}) f. a sort of fragrant earth found in SñSus3r. Sus3r. L. ; (%{am}) n. a kind of amalgam of zinc or copper , bell-metal , brass L. ; a kind of metre Col.
88saurASTrakamf(%{ikA})n. relating to or coming from Sura1t VarBr2S. ; m. pl. the inhabitants of SñSaura1t ib. ; n. a kind of metal L. ; a kind of poison (either of a snake or a vegetable or mineral poison) MW.
89saurASTrikamfn. belonging to Sura1t VarBr2S. ; m. pl. the inhabitants of Sura1t Car. ; n. a kind of poison (cf. prec.) L. ; bell-metal , brass L.
sarvAnubhU-ti.  सर्वानुभूति. सार्वभौमिक अनुभव पौधा त्रिवृत a white variety of the Tri-vr2it plant ib. ; Convolvulus Turpethum Car. ; Asthapanopaga(helping corrective enema) with trivrut, ammonite.

Below seal # 227111040 sarAdAna taking hold of an arrow L.

sArAdAna picking out the best Kap.

Sara is Convolvulus Turpethum and dana, Alhagi Maurorum these two were the taking hold of an arrow L

Convolvulus Turpethum first glyph (the wheel glyph) with the bowman Dhanvi Alhagi maurorum, both are a laxative.

Above (the fourth glyph from the left) the glyph for Sam ( two perpendiculars and the link or segment) it is between (third glyph from the left) Trivut and the bowman dhanuryAsa m. Alhagi Maurorum, both are a laxative.

Hikka nigrahana (reducing hiccups)shati, pushkaramula, badara beeja (seeds), kantakarika, bruhati, vruksharuha, abhaya, pippali, duralabha and kulira-shrunga

Kasahara(relieving cough)draksha, abhaya , amalaka , pippali , duralabha , shringi , kantakari, vrushchir , punarnava , tamalaki

svAdudhanvan m. `” having a sweet bow “‘N. of Ka1ma-deva (whose bow is said to be made of sugar-cane) L.

Above Mriga-siras the pippali is associated with the goat.

Convolvulus Turpethum first glyph (the wheel glyph) with the bowman Dhanvi Alhagi maurorum. Both are a laxative.

Examples of Dhanvi above where Taurus Embelia Ribes and Dhanva Convolvulus Turpethum are separated by the two dashes.

Separated from both emetic and a purge. Operculina turpethum is actually not a purgative but a mild laxative and of the family of Convolvulaceae.

Alhagi maurorum has been used locally in folk medicine as a treatment for glandular tumors, nasal polyps, and ailments related to the bile ducts.  It is used as a medicinal herb for its gastroprotective, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, antidiarrheal and antiseptic properties, and in the treatment of rheumatism and hemorrhoid.

Trivruta, Suvaha (Operculina terpethum): Asthapanopaga, Bhedaniyani, Vishaghna

Dhanvayasa- duralabha (Fagonia cretica): Arshoghna, Hikka nigrahana, Kasahara

In both seals above Varuna’s head, above the glyph that becomes the circle and below the two short dash’s, these same glyphs show up next to each other on the seals below.

Five half days and the Mitra (purge).

Alhagi maurorum has been used locally in folk medicine as a treatment for glandular tumors, nasal polyps, and ailments related to the bile ducts.  It is used as a medicinal herb for its gastroprotective, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant,  laxative, antidiarrhoeal and antiseptic properties, and in the treatment of rheumatism and hemorrhoids.

Six hundred evacuatives, as said above, will be mentioned herein brief and will be described in detail in Kalpa Sthana. There are 133 formulations of madana phala, 39 of devadali, 45 of katutumbi, 60 of dhamargava, 18 of kutaja, 60 of koshataki, 110 of shyama and trivrut, 12 aragvadha, 16 of lodhra, 20 of sunhí, 39 of saptalá and shankhini, and 48 of dantí and dravantí. These are six hundred evacuatives.

Convolvulus Turpethum divided Samgraha Embelia Ribes and Phaseolus trilobus as dvadasa.

Convolvulus Turpethum and

Alhagi maurorum has been used locally in folk medicine as a treatment for glandular tumors, nasal polyps, and ailments related to the bile ducts.  It is used as a medicinal herb for its gastroprotective, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, laxative, antidiarrheal and antiseptic properties, and in the treatment of rheumatism and hemorrhoids.

Dhanvayasa = Duralabha = Fagonia cretica

Operculina turpethum is actually not a purgative but a mild laxative and of the family of Convolvulaceae.

Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus): Jeevaniya, Shukra janana

  1. Dhanvayavas: Trishna nigrahana
  2. (reducing thirst) nagara, dhanvayavasaka, musta, parpataka, chandana, kiratatiktaka, guduchi, hribera, dhanyaka and patola

dhanuryAsa m. Alhagi Maurorum L.
dhanvan n. a bow RV. &c. (esp. ifc. ; cf. %{asthi-} , %{ugra-} , %{kSipra-} &c. , and Pa1n2. 5-4 , 132 &c. Va1m. v , 2 , 67) ; rain-bow Ma1nGr2. i , 4 ; the sign of the zodiac Sagittarius Jyot. ; (also m.) dry soil , shore (%{samudasya} ; cf. %{dhanu}) ; a desert , a waste RV. &c. &c. ; m. Alhagi Maurorum L. ; N. of a country. BhP. (Cf. %{dhanu} , %{-nus}.)
dhanvayavAsaka m. Alhagi Maurorum L.
dhanvin mfn. (Va1m. v , 2 , 59) armed with 1 , bow , a bñbow-man MBh. &c. &c. (cf. %{iSu-} , %{driDha-} , %{bahu}.) ; cunning , shrewd L. ; m. the sign of the zodiac Sagittarius Var. ; N. of S3iva MBh. ; of Vishn2u L. ; of Arjuna L. ; Terminalia Arjuna ; Mimusops Elengi ; Alhagi Maurorum L. ; N. of a son of Manu Ta1masa Hariv. ; of a Sch. on Dra1hySr. (also %{-visvAmin}) ; %{-vi-bhASya} n. the Comm. of Dhanvin.

dhanvarNas mfn. overflowing the dry land RV. v , 45 , 2.

Duralabha

dhanalobhin mfn. = %{-lubdha} MW.

dhanurdurga mfn. made inaccessible or protected by a desert ; n. a place so protected MBh. xii , 3332 Mn. vii , 70 (v.l %{dhanva-}).

dhAnvana 1 mf(%{I})n. situated in a desert Ka1m. ; m. = prec. m. S3a1n3khS3r.

Desert plants contain important phytochemicals which are cheap source of medicine for local communities. These phytochemicals are much better than synthetic medicine due to their harmless effect. Alhagi maurorum, belonging to family Leguminosae, is a highly branched spiny shrub which reaches up to 1.5 to 4 feets in height. Roots may reach up to the depth of 15 meters. Alhagi maurorum is used in folk medicine, as a purgative, diaphoretic, expectorant and diuretic used to treat piles, migraine, warts and rheumatism.

Each one karsha (around 12 grams) of the Trivrita powder (the variety having pink roots), Haimavati (rind of Haritaki). Shyama (the variety having black roots) Nilini, Hastipippali, Pippalimula, Musta, Ajamoda and Duralabha, one pala of Nagara and twenty pala of jaggery are mixed together. Modakas (large pills of the size of Udumbara fruit may be preferred using the above said paste like mixture. 

Preparation of Trivrita useful in post-rainy season

त्रिवृद्दुरालभामुस्तशर्करोदीच्यचन्दनम् |
द्राक्षाम्बुना सयष्ट्याह्वसातलं जलदात्यये ||५७||

The powder of Trivrita, Duralabha, Musta, Sugar, Udichya (Balaka), Chandana, Yashti and Satala (charmakasa) may be token in along with Drakshambu (grape water) for purgation. This preparation is useful in post-rainy season.[57]

Preparation of Trivrita suitable during any season

त्रिवृच्छ्यामा दुरालम्भा वत्सकं हस्तिपिप्पली |
नीलिनी त्रिफला मुस्तं कटुका च सुचूर्णितम् ||६१||

सर्पिर्मांसरसोष्णाम्बुयुक्तं पाणितलं ततः |
पिबेत् सुखतमं ह्येतद्रूक्षाणामपि शस्यते ||६२||

Trivrita (root having pink color), Shyama (root having black color), Duralambha, Vatsaka, Hastipippali, Nilini, Triphala, Musta and Katuka are to be finely powdered. This powder is to be taken in, along with ghee, meat-sour and hot water, in a dose of one Panitala (around 12 grams). This preparation causes purgation with ease and is indicated even to persons who are Ruksha (who didn’t undergo oleation therapy or who are Ruksha (who didn’t undergo oleation therapy or who do not possess sufficient quantity of fat stores in their body). [61-62]

Punch mark coinage from the Maurya dynasty, that have a direct relationship with Indus script.

Post-Indus Valley punch mark with same bow and wheel signs, the third coin down has the five forked symbol with two fish.

It is interesting to note that Mr. Durga Prasad of Varanasi who had specialised in the study of punchmarked silver coins and handled thousands of them so far discovered, ascertained that 39 silver coins which were found in the earliest layers at Taxila weighed 100 rattis each =180 grains. These corns cannot be taken to be the double Persian sigloi mentioned below, for the Persian sigloi weighed not more than 36.45 grains and a double weighed 172.9 grains. They, therefore, are to be taken as indigenous coins called aptly Satamana coins in our texts.

• 322–298 BCEChandragupta
• 298–272 BCEBindusara
• 268–232 BCEAshoka
• 232–224 BCEDasharatha
• 224–215 BCESamprati
• 215–202 BCEShalishuka
• 202–195 BCEDevavarman
• 195–187 BCEShatadhanvan
• 187–184 BCEBrihadratha

It is difficult to comprehend fully the meaning of these symbols and punch-marks. That they have meaning is indicated by Buddhaghosa who mentions in the Samantapasadika the ancient numismatic treatise known as Rupasutta as stating how a moneyer (Heranhako) could spot the village, the nigama or the nagara, and even the mint where a coin was manufactured, in the light of its marks, and whether it was “on a hill or on the bank of a river” (naditire va).

The punches, though not struck with one disc, were struck at one time. They may represent a series of officials of diminishing area of jurisdiction. The last and most frequently changing symbol would represent the actual issuer of the coin. The constant symbol, the sun, would represent the highest official, perhaps the king himself, and the next commonest, the various forms of six armed symbol, the highest officials next under him (Allan, lbid., Ixx, lxxi).

 Chandragupta founder of the Maurya Empire in 322 BCE, and existing in a loose-knit fashion until 185 BCE.

candragraham. an eclipse of the moon Hcat.
cAndramf(%{I})n. (fr. %{candra4}) lunar Jyot. VarBr2S. Su1ryas. Katha1s. &c. ; composed by Candra , Praud2h. ; m. a lunar month (cf. %{gauNa} , %{mukhya}) L. ; the light half of a month W. ; the moon-stone L. ;
graha(Pa1n2. 3-3 , 58 ; g. %{vRSA7di}) mfn. ifc. (iii , 2 , 9 Va1rtt. 1) seizing , laying hold of , holding BhP. iii , 15 , 35 (cf. %{aGkuza-} , %{dhanur-} , &c.) ; obtaining , v , viii ; perceiving , recognising , iv , 7 , 31 ; m. `” seizer (eclipser) “‘ 
guptamfn. protected , guarded , preserved AV. &c. ; hidden , concealed , kept secret , secret Bhartr2. Pan5cat. Katha1s. &c. (with %{daNDa} , a secret fine , fine secretly imposed or exacted Hit. ; cf. %{gUDha-d-}) ; = %{saMgata} (? joined , combined) W. ;

bindusAram. N. of a king (son of Candra-gupta) VP. HParis3.

Below the dog in a circle are both Sara for BinduSara

The above coin has Bindu the elephant and Sara the dog.
saramAf. the fleet one “‘N. of a female dog belonging to Indra and the gods (represented in RV. X , 14 , 10 as the mother of the four-eyed brindled dogs of Yama [cf. IW. 470] , and called in MBh. i , 671 %{deva-zunI} in the RV. said to have gone in search of and recovered the cows stolen by the Pan2is ; elsewhere regarded as the mother of beasts of prey Sarama1 Deva-s3uni1 is also said to be the authoress of part of RV. x , 108) RV. Pa1rGr2. MBh. &c. ; a female dog in general , bitch L. ;
bhinddhilavaNA
f. (fr. 2. sg. Impv. + %{l-}) constant sprinkling of salt g. %{mayUra-vyaMsakA7di} (cf. %{paca-lavaNA}).
bhindipAlaor %{-laka} m. a short javelin or arrow thrown from the hand or shot through a tube 

(%{A@saMsArAt}, `” from the beginning of the world “‘) Up. Mn. MBh. &c. [1119,3] ;

The bow is “Da” the wheel is “Sarat”

Post-Indus Valley punch mark with same bow and wheel signs, the third coin down has the five forked symbol with two fish.

Bindusara
Bindu the elephant right, square with wheel inside, the square is the phonetic “b” or “bh” the wheel is Sara.
bindum. (once n. MBh. ; in later language mostly written %{vindu}) a detached particle , drop , globule , dot , spot AV. &c. &c. ; (with %{hiraNyaya}) a pearl AV. xix , 30 , 5 (cf. %{-phala}) ; a drop of water taken as a measure L. ; a spot or mark of coloured paint on the body of an elephant Kum.

Bindhusara Punchmark with Dog Sara with elephant Bindu, and square with plant.


zaza
m. a hare , rabbit , or antelope (the markings on the moon are supposed to resemble a hare or rabbit) RV. 
,,,,,,,,,,,,////

n. N. of the last of the 14 Pu1rvas or most ancient Jaina writings L.

bindujAla and n. collection or mass of dots or spots (esp. on an elephant’s face and trunk) L.
bindujAlaka n. collection or mass of dots or spots (esp. on an elephant’s face and trunk) L.

bhidura mfn. (ifc.) breaking, splitting, piercing, destroying Hcar. ; easily split or broken, fragile, brittle, Ma1latim. (cf. Va1m. v , 2 , 60) ; divided, variegated, mingled or mingling with S3is3. ; m. a chain for an elephant’s feet L. ; n. a thunderbolt Un2. i , 52 , Sch ,
bhinnakaraTa (MBh.) mfn. a rutting elephant having a fissure in the temples (from which fluid exudes).
bhinnakarindrakumbhamuktAmaya mf(%{I})n. consisting of pearls falling from the crack in the frontal protuberances of a chief elephant S3a1rn3gP.

biDAlapada or n. a partic. measure of weight(= %{karSa}) S3a1rn3gS. Sus3r.
biDAlapadaka n. a partic. measure of weight(= %{karSa}) S3a1rn3gS. Sus3r.

Samprati

samprati 1 ind. directly over , against or opposite , close in front of (acc.) S3Br. Pa1rGr2. ; rightly , in the right way , at the right time Br. ChUp. ; exactly , just TS. S3Br. ChUp. ; now , at this moment , at present Ka1v. Ra1matUp. VarBr2S. &c. ; (with impf.) immediately , at once Katha1s.
samprati 2 m. N. of the 24th Arhat of the past Utsarpin2i1 L. ; of a son of Kun2a1la HParis3.
sampratI (%{-prati-} 5. %{i}) P. %{-pratyeti} , to go towards , arrive at , come to a firm conviction , believe firmly in , trust in (gen.) R. Bhat2t2. ; Pass. %{-pratI7yate} , to be meant or understood Pat.: Caus. %{-pratyAyayati} , to cause to be meant or understood by ib.

pratikAra   m. (cf. %{pratIk-}) requital , retaliation , reward , retribution , revenge. R. Katha1s. Ra1jat. ; opposition , counteraction , prevention , remedy MBh. Sus3r. ; = %{sama} and %{bhaTa} L. ; %{-karman} n. opposition , resistance Ra1jat. ; %{-jJa} mfn. knowing what remedy should be applied MBh. ; %{-vidhAna} n. medical treatment Ragh.

pratikarman n. requital , retaliation , corresponding action MBh. R. ; counteraction , cure , medical treatment Car. ; decoration , toilet , personal adornment MBh. R. &c. ; (%{a}) ind. in every work , at each performance or celebration Ka1tyS3r. MBh.

167 the square of Bindusara

Below 168 the obverse marks in the 5th row, the two fish and forked glyph Samprati,

167 the square of Bindusara, 168 two fish and the comb railing as Samprati, 170 a centipede for Shatadhanvan

the Maurya symbol with eight spokes the eight-fold paths of Buddha.
sarvacakrAf. (with Buddhists) N. of a Tantra deity Buddh.

In Buddhism, the Dharma Chakra is widely used to represent the Buddha’s Dharma (Buddha’s teaching and the universal moral order), Gautama Buddha himself and the walking of the path to enlightenment, since the time of Early Buddhism.
The symbol is also sometimes connected to the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path and Dependent Origination. The pre-Buddhist dharmachakra (Pali: dhammacakka) is considered one of the ashtamangala (auspicious signs) in Hinduism and Buddhism and often used as a symbol of both faiths.

There are different designs of the Buddhist dharmachakra with 8, 12, 24 or more spokes. In different Buddhist traditions, the different number of spokes may represent different aspects of the Buddha’s Dharma (teaching). In the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist tradition for example, the 8 spoked wheel represents the noble eightfold path.

This pillar capital symbolized Dharmachakraparivartana that is the first sermon of Buddha.

The Six Realms of Existence, also known as the Wheel of Birth and Death, developed under Mahayana Buddhism. The Six Realms represent a mandala, a map of consciousness, which represents six worlds of existence according to the teachings of Buddha (Metzner 155).

The spokes of a wheel are also often used as symbols of the Buddhist doctrine of dependent origination. According to the Theravada scholar Buddhaghosa:

“It is the beginningless round of rebirths that is called the ’Wheel of the round of rebirths’ (saṃsāracakka). Ignorance (avijjā) is its hub (or nave) because it is its root. Ageing-and-death (jarā-maraṇa) is its rim (or felly) because it terminates it. The remaining ten links [of Dependent Origination] are its spokes [i.e. saṅkhāra up to the process of becoming, bhava].”

Some Buddha statues also depict the related Dharmachakra Mudrā, a hand sign depicting the turning of the Dharma wheel.

A Hindu dynasty whose emblem was the peacock was even named for the bird. The Mauryan Empire, which was founded in 322 B.C. by Chandragupta Maurya, was called the greatest empire in ancient India; it once stretched from Afghanistan to Bengal, and from Kashmir to the Deccan plateau. Mauryan himself was raised by peacock-tamers, some sources say. The later Gupta dynasty depicted a peacock, and the king feeding a peacock, on gold and silver fourth- and fifth-century coins.

Ashoka successors, ~272 – 232 BC. 3.40g, 13x11mm. G&H Series Vb 525 Obverse: Sun, six-armed symbol, archer, ‘goddess’, and other symbols Reverse: Banker’s marks (Cited from: https://www.cointalk.com/threads/coins-of-the-maurya-empire.358205/)

Satadhanva

dhanurbhRt (Ragh.) m. bow-man , archer.
dhanurgraha m. bearing a bñbow , an archer R. ; the art of managing a bñbow MBh. ; N. of a son of Dhr2ita-ra1sht2ra ib.
dhanurgrAhin (S3ak.) m. an archer “‘
dhanurveda m. the science of archery , an añarchery treatise (regarded as an Upa-veda connected with the Yajur-veda , and derived from Vis3va1mitra or Bhr2igo) MBh. Hariv. &c.

Satadhanva

zATa. m. (fr. %{zaT}?) a strip of cloth , a kind of skirt or petticoat , a partic. sort of garment or gown Vas. Ca1n2. ; (%{I}) f. see below.

 zata %{I}) a hundred (used with other numerals thus , %{ekA7dhikaM@zatam} , or %{eka-z-} , a hñhundred + one , 101 %{viMzaty-adhikaM@zatam} or %{viMzaM@z-} , a hñhundred + twenty ,

zatacaraNA f. a centipede A1pGr2. Sch.
zatapAd. (%{zata4-}) mf(%{adI})n. having a hñhundred feet RV. Shad2vBr. La1t2y. MaitrS. m. a centipede , Tulus Sus3r.

zatapAdaka.m. a centipede Sus3r. ; (%{ikA}) f. id. L. ; a kind of medicinal plant

zatapAdI. a centipede L. ; a kind of plant (= %{sita-kaTabhI}) L.

Standard of 100 rattis the centapede above zatapAdI, a hundred feet.

Satadhanva or 100 Rattis

According to Durga Prasad (JRASB, Nunusmatic Supplement, XLVII, p. 76), these older per-Maurya coins are struck on a standard of 100 rattis as against the later Maurya coins of standard 32 rattis weight. This confirms the truth of the Vinayapitaka that the older Karshapana of 20 Mashakas was of lesser weight.

These weigh, as we have seen, 100 ratia =180 grains on as average.

  1. 180 Grain = 11.6638038 Grams
  2. 11.6638038 x 3 = 34.99 Grams

The sigloi weighs 86.45 grains, while the Attic standard = 67.5 grains. These coins are “thick, slightly bent bars of silver, stamped with wheel or sun like designs resembling the 6 armed symbol to be seen on the later punch-marked silver coins, while they form only a single type”. It was probably these pieces in which Ambhi, the king of Taxila, had paid to Alexander his present of what the Greek writers describe as “80 talents of coined silver” (Curtius, VIII. 12, 42).

Below the different symbols for the word Maurya.

marUkam. (only L.) a kind of deer ; a peacock; a frog ; Curcuma Zerumbet.
Karshapana of the Magadha Janapada, ~370 – 321 BC. 3.25g, 19x17mm. G&H Series IVd #402 Obverse: Sun, six-armed symbol, frog, ‘caduceus,’ and other marks Reverse: Banker’s mark (Cited from: https://www.cointalk.com/threads/coins-of-the-maurya-empire.358205/)
mAyUramf(%{I})n. (fr. %{mayUra}) belonging to or coming from a peacock MBh. R. &c. ; made of pñpeacock “‘ feathers VarBr2S. ; drawn by pñpeacock Hariv. ; dear to pñpeacock Ma1lav. ; (%{I}) f. a species of plant L. ;
kSudrazIrSam. the tree Celosia cristata (= %{mayUra-zikhA}) L.
mayUram. (prob. fr. 2. %{mA}) a peacock VS. La1t2y. MBh. &c. ; a cock L. ; a species of plant Sus3r. (Celosia Cristata or Achyranthes Aspera L.) ; 
mayUracUDan. `” pñpeacock’s crest “‘ , a kind of gall-nut L. ; (%{A}) f. Celosia Cristata L.
mayUrazikhAf. `” pñpeacock’s crest “‘ , Celosia Cristata Bhpr.
zikhAvalamfn. pointed , crested W. ; m. a peacock , Kavya7d. ; (%{A}) , t. Celosia Cristata W.

zikhin
mfn. having a tuft or lock of hair on the top of the head Gaut. MBh. &c. ; one who has reached the summit of knowledge BrahmUp. ; proud MW. ; m. a peacock RPra1t. Ya1jn5. MBh. &c. ; a cock L. ; Ardea Nivea (a kind of heron or crane) L. ; a bull L. ; of the second Buddhi Lalit. Ka1ran2d2. (cf. MWB. 136 n. 1 ; 516) ; of a Brahma1 (with Buddhists) Lalit. ; (%{inI}) f. a pea-hen R. ; cock’s comb , Celosia Cristata L.
The cockscomb flower is an annual addition to the flower bed, commonly named for the red variety similarly colored to the cock’s comb on a rooster’s head.

The peacock was dynastic among the mauryan empire rulers. The Ashokan pillars at Nandangarh and Sanchi Stupa symbolize the axis on which the world spins. These pillars represent the first physical evidence of the buddhist faith.

Studies found that the extract of Celosia may help to heal burns and wounds faster. Furthermore, it also has been believed to treat uterine bleeding, bloody stool and bleeding haemorrhoids. The benefits are due to ethanolic extract, which provides flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins (kindayohan/celosia).

dharmarAjikA f. a Stupa Buddh.
dharmazarIra n. a body or collection of virtues or sacred relics Ja1takam. ; a kind of small Buddh. Stu1pa.

dara(Pa1n2. 3-3 , 58) mfn. ( %{dRR}) ifc. , cleaving , breaking 
dAra1 Inf(%{I})n. ( %{dRR}) tearing up , rending (cf. %{bhU-}) ;
2
darma
m. ( %{dRR}) a d
2darmam. ( %{dRR}) a demolisher RV. iii , 45 , 2.
pratidAraNa
n. ( %{dRR}) battle , fig
pratidAraNan. ( %{dRR}) battle , fighting , fierce conflict L.

Below is the crested stupa mayUrazikhA peacock’s crest “‘ , Celosia Cristata Bhpr.

Stupa

Dhar-mara-jit supporting the conqueror of death a stupa buddha.

dharmarAjikAf. a Stupa Buddh.
mArajitm. conqueror of Ma1ra “‘N. of Buddha L.
mArakAyikamfn. belonging to the retinue or attendants of Ma1ra Lalit.
dharmarAjam. `” id. “‘ a just or righteous king Hariv. ; any king or prince L. ; a Buddha L. 
mAramfn. ( %{mR}) killing , destroying ; m. death , pestilence VarBr2S. AV.Paris3. ; slaying , killing Ra1jat. (cf. %{pazu-m-}) ; an obstacle , hindrance Va1s. ; the passion of love , god of love Hariv. Ka1v. Katha1s. ; (with Buddhists) the Destroyer , Evil One (who tempts men to indulge their passions and is the great enemy of the Buddha and his religion ; four Ma1ras are enumerated in Dharmas. 80 , viz. %{skandha-} , %{kleza-} , %{devaputra-} , and %{mRtyu-m-} ; but the later Buddhist theory of races of gods led to the figment of millions of Ma1ras ruled over by a chief Ma1ra) MWB. 208 &c. ; the thorn-apple L. ; (%{I}) f. killing , slaughter Prasannar. ; pestilence (also personified as the goddess of death and identified with Durga1) AV.Paris3. Katha1s. Pur.
amaramf(%{A} Mn. ii , 148 ; %{I} R. i , 34 , 16)n. undying , immortal , imperishable S3Br. xiv , &c. ; m. a god , a deity MBh. &c. ; hence (in arithm.) the number 33 ; 
mura2 m. N. of a Daitya slain by Kr2ishn2a MBh. Hariv. BhP. (cf. %{muru}) ; (%{A}) f. a species of fragrant plant (named after the Daitya) Bhpr. ; said to be the N. of the wife of Nanda and mother of Caudragupta VP. ; n. see under 1 , %{mura}.
muraNDam. a country to the northwest of Hindu1sta1n (also called Lampa1ka , and now Lamghan in Cabul) L. ; pl. N. of a people (cf. %{muruNDa}).
mura1 n. encompassing , surrounding L. ; (%{A}) f. see 2. %{mura}.
dhara
mf(%{A})n. ( %{dhR}) bearing , supporting 
amuramf(%{a})n. not ignorant , wise , intelligent , sharp-sighted RV. ; (v.l. %{a-mura}) AV. v , 1 , 9 and 11 , 5.
dhar-Sam. ( %{dhRS}) boldness , insolence , arrogance MBh. i , 7040 (cf. %{dur-}) ; impatience W. ; paralysing , rendering weak or impotent ib. ; violation (
of a woman) ib. ; injury , wrong , insult ; restraint ib. ; a eunuch ib. (cf. below).
dharNasi
mfn. id. (a synonym of %{bala} Naigh. ii , 9) ; full of spirit (as Soma) RV. TBr. ; n. support RV. i , 105 , 6.
stUpam. (accord. to Sa1y. fr. %{styai} accord. to Un2. fr. 3. %{stu} ; prob. connected with %{stupa4} , under 3. %{stu}) a knot or tuft of hair , the upper part of the head , crest , top , summit [cf. Gk. $] RV. TS. ; &380322[1260 ,1] Pan5cavBr. ; a heap or pile of earth or bricks &c. , (esp.) a Buddhist monument , dagoba (generally of a pyramidal or dome-like form and erected over sacred relics of the great Buddha or on spots consecrated as the scenes of his acts) MWB. 504 ; any relic-shrine or relic-casket (made of various materials , such as terra cotta , clay , elaborately formed brick or carved stone ; often very small and portable , and enclosing a fragment of bone or a hair &c. of some saint or deceased relative , or inscribed with a sacred formula ; these are carried long distances and deposited in hallowed spots such as Buddha-Gaya1) MWB. 397 , 504 ; any heap , pile , mound , tope Hcat. ; the main beam (of a house) A1pGr2. ; (L.also , `” wind ; fight ; = %{kUla} ; = %{b

Below both mounds are crested both contain the word for the family name Maurya both dharmarAjikA

The dynasty’s connection to the peacocks, as mentioned in the Buddhist and Jain traditions, seems to be corroborated by archaeological evidence. For example, peacock figures are found on the Ashoka pillar at Nandangarh and several sculptures on the Great Stupa of Sanchi. Based on this evidence, modern scholars theorize that the peacock may have been the dynasty’s emblem.

dharmarAjam. `” id. “‘ a just or righteous king Hariv. ; any king or prince L. ; a Buddha L. ; N. of Yama MBh. Hariv. Dal. &c. (%{-tA} f. MBh.) ; 

Mauryans, G-H #587, attributed by Mitchiner to the Period of Samprati (c.217-206 BC): (Cited from: https://www.cointalk.com/threads/coins-of-the-maurya-empire.358205/)

The Mauryan coinage with Three standing men are the three prior kings of Maurya , then Samprati as Mitchiner above mentioned.

bhind the javelin-sara the dog.

Vajrayana Buddhism absorbed the conch (below) as a symbol that fearlessly proclaimed the truth of the dharma. Among the eight symbols, it stands for the fame of the Buddha‘s teaching, which spreads in all directions like the sound of the conch trumpet.

Bhagavat atha bhuja samis

bhagavaddrumam. `” Bhagavat’s (i.e. Buddha’s) tree “‘ , (prob.) the sacred fig-tree L.
bhagavat2 mfn. (for 1. see under %{bha4ga}) possessing fortune , fortunate , prosperous , happy RV. AV. Gr2S. BhP. ; glorious , illustrious , divine , adorable , venerable AV. &c. &c. ; holy (applied to gods , demigods , and saints ae a term of address , either in voc. %{bhagavan} , %{bhagavas} , %{bhagos} [cf. Pa1n2. 8-3 , 1 Va1rtt. 2 Pat. , and viii , 3 , 17] f. %{bhagavatI} m. pl. %{bhagavantaH} ; or in nom. with 3. sg. of the verb ; with Buddhists often prefixed to the titles of their sacred writings) ; m. `” the divine or adorable one “‘N. of Vishn2u-Kr2ishn2a Bhag. BhP. ; of S3iva Katha1s. ; of a Buddha or a Bodhi-sattva or a Jina Buddh. (cf. MWB. 23) ; (%{I}) f. see below.

samiSaNya Nom. P. %{-yati} , to drive together RV.

bhujasambhoga m. `” union of arms “‘ , an embrace R.
bhujasaMzraya m. going to or taking refuge in the arms (of another) MBh.

bhujAGka m. an embrace R.

bhujAntara `” between the arms “‘ , the breast MBh. Ka1lid. Katha1s. (%{am} ind. between the arms , in the embrace) ; a partic. astron , correction Siddha7ntas3.

dharmacakran. the wheel or range of the law MBh. Buddh. Jain. ; a partic. mythical weapon Hariv. R. ; m. `” having or turning the whñwheel of the lñlaw “‘ , a Buddha L. ; %{-bhRt} m. holding the whñwheel of the lñlaw “‘ , a Buddha or Jaina L.

Dharmacakra is the wheel, the spear is Darmapala.

 The name “dharma protector” in Sanskrit, and the dharmapālas are also known as the Defenders of the Justice (Dharma), or the Guardians of the Law. There are two kinds of dharmapala, Worldly Guardians (lokapala) and Wisdom Protectors (jnanapala). Only Wisdom Protectors are enlightened beings.

athari%{is} , or %{atharI4} f. (said to be fr. %{at} , to go , or fr. an obsolete %{ath}) , flame [Gmn. ; `” the point of an arrow or of a lance “‘ NBD. ; `” finger “‘ Naigh.] RV. iv , 6 , 8.
atha(or Ved. %{a4thA}) ind. (probably fr. pronom. base %{a}) , an auspicious and inceptive particle (not easily expressed in English) , now ; then ; moreover ; rather ; certainly ; but ; else ; what? how else? &c.
atharvIf. [`” female priest “‘ Gmn. BR.] pierced by the point (of an arrow or of a lance) RV. i , 112 , 10 ; cf. %{athari}.
atharvan%{A} m. (said to be fr. an obsolete word %{athar} , fire) , a priest who has to do with fire and Soma ; N. of the priest who is said to have been the first to institute the worship of fire and offer Soma and prayers
atiprajval
to flame or blaze exceedingly MBh.
aST-Aramfn. having eight spokes Nr2isUp. ; (%{aSTA7ra}) %{-cakra-vat} mfn. having a wheel with eight spokes “‘ , a N. of Man5jus3ri Buddh.
aSTAratha m. N. of a son of Bhimaratha Hariv. 1744.
auSTraratha mfn. (fr. %{uSTra-ratha}) , belonging to a carriage drawn by camels (as a wheel) Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 4-3 , 122.
aramfn. ( %{R}) , swift , speedy L. ; little (only for the etym. of %{udara}) Comm. on TUp. ; ifc. , `” going “‘ cf. %{samara4} ; (%{a4s}) m. the spoke or radius of a wheel RV. &c. ; the spoke of an altar formed like a wheel , S3ulb. ; a spoke of the timewheel , viz. a Jaina division of time (the sixth of an Avasarpin2i or Utsarpin2i) ; the eighteenth Jaina saint of the present Avasarpin2i1 ; N. of an ocean in Brahma1’s world (only for a mystical interpretation of %{araNya}) ChUp. ; (%{am}) n. the spoke of a wheel L. ; (%{a4ram}) ind. see s. v.
RSTif. a spear , lance , sword RV. AV. iv , 37 , 8 ; 9 ; viii , 3 , 7 ; [cf. O. Pers. {arstis} ; Zd. {arsti}.]
Arthashastra Books
sarSTika furnished with spears MBh. (v.l.)
RSTimatmfn. furnished with spears (as the Maruts) RV.
RSTividyut(%{RSTi4-}) mfn. glancing or glittering with swords (as the Maruts) RV. i , 168 , 5 ; v , 52 , 13.
sArSTitAf. equality in rank or condition or power (sometimes regarded as one of the grades of Mukti or beatitude ; cf. %{sAlokya} , col. 3) TBr. Up. &c.
sArSTamfn. (perhaps fr. 7. %{sa} + %{A} + %{RSTa} , 2. %{riS}) of equal rank or condition A1s3vS3r.
sArSTyan. a partic. state of Mukti (see above).

arhat mfn. deserving , entitled to (acc.) RV. ; used in a respectful address for %{arhasi} Pa1n2. 3-2 , 133 , able , allowed to (acc.) RV. ; worthy , venerable , respectable S3Br. AitBr. &c. (see %{arhat-tama} below) ; praised , celebrated L. ; (%{an}) m. a Buddha who is still a candidate for Nirva1n2a ; (= %{kSapaNaka}) a Jaina ; an Arhat or superior divinity with the Jainas ; the highest rank in the Buddhist hierarchy L.
Arhata mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{arhat}) , belonging to an Arhat or Jaina saint Prab. ; m. a Jaina , a follower of Jaina doctrines Prab. VP. ; a Buddhist , AgniP. ; (%{am}) n. the Jaina doctrine , Jainism.

The Arthashastra (Sanskrit: अर्थशास्त्रम्, IAST: Arthaśāstram) is an Ancient Indian Sanskrit treatise on statecraft, political science, economic policy and military strategy. Kautilya, also identified as Vishnugupta and Chanakya, is traditionally credited as the author of the text. The latter was a scholar at Takshashila, the teacher and guardian of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.

One can lose a war as easily as one can win.
War is inherently unpredictable.
War is also expensive. Avoid war.
Try Upaya (four strategies).
Then Sadgunya (six forms of non-war pressure).
Understand the opponent and seek to outwit him.
When everything fails, resort to military force.

Arthashastra Books 2.10, 6-7, 10

bhindipAlaor %{-laka} m. a short javelin or arrow thrown from the hand or shot through a tube 
The spear below next to a Stupa on both sides

Buddhist Vajrayana Refuge Formulations
Outer (‘Triple Gem’) Buddha Dharma Sangha
Inner (‘Three Roots’) Guru Yidam Dharmapala and Dakini
Secret Nadi Prana Bindu
Ultimate /. Dharmakaya Sambhogakaya Nirmanakaya

dharmapAla m “‘ , lñlaw guardian “‘ fig. = punishment or sword MBh. xii , 4429 ; 6204 ; N. of a minister of king Das3a-ratha R. ; of a great scholar Buddh. ; of a prince Inscr. ; of a poet Cat.

The spear below is Dharmpala the inner root, under Sangha. The next symbol is the three mounds and a crest, next to it right side above is the Triratna three jewels of Buddhism – the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. dharmarAjikA f. a Stupa Buddh.


Above the three Stupa of Taxila are three Buddhist stupa as Triratna.

Asa 2 m. (2. %{as}) , ashes , dust AV. ix , 8 , 10 S3Br. ; (%{am}) n. a bow L.

caitya 2 mfn. relating to a funeral pile or mound (%{citA}) A1s3vGr2. iii , 6 Gr2ihya1s. ii , 4 ; m. n. a funeral monument or Stu1pa (q.v.) or pyramidal column containing the ashes of deceased persons , sacred tree (esp. a religious fig-tree) growing on a mound , hall or temple or place of worship (esp. with Buddh. and Jain. and generally containing a monument) , a sanctuary near a village A1s3vGr2. i , 12 Para1s3. Ya1jn5. ii , 151 & 228 MBh. &c. ; a Jain or Buddh. image L. ;

chattram. (Pa1n2. 6-4 , 97 ; often spelt %{chatra}) a mushroom L. ; Andropogon Schoenanthus L. ; a parasol-shaped bee-hive W. ; n. a parasol , Chattar (ensign of royal or delegated power Jain. Ra1jat. v , 18 PSarv.) Ka1tyS3r. xxi , 3 , 6 Gobh. Kaus3. A1s3vGr2. iii , 8 AdbhBr. Mn. &c. (ifc. f. %{a} MBh. iii , 933) ; an umbrella Ca1n2. ; a particular constellation VarBr2. xii , 8 Laghuj. x , 
ratnacchattra
n. an umbrella (adorned) with jewels Pan5car. ; %{-kUTa-saMdarzana} m. v.l. for %{ratna-kSetra@kUTa-s-} q.v. Lalit. ; %{-rA7bhyudgatA7vabhAsa} m. N. of a Buddha ib.

cakrasaMjJa n. tin L.

kaMsAsthi n. tutanag , white copper , any alloy of tin and copper L.

svarNaja n. `” gold-produced “‘ , the metal tin L.
svarNavaGga m. a partic. preparation made of tin L.

1) Sara5 (Vedic svara, svar, cp. Lat. su-surrus, Ger. surren) sound, voice, intonation, accent Vin. II, 108; D. II, 24 sq.; A. I, 227; Pv. II, 124 (of birds’singing=abhiruda C.); J. II, 109; Sn. 610 (+vaṇṇa, which is doubtful here, whether “complexion” or “speech, ” preferably the former); DhsA. 17; eight qualities D. II, 211, 227; gītāssara song Vin. II, 108; bindussara a sweet voice Sn. 350; adj. J. II, 439; 

sara 20) [noun] a hard, tough metal composed of iron alloyed with various small percentages of carbon and often variously with other metals; steel.

 Sārā (सारा):—[from sāra] f. a kind of plant (= kriṣṇa-trivṛtā)

dharmarAjikA

The dog with something in it’s mouth, Sarabindhu. Above top right glyph the square with a tree, The Bodhi Tree, also known as Bo (from the Sinhalese Bo), was a large and very old Sacred Fig tree located in Bodh Gaya (about 100 km from Patna in the Indian state of Bihar), under which Siddhartha Gautama,

The three marks found on the top of the two doomed Stupas below, same as the Sanchi Stupa below

ratnatraya
n. `” jńjewels-triad “‘ , the three jńjewels or excellent things (with Buddhists , viz. %{buddha} , %{dharma} and %{saMgha} ; or with Jainas , viz. %{samyag-darzana} , %{sńsaMgha-jJAna} and %{samyak-cAritra} ; 1
raTh
(cf. %{raT}) cl. 1. P. %{raThati} , to speak Dha1tup. ix , 50.

ratha
1 m. (4. %{R}) `” goer “‘ , a chariot , car , esp. a two-wheeled war-chariot (lighter and swifter than the %{anas} q.v.) , any vehicle or equipage or carriage (applied also to the vehicles of the gods) , waggon , cart RV. &c. &c.
rathacakra

n. (m. w.r. MBh.) a chñchariots-wheel Br. Kaus3. MBh. &c. ; N. of wk. ; %{-ci4t} mfn. arranged in the form of a chñchariots-whñwheel TS. S3Br. &c. ; %{-rA7kRti} mfn. having the fñform of a chñchariots-whñwheel Ka1tyS3r. , Paddh.
pratyara m. (S3vetUp. Comm.) or (S3vetUp.) an intermediate spoke of a wheel.
pratyarA f. (S3vetUp.) an intermediate spoke of a wheel.
vAkya-sArathi m. a chief speaker , spokesman R.

sAra. a kind of plant( = %{kriSNa-trivRtA}) L.plant

kulavarNA with red blossoms (= %{rakta-trivRt}) L.
rocanI f. a partic. yellow pigment (= 1. %{rocanA}) Pan5cat. (v.l.) ; red arsenic , realgar L. ; N. of various plants (Convolvulus Turpethum ; the myrobolan tree ;
trivRt mfn. threefold, triple, triform, consisting of 3 parts or folds &c. RV. &c. ;
sarvAnubhUti f. universal experience MW.; a white variety of the Tri-vr2it plant ib. ; Convolvulus Turpethum Car. ; m. `” all-perceiving, (with Jainas) N. of two Arhats L.

kalanjanika, krishnabija, krisnabeeja, shyamabija, shyamalabijaka, kalanjani, krsnabija, krsnabijah

sarvAvasaram. `” universal leisure “‘ , midnight L. ; (%{am}) ind. on evñevery occasion Vet.
ardhanizA
f. midnight.
3
ardharAtra
m. midnight Mn. &c. ; %{ardharAtrA7rdhadivasa} m. the time when day and night are half and half. i.e. equal , the equinox R.
4
ArdharAtrika
mfn. (fr. %{ardha-rAtra}) , happening at midnight , midnight Su1ryas. ; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of an astronomical school who reckoned the beginning of the motions of the planets from midnight.

rAtri or (older) %{rA4trI} f. (prob. " bestower "' , fr. %{rA} ; or” season of rest “‘ , fr. %{ram}) night , the darkness or stillness of night (often personified) RV. &c. &c. (%{rAtrau} or %{-tryAm} ind. at nñnight , by nñnight ;

ratna n. (1. %{rA}) a gift , present , goods , wealth , riches RV. AV. S3Br. ; a jewel , gem , treasure , precious stone (the nine jñjewel are pearl , ruby , topaz , diamond , emerald , lapis lazuli , coral , sapphire , Gomeda

ari 2 mfn. ( %{rA} ; = 1. %{ari4} , assiduous , &c. , Gnm.) , not liberal , envious , hostile RV. (%{i4s}) m. an enemy RV. MBh. &c. ; (%{a4ris}) , m.id. AV. vii , 88 , 1 and xiii , 1 , 29 , (in astron.) a hostile planet VarBr2S. ; N. of the sixth astrological mansion ib. (in arithm.)the number six (cf. %{arAti})

ahar n. a day RV. &c. ; (%{a4hana}) nom. du. day and night RV. AV. xiii , 2 ,3 (cf. %{a4haz@ca@kRSNa4m@a4har@a4rjunam@ca} , `” the black and the white day “‘ i.e. night and day RV. vi , 9 , 1) ; %{ta4d@a4har} acc. ind. on that very day S3Br. ; %{ya4d@a4har} acc. ind. on which day S3Br.

raTcl. 1. P. (Dha1tup. ix , 10) %{raTati} (pf. %{rarATa} ; fut. %{raTitA} &c. Gr.) , to howl , shout , roar , yell , cry Ka1v. Var. Katha1s. ; to crash (as an axe) Prab. ; to ring (as a bell) Ma1lati1m. ; to lament , wail HParis3. ; to proclaim aloud , Kr2ishn2aj.: Caus. %{raTayati} (aor. %{arIraTat}) , to howl , shout &c. Das3.: Intens. %{rAraTIti} , to scream aloud , roar , yell , caw &c. R. Ka1s3i1Kh. Bhojapr.
ratamfn. pleased , amused , gratified BhP. ; delighting in , intent upon , fond or enamoured of , devoted or attached or addicted or disposed to (loc. instr. or comp.) S3Br. &c. &c. ; (ifc.) having sexual intercourse with BhP. ; loved , beloved MW. ; (%{A}) f. N. of the mother of Day MBh. ; n. pleasure , enjoyment , (esp.) enjoyment of love , sexual union , copulation Ka1v. Var. &c. ; the private parts L.

raTh (cf. %{raT}) cl. 1. P. %{raThati} , to speak Dha1tup. ix , 50.
ratha 1 m. (4. %{R}) `” goer “‘ , a chariot , car , esp. a two-wheeled war-chariot (lighter and swifter than the %{anas} q.v.) , any vehicle or equipage or carriage (applied also to the vehicles of the gods) , waggon , cart RV. &c. &c. (ifc. f. %{A}) ;

ara mfn. ( %{R}) , swift , speedy L. ; little (only for the etym. of %{udara}) Comm. on TUp. ; ifc. , `” going “‘ cf. %{samara4} ; (%{a4s}) m. the spoke or radius of a wheel RV. &c. ; the spoke of an altar formed like a wheel , S3ulb. ; a spoke of the timewheel , viz. a Jaina division of time (the sixth of an Avasarpin2i or Utsarpin2i) ;

A symbol representing the Three Jewels above, same symbol below middle with a crest, right next to it is other Triratna symbol.

Above the left side top the square is the phonetic b for Buddha, the name is part of the three jewels, as is dharma the middle three mounds. the symbol next to the Stupa is the Triratna symbol. The Bodhi Tree, also known as Bo (from the Sinhalese Bo), was a large and very old Sacred Fig tree located in Bodh Gaya (about 100 km from Patna in the Indian state of Bihar), under which Siddhartha Gautama,Refuge Tree or Refuge Field paintings depict the important objects of “Refuge” for each sect or lineage in the form of a genealogical chart. Each lineage has its own distinctive form of composition but they usually include the “Three Jewels” (Sanskrit: triratna): BuddhaDharma and Sangha, the “Refuges” common to all major schools of Buddhism. They may also include what is known in the Nyingma and Kagyu sects as the “Three Roots” (Tibetan: tsa sum) which include the numerous important Lamas and Lineage Holders, particular meditational deities (Tibetan: Yidam), the Dakinis (Tibetan: Khadroma) or the Protectors of the Lineage (Sanskrit: Dharmapāla, Tibetan: Chokyong). Many other figures such as Buddhist practitioners, animals, offering goddesses and other Buddhist symbols and imagery are also often included. A Refuge Tree painting may contain over a hundred figures, or only the key representative figures of each main grouping.

The main body of the stupa symbolises the cosmic mountain. It is topped by a ‘harmika’ to hold the triple umbrella, or ‘chhatraveli’, which represents the three jewels of Buddhism – the Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha. The three marks found on the top of the two doomed Stupas below, same as the Sanchi Stupa below

ratnatrayan. `” jńjewels-triad “‘ , the three jńjewels or excellent things (with Buddhists , viz. %{buddha} , %{dharma} and %{saMgha} ; or with Jainas , viz. %{samyag-darzana} , %{sńsaMgha-jJAna} and %{samyak-cAritra} ; %{-jaya-mAlA} (prob. w.r. for %{-japam-}) f. N. of a Jaina wk. ;
The Swastika with Triratna Samgha, Buddha, Dharma. Below a coin from the Sangha Age in southern India, they appear as Buddhist, in the Sangha Age the northern buddhist give the south Indus glyphs.
ratnatraya n. `” jńjewels-triad “‘ , the three jńjewels or excellent things (with Buddhists , viz. %{buddha} , %{dharma} and %{saMgha} ; or with Jainas , viz. %{samyag-darzana} , %{sńsaMgha-jJAna} and %{samyak-cAritra} ; %{-jaya-mAlA} (prob. w.r. for %{-japam-}) f. N. of a Jaina wk. ;
samyagdarzana
n. right perception or insight (see %{ratna-traya}) ; mf(%{A})n. = next BhP. ; %{sampanna} mfn. possessed of true insight Mn. vi , 74 ,
samyakcAritra
n. (with Jainas) rñright conduct (see %{ratna-traya}).

Below Samgha Age coin from southern India, the two fish and the fish with two lines are from the Indus valley glyph Samgha in medicine.

varuNa m. (once in the TA1r. %{varuNa4}) `” Allenveloping Sky “‘N. of an A1ditya (in the Veda commonly the night as Mitra over the day,  

Sarvabhūtaguhāśaya (सर्वभूतगुहाशय)

In the bull seal below the circle is trivrut  Trivruta, Suvaha (Operculina terpethum): Asthapanopaga, Bhedaniyani, Vishaghna

Asthapanopaga(helping corrective enema)trivrut, bilwa, pippali, kushtha, sarshapa, vacha, vatsakaphala, shatapushpa, madhuka, madanaphala
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is bull-seal_0.jpeg

The Indus seal above was used for the middle part of the Kubal manuscripts first line, that I beleive is the Pancha Karma and the middle treatment is a enema (the middle representing the hump). Both the seal above and the seal below have Trivrut.

dharmasArathi m. `” charioteer of Dharma “‘N. of a son of Tri-kakud BhP.[MBh.]

kakud %{t} f. a peak or summit (Lat. {cacumen}) ; chief , head RV. viii , 44 , 16 AV. vi , 86 , 3 TS. S3Br. ; any projecting corner or projection (as of a plough) BhP. v , 25 , 7 ; the hump on the shoulders of the Indian bullock AV. TS. BhP. &c. ; the hump (of a man) Katha1s. ; N. of a metre (= %{kaku4bh}) TS. ; an ensign or symbol of royalty (as the white parasol &c.) ; N. of a daughter of Daksha and wife of Dharma ; (cf. %{tri-kakud} , %{sthUla-kakud} , &c. , where the form %{kakud} is said to be substituted for %{ka4kuda} below Pa1n2. 5-4 , 146 ; 147.)

kakundara n. (connected with %{kakud}?) the cavities of the loins Ya1jn5. iii , 96 Bhpr.

This is the middle Panchakarma the hump an enema. Asthapanopaga,

Panchakarma (“Pancha” means five and “karma” means actions) 

Below is the Rhino horn as a Nasya. The third part of a three-sided artifact, the left side starts with a Nasya, the middle an enema, and the right side bloodletting. The middle side or the artifact is a procession of wild animals, repesenting the night, with the graha crocodile above the procession. This part is the Varuna part, the night and a purge. The bottom part is Mitra the day, and a emetic, and domestic the last animal of the procession left side is Pazu (the unicorn or one side of the bull, one horn). The Unicorn is the most used image on seals, meaning Pazu domestic.

The Triangle glyph becomes the horn of the Rhino. The top part of a three-sided artifact, the left side starts with a Nasya, (two animals smelling a triangle with a plant coming out of it). Above the middle is an enema, and the right side bloodletting.

Embelia ribes 

 vAra 2 (fr. 1. %{vR}) m. keeping back, restraining (also mfn. ifc. = difficult to be restrained TBr. ; cf. %{dur-v-}); a turn of a day (under the regency of a planet), a day of the week (they are A1ditya-, Soma-, Man3gala-, Budha-, Guru. , S3ukra-, and S3ani-va1ra; cf. IW. 178 n. 1) Gan2it. Ya1jn5. Sch. Ka1v. &c. (cf. %{dina} and %{divasa-v-}) ;

`vara 2 inf(%{A})n. (fr. 2. %{vR}) choosing the three kinds of myrobolan “‘ ; Cocculus Cordifolius; turmeric; Embelia Ribes; a root similar to ginger ; 

varcograha m. obstruction of the feces, constipation Sus3r.

varcasya mfn. bestowing vital power or vigor VS. AV. S3a1n3khGr2. ; relating to %{varcas} Kaus3. ; acting on the excrement , S3usr. 

varcas n. ( %{ruc}) vital power, vigor, energy, activity, (esp.) the illuminating power of fire or the sun i.e. brilliance, luster, light RV. &c. &c. ; color R. BhP. [924,2] ; splendour , glory Ka1v. Pur. ; form, figure, shape L.; excrement, ordure, feces Ra1jat. Sus3r. ;

vidanga (Embelia ribes) should be collected in pusya nakshatra.

The perching man below is Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus) AraNyamudga. a kind of bean , Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L. frequenting the boughs of trees (= %{parNa-mRga}) He is perched on the gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica.

One should regularly consume shashtika rice (Oryza sativum), shali rice(varieties of Oryza sativum rice), Green gram (mudga, Vigna radiata), rock-salt, Indian-gooseberry (amalaka, Phyllanthus emblica ), barley (yava Hordeum vulgare-), water, milk, ghee, flesh of animals of arid habitat (jangala) and honey. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 5/12]

Those food items, which maintain health as well as prevent onset of diseases should be included in daily regimen. [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 5/13] One should always take food of all tastes. [Su.Sa. Sutra Sthana 46/492]

Below the man bowing to the tiger is AraNyamudga. a kind of bean , Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L. He bows on the branch of the gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica. In the Rasayana formula he has horns and faces a standing Mitra Purisha samgrahaniya(fecal astringents) tiger tasting sweet is looking back because, the tiger is the three myrobolans, one part is Phyllanthus emblica a sub-purge is sour the bowing man is Mudga Phaseolus Trilobus kaSAya mfn. astringent MBh. xiv , 1280 and 1411 R. Sus3r. Pan5cat. BhP. ; According to Ayurveda fruit Phaseolus Trilobus is cooling, dry, bitter, aphrodisiac, astringent, styptic, anthelmintic and good for the eyes. The goat is Buddha the long pepper bodhana pungent. The five seals top right a crocodile in the center two buffolos at the top, tiger looking back and a monkey at the bottom parNamRga any animal which frequents the boughs of trees (as a monkey , squirrel &c.) Sus3r.


The inscription above #5, #6 of the bhanda (knot) stands for bhojya a solid eatable, that is eaten after five half days. Evolution of the oṣṭhya (Labial) b- from the (square glyph) Brahmi script b-  to Gupta b-  than the Devanagari script where it changed to b- ब. Above the five forked railing and fish sign five days than bhujya associated with the five swastikas. Embelia ribes (vidanga) is the Rhino bhasagni is incorperated in the bhojya glyph.

  1. The three arrows pointing down the tiger are a sub-purge B12 Virechanopaga
  2. #88 Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica): Kushthaghna, Virechanopaga, Kasahara, Jwarahara
  3. #85 Abhaya (Terminalia chebula): Arshoghnani, Kushthaghna, Virechanopaga, Hikka nigrahana, Kasahara, Jwarahara, Vayasthapana
  4. #152 Bibhitak (Terminalia belerica): Virechanopaga, Jwarahara

bhUtasAra m. a species of Calosanthes Indica L. ; (%{I}) f. collective N. of the 3 myrobolans (Terminalia Chebula, TñTerminalia Bellerica, and Phyllanthus Emblica)

bhUtasaMsAra m. the course or circuit of existence (through continuous states of being) Mn. i , 50.

duHkhaloka m. `” the world of pain “‘ (= %{saMsAra}) L. [483,3]सु

Three arrows pointing up daughter’s of the day
Viḍanga (Embelia ribes): Truptighna, Kushṭhaghna, Krimighna, Shirovirechanopaga
Pippali (Piper longum or long pepper): Dipaniya, Kanṭhya, Truptighna, Asthapanopaga, Hikkanigrahana, Kasahara, Shulaprashamana, Shirovirechanopaga, Sheeta prashamana

Vacha (Acorus calamus): Lekhaniya, Truptighna, Arshoghna, Asthapanopaga, Sheeta prashamana, Sanjna sthapana


Three arrows pointing down Triphala
88 Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica): Kushthaghna, Virechanopaga, Kasahara, Jwarahara
#85 Abhaya (Terminalia chebula): Arshoghnani, Kushthaghna, Virechanopaga, Hikka nigrahana, Kasahara, Jwarahara, Vayasthapan#152 Bibhitak (Terminalia belerica): Virechanopaga, Jwarahara

The goat is Wednesday and Buddha the long pepper bodhana mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower), arousing, exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r. ; enlightening , teaching , instructing (cf. %{bAla-bodhinI}) ; m. the planet Mercury W.; N. of a mountain VP. ; (%{I}) f. intellect, knowledge L.; long pepper L.; = %{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP.; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ; 
Mitra standing the day, above is Purisha samgrahaniya (fecal astringents) 11 in# ,
11 drugs it could be.

According to ancient history traced to Vedas, the Ravi River was known as  Iravati (also spelt Eeravati; : इरावती, परुष्णि) The Ravi was known as Purushni or Iravati to Indians in Vedic times.

The sitting Mitra; mutra samgrahaniya(anti-diuretic), mutra virajaniya(urinary depigmenter), and mutra virechaniya(diuretic).
prasRti
(%{pra4-}). f. streaming , flowing S3ak. ; (successful) progress TA1r. ; extension , diffusion MBh. ; swiftness , haste Ni1lak. ; the palm of the hollowed hand Kaus3. ; a handful as measure (= 2 Palas) Ya1jn5. BhP. ; %{-m-paca} see %{nIvAra-pr-} ; %{-yAvaka} m. eating groats made of not more than a handful of barley. Gaut.
purISasaMgrahaNIya
 (standing Mitra)mfn. making the feces more solid ib.

pariuSitamfn. having passed the night Pan5c. Ma1rkP. ; (ifc.) having stood for a time or in some place (e.g. %{nizA-p-} , %{gomUtra-p-} Sus3r.) , not fresh , stale , insipid Mn. MBh. &c. ; (with %{vAkyam}) a word that has not been strictly kept MBh. ; %{-bhojin} m. the eater of stale food (said to become a maggot or worm in the next birth) W.
  1. The three arrows pointing up the bird, goat. rhino, Truptighna.

The rhino above, B6 is a Nasya (Shirovirechanopaga) and a pre-purge emitic (Truptighna).

Viḍanga (Embelia ribes): Truptighna, Kushṭhaghna, Krimighna, Shirovirechanopaga

Pippali (Piper longum or long pepper): Dipaniya, Kanṭhya, Truptighna, Asthapanopaga, Hikkanigrahana, Kasahara, Shulaprashamana, Shirovirechanopaga, Sheeta prashamana

The elephant is salt ksara is below Varuna and above the tiger in B12 and B6.
kSAra
mf(%{A})n. (g. %{jvalA7di}) caustic , biting , corrosive , acrid , pungent , saline , converted to alkali or ashes by distillation (fr. %{kSai}?) R. Pan5cat. BhP. &c. ; sharp , keen (as the wind) Ka1vya7d. ii , 104 ; m. any corrosive or acrid or saline substance (esp. an alkali such as soda or potash) , caustic alkali (one species of cautery) Ka1ty. Ya1jn5. iii , 36 MBh. &c. ; juice , essence W. ; treacle , molasses L. ; glass L. ; (%{am}) n. any corrosive or acrid substance Katha1s. xciii , 14 ; a factitious or medicinal salt (commonly black salt , %{viD-lavaNa} and %{kRSNa-l-}) W. ; water W.

The markhor (Capra falconeri), is a large Capra species native to Central Asia, Karakoram, and the Himalayas. It is listed on the IUCN Red List as Near Threatened since 2015. The markhor is the national animal of Pakistan, where it is also known as the screw horn or “screw-horned goat”, mārkhor (مارخون) in Pashto and mārkhor (مارخور) in Urdu from Classical Persian. According to locals, Mar means “dead” and Khor means “eat”, as this goat is said to eat carrion and dead animals, including snakes and wolves that it has killed in self-defense.

In the Guhāśayas Mriga I believe is the goat that eats what it kills.

mRta mfn. dead, deceased, deathlike, torpid, rigid RV. &c. &c.; departed, vanished (as consciousness) MBh. ; vain, useless Ka1v. ; calcined, reduced (said of metals) ib. ; n. death MBh. R.

mRga m. (prob. `” ranger “‘, `” rover “‘) a forest animal or wild beast, game of any kind, (esp.) a deer, fawn, gazelle, antelope, stag, musk-deer RV. &c. &c. ; the deer or antelope in the moon (i.e. the spots on the disk supposed to resemble those of an antelope as well as a hare); the disk or antelope in the sky (either the Nakshatra Mr2iga-s3iras or the sign of the zodiac Capricorn; also, in general, the 10th arc of 30 degrees in a circle) Su1ryas. VarBr2S. &c. 

mRgAGka m. `” deer-marked “‘, the moon Mr2icch. VarBr2. Ra1jat. ; camphor L.; the wind L. (cf. %{mRga-vAhana}); N. of a sword Katha1s. ; of a man Va1s. , Introd. ; %{-gupta} m. N. of a man Cat. ; %{-tanaya} m. N. of the planet Mercury VarBr2. Comm. 

saumya (once in AV. %{sau4mya}) mf(%{I4} later %{A} ; once in RV. %{sau4myA})n. relating or belonging to Soma (the juice or the sacrifice or the moon-god); patr. of Budha or the planet Mercury VarBr2S.; of the Vedic R2ishi Budha (author of RV. x, 1) RAnukr. ; the Nakshatra Mr2iga-s3iras Hariv. ; N. of the five stars in Orion’s head (also called %{ilvala} q.v.) W.; a species of the A1rya1 metre Col. ; N. of Durga1 Cat. ; (%{I}) f. moonshine MBh. ; (%{am}) n. the nature or condition of Soma AV.; gentleness MBh. Pan5cat. the Nakshatra Mr2iga-s3iras (presided over by the Moon) MaitrUp. Hariv. (accord. to Ni1lak. `” Wednesday “‘) ;

saumyadhAtu m. `” Soma-like element “‘, the phlegmatic humour Sus3r.

tikta mfn. bitter (one of the 6 modifications of taste , %{rasa}) , pungent MBh. xii , xiv Sus3r. &c. ; fragrant Megh. S3is3. v , 33 ; m. a bitter taste , pungency W. ;

Pippali rasayana

Shadvirechanashatashritiya Adhyaya it is divided into fifty causes and herbal cures, the first group of herbs is divided in six sub-groups, the sixth sub-group contain the Pippali as a Deepaniya(Appetisers) or the sixth group with three Sub-groups the last one Hikka nigrahana (reducing hiccups) contains the Pippali. The three pronged zola I believe is Rasayana making the seal above Pippali Rasayana and the six marks something else, a quantity or substance.

Pippali

Above the Goat with curved horns is related to the goat Marga and the Pippali.

Administration of Pippali rasayana in escalating dose pattern shows significant reduction in pain, stiffness and swelling of joints in 73 patients having rheumatoid arthritis (amavata). The range of motion of joints was improved along with a significant reduction in ESR levels.

तद्यथा- जीवकर्षभकौमेदामहामेदाकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीमुद्गपर्णीमाषपर्ण्यौ जीवन्ती मधुकमिति दशेमानि जीवनीयानि भवन्ति (१),

क्षीरिणीराजक्षवकाश्वगन्धाकाकोलीक्षीरकाकोलीवाट्यायनीभद्रौदनीभारद्वाजीपयस्यर्ष्यगन्धा इति दशेमानि बृंहणीयानि भवन्ति (२),

मुस्तकुष्ठहरिद्रादारुहरिद्रावचातिविषाकटुरोहिणीचित्रकचिरबिल्वहैमवत्य इति दशेमानि लेखनीयानि भवन्ति (३),

सुवहार्कोरुबुकाग्निमुखीचित्राचित्रकचिरबिल्वशङ्खिनीशकुलादनीस्वर्णक्षीरिण्य इति दशेमानि भेदनीयानि भवन्ति (४),

मधुकमधुपर्णीपृश्निपर्ण्यम्बष्ठकीसमङ्गामोचरसधातकीलोध्रप्रियङ्गुकट्फलानीति दशेमानि सन्धानीयानि भवन्ति (५),

पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेराम्लवेतसमरिचाजमोदाभल्लातकास्थिहिङ्गुनिर्यासा इति दशेमानि दीपनीयानि भवन्ति (६),

इति षट्कः कषायवर्गः||९||s

Above A is the first, it is part day and night, the tiger looking back Phyllanthus Emblica the tree above, AraNyamudga Phaseolus Trilobus Ait. L. The Swastika five half days. The elephant is salt the only substance that has no Rasa as the other plant based ingredients.

Above B starts with twelve dash’s like the purge in the Kabul manuscript the next glyphs are from the buffalo below with the three arrows pointing down a purge.

 Above C. The goat is Buddha Piper longum (pippali) mentioned here as a Rasayana [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 1/3/32-35] etc. The goat is facing a standing man with horns inside the cup vessel with the Pippali leafs coming out of it. The creature in the tree in A. and the bowing man C. is Mudga a astringent bowing to the standing Mitra Purisha samgrahaniya (fecal astringents) with the man bowing down behind the goat AraNyamudga Phaseolus Trilobus. Purisha samgrahaniya is standing in a cup made of the pippali leafs pungent.

Usna the horned glyph and the theme of the third part C. above

uSNa mf(%{A} , rarely %{I})n. (Un2. iii , 2) hot , warm ; ardent , passionate , impetuous RV. x , 4 , 2 AV. vi , 68 , 1 ; viii , 9 , 17 S3Br. ChUp. Sus3r. Mn. &c. ; pungent , acrid ; sharp , active L. ; m. onion L. [220,2] ; N. of a man VP. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. heat , warmth , the hot season (June , July) Mn. xi , 113 S3ak. Das3. &c. ; any hot object MBh. ; N. of certain positions in the retrograde motion of the planet Mars VarBr2S. ; N. of a Varsha VP. ; (%{A}) f. heat L. ; consumption L. ; bile L. ; N. of a plant Nigh. ; (%{am}) ind. hotly , ardently R. ; (%{uSNaM@kRtvA} or %{uSNaM-kRtya} ind. p. having made hot or heated Pa1n2. 1-4 , 74.)

lIsuSa m. a partic. taste (bitter , sweet , sour and pungent) ; mfn. so tasting L.

tikta mfn. bitter (one of the 6 modifications of taste , %{rasa}) , pungent MBh. xii , xiv Sus3r. &c. ; fragrant Megh. S3is3. v , 33 ; m. a bitter taste , pungency W. ;

kaTutraya n. an aggregate of three pungent substances or spices (as ginger , black and long pepper) L.

Below the tiger is Phyllanthus Emblica with horn of the buffalo Vrsha Embelia Ribes and the Pippali leaf in front. This seal is not a rasayana.

The goat with the Pippali leaf above it.

Pippali rasayana

Administration of Pippali rasayana in escalating dose pattern shows significant reduction in pain, stiffness and swelling of joints in 73 patients having rheumatoid arthritis (amavata). The range of motion of joints was improved along with a significant reduction in ESR levels.

Pippali (Piper longum): Dipaniya, Kanṭhya, Truptighna, Asthapanopaga, Hikkanigrahana, Kasahara, Shulaprashamana, Shirovirechanopaga, Sheeta prashamana

The sixth group is divided into three subgroups of medicines: chhardi nigrahana(anti- emetic), trushna nigrahana(thirst-quenching or thirst-alleviating), and hikka nigrahana(reducing hiccups).

Deepaniya(Appetisers)pippali, pippalimula, chavya, chitraka, shringavera, amlavetasa, maricha, ajamoda, bhallatakasthi and higuniryasa

Hikkanigrahana (reduce/check hiccups): These drugs check hiccups. Hiccups are caused by vitiated vata and kapha doshas.

Kanthya (beneficial for throat & voice)sariva, ikshu (root), madhuka, pippala, Draksha, vidari, kaidarya, hansapadi, bruhati and kantakarika
Truptighna (anti-satiety)nagara, chavya, chitraka, vidanga, murva, guduchi, musta, pippali patola
Asthapanopaga(helping corrective enema)trivrut, bilwa, pippali, kushtha, sarshapa, vacha, vatsakaphala, shatapushpa, madhuka, madanaphala

Shirovirechanopaga( helping nasal errhine therapy)jyotishmatí, kshavaka, maricha, pippali, vidanga, shigru, sarshapa, apamarga (seeds), shweta and mahashweta

mRgaziras (%{mRga4-}) n. N. of the 3rd (or 5th) Nakshatra (q.v.) containing 3 stars (one of which is $ Orion is; it is figured by an antelope’s head) AV. Gr2S3rS. VarBr2S.; mfn. born under that Nakshatra Pa1n2. 4-3, 37 Sch. ; m. a partic. position of the hand’s Cat.

The goat Mrga lIsuSa m. a partic. taste (bitter, sweet, sour, and pungent); mfn. so tasting L.

lIsuSa = longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger that is Usna and jaggery = iSIka {As} m. pl.N. of a people (= %{aiSIka}) VP. ; (%{A}) f. (%{iSI4kA}) a reed, rush, stem, or stalk of grass used as an arrow AV. vii , 56 , 4 ; xii , 2 , 54 S3Br. Kaus3. MBh. R. Ragh. &c. ; a sort of sugarcane, Saccharum Spontaneum L. ;

iSustrikANDA (%{iSustrikANDA}) f. `” the threefold arrow “‘N. of a constellation (perhaps the girdle of Orion) AitBr.

The writing is very complex.

abhisusUS mfn. desirous of expressing Soma Juice Pa1n2. 8-3, 117 Sc

iSusAhva m. N. of a plant Hariv. 3843.

lIsuSa m. a partic. taste (bitter, sweet, sour, and pungent); mfn. so tasting L.

The prerequisite for Rasayana is the cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (Vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger are prescribed.

The long pepper is Piper Longum commonly called Pippali.

uSaNa n. black pepper; the root of Piper Longum ; (%{A}) f. Piper Longum; Piper Chaba; dried ginger (cf. %{USaNa}.)

auSaNa n. (fr. %{uSaNa}) , pungency L.2

kaTUSaNa n. dried ginger L.; the root of long pepper (cf. %{USaNa}.)3

uSaNa n. black pepper; the root of Piper Longum ; (%{A}) f. Piper Longum; Piper Chaba; dried ginger (cf. %{USaNa}.)

uSNa mf(%{A} , rarely %{I})n. (Un2. iii, 2) hot, warm; ardent, passionate, impetuous RV. x , 4, 2 AV. vi , 68 , 1 ; viii , 9 , 17 S3Br. ChUp. Sus3r. Mn. &c. ; pungent, acrid; sharp, active L.; m. onion L. [220,2] ; N. of a man VP. ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. heat, warmth, the hot season (June, July) Mn. xi, 113 S3ak. Das3. &c. 

iSu %{us} mf. an arrow RV. AV. VS. MBh. Ragh. S3ak. &c. ; (in mathematics) a versed sine; N. of a Soma ceremony Ka1tyS3r. ; the number five Sa1h. ;

iSIka %{As} m. pl.N. of a people (= %{aiSIka}) VP. ; (%{A}) f. (%{iSI4kA}) a reed, rush, stem, or stalk of grass used as an arrow AV. vii , 56 , 4 ; xii , 2 , 54 S3Br. Kaus3. MBh. R. Ragh. &c. ; a sort of sugarcane, Saccharum Spontaneum L. ;

Jaggery below is sugarcane, Saccharum Spontaneum

ikSuparNI Acorus Calamus ib.8

ikSupattra m. the grain Penicillaria Spicata L. ; (%{I}) f. Acorus Calamus Nir.

rakSohan mf(%{ghnI})n. killing or destroying RñRa1kshasas RV. VS. S3Br. ; m. a partic. spell Kaus3. (cf. %{rakSo-ghna}) ; bdellium L. ; (with %{brAhma}) N. of the author of RV. x , 162 Anukr. ; (%{ghnI}) f. Acorus Calamus L.

Below the arrows are pointing down for B12 and pointing up for B8. urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel) and adho-mārga the Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through downward channel).

adho-mārga

mRgAd m. `” animal-devourer “‘, a tiger L.

adho-mārga the Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through downward channel).

adhobhAga the lower or lowest part , especially of the body.

adhopara. the anus.

mArga in medic. a way , passage , channel (in any part of the body , esp. the intestinal canal , anus) ; 

urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel) 

B2 khaDgapAtra n. a vessel (formed of buffalo’s horns) being a large salver or charger on which the sacrificial knife is laid W.
B2 khaDgika m. a swordsman L. ; (= %{khaTTika}) a butcher , vender of flesh-meat L. ; (= %{khaTTika}) the cream of buffalo’s milk L.
B2 khaTTika m. a butcher , hunter , fowler , one who lives by killing and selling game L. ; the cream on buffalo-milk L. ; (%{A}) f. for %{khaTvikA} q.v. ; (%{I}) f. a woman who sells meat Ka1lac.

B2 Milk with Embelia ribes (vidanga)

B3 turmeric with the Pippali

THE bottom buffalo has the arrows pointing down , like the Tiger.
garga
B2
bull part of the Rhino
m. N. of an old sage (descendant of Bharad-va1ja and An3giras , author of the hymn RV. vi , 47) ; of an astronomer AV. Paris3. (called `” the old one “‘ , %{vRddha-}) MBh. ix , 2132 ff. VarBr2S. ; of a physician ; of a teacher of law ; of a son [Hariv. 1732 BrahmaP. ; or of a grandson VP. MatsyaP. BhP. ix , 21 , 1 and 19] of king Vitatha ; a bull L. ; an earth-worm L. 
ekavRSa
B2
m. the chief bull , the best or most excellent of a number AV. ; (%{am}) n. N. of a Sa1man.
vRSanAzana B2m. Embelia Ribes L.

ArdharAtrika. (fr. %{ardha-rAtra}) , happening at midnight , midnight Su1ryas. ; (%{As}) m. pl.N. of an astronomical school who reckoned the beginning of the motions of the planets from midnight.

pUrv-Ardha. (later n.) the front or upper part ; eastern side (opp. to %{jaghanA7rdha} , %{uttarA7rdha} &c.) TS. S3Br. Gr2S3rS. &c. ; the fore or first half (of a hemistich) S3rutab. ; (with %{dinasya}) forenoon Bhartr2. &c. ; %{-kAya} m. the front or upper part of the body MBh. ; %{-bhAga} m. the upper part , top Ragh. ; %{-lambin} mfn. having the foremost half inclined , leaning forward MW.

vArdh-rINasa also written %{-nasa}) m. (fr. %{vArdhrI} + %{nasa} for %{nAsA}) a rhinoceros (prob. so called as having a leather-like snout) Mn. Ya1jn5. (accord. to some also `” a bird with a black neck , red head , and white wings “‘) ; mfn. (fr. prec.) Gaut.

dauhitra. (fr. %{duhitR}) a daughter’s son Mn. MBh. &c. ; N. of a prince VP. (v.l. %{-trya}) ; (%{I}) f. a daughter’s dauhitra MBh. R.; n. a rhinoceros L. ;

mukhebalin m. a rhinoceros L.

mukhazuddhi f. cleansing or purifying the mouth Tithya1d.

Balin mfn. powerful, strong, mighty, stout, robust RV. &c. &c. ; m. a soldier Inscr. (cf. %{balastha}) ; N. of Vatsa-pril Ma1rkP. ; (only L) a hog bull, buffalo , camel, kind of sheep, serpent, Phaseolus Radiatus, a sort of jasmine, the N. of the phlegmatic humour a Bala-ra1ma ;

balahan mf(%{ghnI})n. one who slays or destroys armies Hariv. (v.l. %{-vat}) ; m. `” destroyer of strength “‘, phlegm, the phlegmatic humour L.3

balAsa m. (also written %{balAza}) a partic. disease, consumption, or phthisis VS. AV.; the phlegmatic humour Sus3r.

balAsakSayakara mfn. destroying the phlegmatic humour Sus3r.5

balAsavardhana mfn. increasing the phlegmatic humour Sus3r.

nAyikAf. (of %{-yaka} q.v.) a noble lady Vet. ; an inferior form or S3akti of Durgs of which there are 8 , viz. Ugra-can2d2a , Pra-can2d2a1 , Can2d2n3gra1 , Can2da-na1yika1 Ati-can2d2a1 , Ca1mun2da1 , Can2d2la , and Can2d2a-vati ; cf. %{kula-n-}) Cat. ; a class of female personifications representing illegitimate sexual love (they are called Balini1 , Ka1me7s3vari1 , Vimala1 , Arun2s , Mediui1 , Jayini1 , Sarve7s3vari1 , Kaule7s3i1) RTL. 188 ; = next L.

medin mfn. having Medas , possessing vigour or energy (= %{medasAyukta} = %{bala-vat}) Sa1y. ; m. `” one who is unctuous or sticks closc(?) “‘ , a friend , companion , partner , ally RV. AV. Br. ; (%{I}) f. see next.

medura mfn. fat S3Br. Sus3r. ; smooth, soft, bland, unctuous L.; thick, dense, thick like (comp.) Uttarar. ; thick with, full of (instr. or comp.) Ka1v. ; (%{A}) f. a partic. medicinal plant L.

medurita mfn. thickened, made dense by or with (comp.) Uttarar. ; unctuous MW.

  • Budda is the goat (Mercury) and rhino horn Purva and Garuda above it is Phalgun, together PurvaPhalgun (Jupiter).
  • The Tigers body (B12 above) spells Matra mother, the two tigers over the rhino and goat, they are daughters. vAsarakanyakAf. `” daughter of day “‘ , night a purge. body of the Rhino spells Medhya for Meda dhatu, is has dominance of prithvijala and agni mahabhuta. Medha possesses properties like unctuousness (B5 above) (snigdha) and heaviness (A11) above (guru) it becomes Garuda the snake eater. The rhino is a classification based on the form of heat. B8, Food and drinks that alleviate vata dosha and reduce kapha dosha and meda dhatu (fat).
  • The rhino as; Purvakarma
  • The word ‘snehana’ means providing unction, oleation, lubrication, rubbing or smearing with oil or unguents, being or becoming oily etc. It also shows a psychological ‘feeling of affection’. The process of unction or unction therapy is an important preparatory procedure (purvakarma) performed before purification therapies . It includes internal and external administration of unctuous substances like ghee, oil etc. (sneha dravya). Besides this unction therapy (snehana) is also applied as principle treatment in various disease conditions due to vitiated vata and pitta dosha. It is one among the major six treatment modalities in Ayurveda. [Cha. Sa.Sutra Sthana Heat in moist form (snigdha): This is applied in conditions due to vitiation of vata dosha. One ingredient of unctuous is Embelia Ribes as a herbal additive. unctuous substances like ghee (ghrita), edible oil (taila), muscle fat (vasa) and marrow (majja). These substances are used in diet and various medical therapies in Ayurveda.
  • Use of prerequisite to the guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), musta (Cyperusrotundus Linn), triphala (combination of Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Linn), bibhitaki(Terminalia belerica Roxb) and amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn)), takrarishta (a fermented medicinal preparation of buttermilk) and honey.

Bowel cleansing formulation made from Terminalia chebula (haritaki), rock salt, Phyllanthus Emblica (Amalaki), jaggery, Acorus calamus (Vacha), Embelia ribes (vidanga), Curcuma longa (Haridra), long pepper, and dry ginger is prescribed.

phaNijihvikA f. id. and Emblica Officinalis L.

mRgAd m. `” animal-devourer “‘, a tiger L.

mRtaka m.n. a dead man, a corpse MBh. BhP. Vet.; n. death, decease Ka1tyS3r. Sch. ;

a-mRta (cf. Pa1n2. 6-2, 116) mfn. not dead MBh.; immortal RV. &c. ; imperishable RV. VS. Cocculus Cordifolius, Emblica Officinalis, Terminalia Citrina Roxb. , Piper Longum,

amRtaphala m. a pear tree L.; the plant Trichosanthes Dioeca Roxb, (%{am}) n. a pear L.; the fruit of Trichosanthes D. Roxb, ; (%{A}) f. the vine L.; the plant Emblica Officinalis Gaertn.

Rasayana: with Embelia ribes
strengthens the Body; tonic to the 7 body constituents (Rasayana); regarded as preventing Old age. (Susruta)
-Diabetes related to Phlegm

bahudosha (signs of aggravated dosha).

Below all are Pippali rasayana except the top right.

Metaphorically the seven R2ishis may stand for the seven senses or the seven vital airs of the body VS. xxxiv S3Br. xiv Ka1tyS3r Sr. No.

The circle, the dose has an axle as Sukha ‘having a good axle hole it is opposed to duḥkha.

Karttika is the first month and the ripening season for the fruits above.

bodhana mf(%{I})n. causing to awake or expand (a flower), arousing, exciting R. Hariv. Sus3r. ; enlightening, teaching, instructing (cf. %{bAla-bodhinI}) ; m. the planet Mercury W.; N. of a mountain VP. ; (%{I}) f. intellect, knowledge L.; long pepper L.; = %{bodha-vAsara} PadmaP.; a partic. S3akti Hcat. ; 

bodhavAsara m. `” waking-day “‘, the 11th day in the light half of the month Ka1rttika (in which Vishn2u awakes from his sleep; cf. %{bodhanI}) SkandaP.

The Statue from Pakistan below reads right to left “Sukha Buddha Maha Deva” the pleasure of the city of Buddha.

The inscription above of the bhanda stands for bhojya a solid eatable, that is eaten after five half days. Evolution of the oṣṭhya (Labial) b- from the (square glyph) Brahmi script b-  to Gupta b-  than the Devanagari script where it changed to b- ब. Below the five forked railing and fish sign five days than bhujya associated with the five swastikas. Embelia ribes (vidanga) is the Rhino bhasagni is incorperated in the bhojya glyph.

Above the pyramid and the Phoenix (Phal is a fruit), The phal becomes Bala as in balAsavardhana and mukhebalin m. a rhinoceros L.

Bal for phal and Vardha for purvadha upper part of the body

phalgunIpUrvasamaya m. the time when the moon is in the NñNakshatra Pu1rva-PhñPha1guni1 MBh.

pUrvaphalgunI f. `” the first Phalguni “‘N. of the 11th Nakshatra (cf. %{uttara-phalgunI}) VP. Un2. Sch. ; %{-bhava} m. N. of Br2ihas-pati or the planet Jupiter L.

pUrvasara mf(%{I})n. going before, preceding Pa1n2. 3-2, 19 Bhat2t2.704

pUrvasAra mfn. going eastwards Pa1n2. 1-1ii , 2 , 19 Sch. ; %{-sArA7svAdinI} f.

balAsavardhana mfn. increasing the phlegmatic humor Sus3r.

balavardhana mfn. increasing power, strengthening W.; m. N. of a son of Dhr2ita-ra1shtra MBh.

balavardhin mfn. = prec. mfn. W. ; (%{inI}) a species of medicinal plant (= %{jIvaka}) L.

pUrvArdha m. (later n.) the front or upper part; eastern side (opp. to %{jaghanA7rdha} , %{uttarA7rdha} &c.) TS. S3Br. Gr2S3rS. &c. ; the fore or first half (of a hemistich) S3rutab. ; (with %{dinasya}) forenoon Bhartr2. &c. ; %{-kAya} m. the front or upper part of the body MBh. ; %{-bhAga} m. the upper part, top Ragh. ; %{-lambin} mfn. having the foremost half inclined, leaning forward MW.

vArdhrINasa (also written %{-nasa}) m. (fr. %{vArdhrI} + %{nasa} for %{nAsA}) a rhinoceros (prob. so called as having a leather-like snout) Mn. Ya1jn5.

vArdhrInasa mfn. (prob.) having streaks on the nose or snout VS. (Mahi1dh. `” having pendulous excrescences on the neck “‘) ; m. see %{vArdhrINasa}.

nasya mfn. belonging to or being in the nose (%{as the} breath) S3Br. ; (%{A}) f. nñnose-cord Ya1jn5. Sch. (cf. %{nAsya}); the nose L.; n. the hairs in the nñnose VS.; a sternutatory, errhine MBh. R. Sus3r.

Tri-khand the khand is to divide, part of the unctuous containing ghee milk as a purge. below it is the sword that lives in a sheath.

ekazuGga mfn. having but one sheath (as a bud) AV. viii, 7, 4.

Above Embilia Ribes has one solid sheath covering and flower.

ekacara mf(%{A})n. wandering or living alone, not living in company, solitary, gregarious MBh. BhP. ; (said of certain animals) Mn. v, 17 BhP. v, 8, 15 ; (N. of a thief) Katha1s. ; moving at the same time S3Br. iii, 8, 3, 17; 18; N. of S3iva-Rudra Gaut. ; of Bala-deva L.; m. a rhinoceros L.

khaNDAmalaka n. myrobalan cut up into small pieces (used as a medicine) L.

khaDgAhva`” named after a sword “‘, a rhinoceros Sus3r. i, 6, 10.

Guhāśaya (‘which have a lair’, or, ‘cave-dwelling mammals’).

gahvara mf(%{A}, %{I})n. (g. %{azmA7di}) deep, impervious, impenetrable TS. v Hariv. BhP.; confused (in mind) Katha1s. lxi, 39 and 41; m. an arbor, bower L.; a cave, cavern L. ; (%{A}) f. the plant Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{I}) f. a cave, cavern L.

khaDgadhenu f. a female rhinoceros L.; (= %{asi-dh-}) a small knife Ra1jat. viii, 3315.

dhena m. the ocean or a river L. ; (%{dhe4nA}) f. a milch cow pl. any beverage made of milk RV. ; a mare (?) , i , 101 , 10 ; v , 30 , 9 ; river L. ; speech , voice (?) , i , 2 , 3 (Sa1y. ; cf. Naigh. i , 11) ;

dhenu mfn. milch, yielding or giving milk; f. a milch cow or any cow RV. &c. &c. (ifc. of names of animals also denoting the female of any species of %{khaDga-}, %{go-}, %{vaDava-}) ;

khaDga m. (fr. %{khaD} for %{khaND}?) a sword, scimitar MBh. R. &c. (ifc. f. %{A} Katha1s.); a large sacrificial knife W.; a rhinoceros MaitrS. iii , 14 , 21 = VS. xxiv , 40 (%{khaGga4}) S3a1n3khS3r. Mn. MBh. &c. ; a rhinoceros-horn L.; a Pratyeka-buddha (so-called because he is a solitary being like a rhinoceros; cf. %{eka-cara} and %{-cArin}) L. ;

khaDa m. (g. %{madhv-Adi}) dividing, breaking L.; buttermilk boiled with acid vegetables and spices Car. vi, 9 Sus3r. i, vi; N. of a man g. %{azvA7di} ; (%{as} , %{am}) m. n. (= %{khaTa}) a kind of small grass, straw L. ; (%{I}) f. (= %{khaTI}) chalk L.

khaDgika m. a swordsman L.; (= %{khaTTika}) a butcher, vender of flesh-meat L.; (= %{khaTTika}) the cream of buffalo’s milk L.

duHkhaduHkha n. (instr.) with great difficulty Megh. 90; %{-tA} f. the uneasiness connected with pain SaddhP.

duHkhadagdha mfn. `” burnt by affliction “‘, pained, distressed W.

duHkhaduHkhin mfn. having sorrow upon sorrow BhP. xi, 11, 19.

khAdatavamatA f. (Impv. 2. pl. fr. %{vam}) continual eating and vomiting ib. (v.l.)

khaDgakoza m. the sheath of a sword, scabbard L.; Scirpus maximus L.

khaDgapidhAna n. the sheath of a sword; scabbard L.

Shirovirechanopaga( helping nasal errhine therapy)

Truptighna (anti-satiety)opposed to Satiety is the satisfied feeling of being full after eating. Early satiety is feeling full sooner than normal or after eating less than usual

78 Viḍanga (Embelia ribes): Truptighna, Kushṭhaghna, Krimighna, Shirovirechanopaga

#80 Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia): Truptighna, Trushnanigrahana, Dahaprashamana, Stanyashodhana

#40 Pippali (Piper longum): Dipaniya, Kanṭhya, Truptighna, Asthapanopaga, Hikkanigrahana, Kasahara, Shulaprashamana, Shirovirechanopaga, Sheeta prashamana

#41 Pippalimula (Roots of Piper nigrum): Dipaniya, Shula prashamana

Below Mutra-samgraha with bahu dosha.

sAraNamf(%{I})n. id. L.; cracked, split L.; having five hair-tufts on the head L.; m. dysentery, diarrhea L.; wind during the autumn L. ; 
Sarana; having five hair-tufts on the head L. ;
Below, in the image of Varuna, there are five hair tufts.

saMgraha m. holding together, seizing, grasping, taking, reception, obtainment MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; taking (in the sense of eating or drinking food, medicine &c.) Ragh. Bhartr2. ; %{-grahaNI} f. a partic. form of diarrhea (alternating with constipation) Bhpr. ; 

saMgrahaNIya mfn. to be taken hold of; to be taken as a remedy against (any disease e.g. diarrhea), Car. [1129,3]; to be directed towards (loc.) S3am2k. ; to be drawn together or contracted or restrained MW.

saMghAta m. (rarely n.; ifc. f. %{A}) striking or dashing together, killing, crushing MBh. Sus3r. ;{-ja} mfn. produced by a complicated derangement of the three humours (= %{saMnipAtika}) Bhpr. ;

The square on the left side is Bhasaka, Embelia Ribes.

Above both seals, Varuna where the writing is above, and the unicorns writing is below, have Zlisa Phlemic humour and Samgata phlegm, and all three humours.

AzleSa m. intimate connection, contact; slight contact L.; embracing, embrace; entwining MBh. BhP. Megh. Amar. &c. ; adherence, clinging to Nya1yam. ; (%{A4}) f. and (%{A4s}) f. pl.N. of the seventh Nakshatra AV. TS. Sus3r. MBh. VarBr2S.

saMghAta m. (rarely n.; ifc. f. %{A}) striking or dashing together, killing, crushing MBh. Sus3r. ; closing (of a door &c.) VS. TBr. ; a collection of mucus, phlegm (cf. %{saMghANaka}) L. ;%{-ja} mfn. produced by a complicated derangement of the three humours (= %{saMnipAtika}) Bhpr. ;

zleSmadhAtu m. the phlegmatic humour MW.

zleSmaka n. phlegm, the phlegmatic humour L.

zleSman m. phlegm, mucus, rheum, the phlegmatic humour (one of the three humours of the body = %{kapha}; see %{dhAtu}) S3Br. Ya1jn5. Sus3r. MBh. &c. ; n. a band , cord , string AitBr. Ka1t2h. ; lime, glue &c. A1past. ; 

bhasmaka mfn. (with %{agnI}) = %{bhasmA7gni} , S3a1rn3gS. ; n. a partic. the disease of the eyes or morbid appetite from over-digestion (cf. %{bhasmA7gni}) L.; gold L.; the fruit of Embelia Ribes L.3

The square on the left side is Bhasaka, Embelia Ribes.

zleSmaNa mfn. phlegmatic, slimy S3Br. ; producing phlegm or mucus Car. ; (%{A}) f. a kind of plant L.

zleSmAtisAra m. dysentery or diarrhea produced by vitiated phlegm

The dosage forms are categorized as below: [Cha.Sa.Sutra Sthana 13/29], Maximum dose (pradhana matra), Medium dose (madhyama matra) Minimum/Low dose (hrasva matra) and Lowest dose or test dose (hrasiyasi matra).

B8. iSustrikANDA (%{iSustrikANDA}) f. `” the threefold arrow “‘N. of a constellation (perhaps the girdle of Orion) AitBr.

ISam. the month A1s3vina see %{iSa} ; a son of the third Manu ; a servant of S3iva.
iSa
2 mfn. possessing sap and strength ; well-fed , strong ; sappy , juicy , fertile RV. ; m. N. of the month A1s3vina , September-October) VS. S3Br. Sus3r. VP. ; N. of a R2ishi BhP.
ISat
2 ind. (gana %{svar-Adi} Pa1n2. 1-1 , 37 ; for the use of %{ISat} see Pa1n2. 3-3 , 126 , &c.) little , a little , slightly S3Br. R. Sus3r. &c.
ISallabha
(%{ISat-labha}) mfn. to be obtained for a little L.
ISadasamApta
mfn. a little incomplete , not quite complete , almost complete ,
azvayuj
mfn. harnessing horses RV. v , 54 , 2 ; having horses put to (as a carriage) R. v , 27 , 14 ; born under the constellation As3vayuj Pa1n2. 4-3 , 36 (cf. %{Azvayuja}) ; (%{k}) f. sg.N. of a constellation (the head of Aries) Pa1n2. 4-3 , 36 VarBr2S. iv , 3 , 36 VarBr2S. &c. ; (%{-yu4jau}) f. du. id. AV. xix , 7 , 5 TBr. ; (%{k}) m. the month A1s3vina (Sept.-Oct.) VarBr2S.
(hrasva matra)
hrasvamUla
m. `” having a small root “‘ , the red sugar-cane L

Below horseplay in the Indus Valley, Minimum/Low dose (hrasva matra) A1a and A1b are horses with horns.

 Inscribed Indus Valley metal objects include seals, small tablets (or wafers), and occasionally tools. Seals similar to steatite seals are known in both copper and silver but are very rare, were likely cast for wealthy individuals from sealings taken from crisp steatite seals. Steatite seals were prone to breakage and loss, as the stone is soft and brittle; broken seals or seals with a broken boss have often been found in excavated streets at Indus Valley sites. Over 200 small inscribed copper tablets have been found at Mohenjo-Daro, and these are discussed by Parpola ; They comprise three groups based on shape: square, rectangular, and long and narrow. Their average dimensions respectively are 26.6mm by 26.5mm by 3.5mm; 33.8mm by 26.5mm by 3.5mm; and 33.0mm by 24.0mm by 3mm. Most of these tablets have an inscribed image on one side and text on the other side. Many of the tablets occur as duplicates, where the image and relevant script are consistent from copy to copy. In one rectangular design featuring a bull, 28 copies are known. 

The inscription above of the bhanda stands for bhojya a solid eatable, that is eaten after five half days. Evolution of the oṣṭhya (Labial) b- from the (square glyph) Brahmi script b-  to Gupta b-  than the Devanagari script where it changed to b- ब. Below the five forked railing and fish sign five days than bhujya associated with the five swastikas. Embelia ribes (vidanga)

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urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel) and adho-mārga Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through downward channel). Khad breaks down to Khand division becomes Chhardi and Vamane is the purification itself.

chardif. vomiting , sickness Ka1tyS3r. xxv , 11 Gaut. Sus3r. VarBr2S. xxxii , 18 ; expulsion (of the breath) KapS. iii , 33.
2khAdata-vamatA
Below chhad – vamane
f. (Impv. 2. pl. fr. %{vam}) continual eating and vomiting ib. (v.l.)

In the Atisara Chikitsa (treatment of diarrhea), there is a description of Chhardi Chikitsa. The word chhardi is derived from the root chhard vamane. The word chhad means gripping (avritta or a-chhad-ana) and ard means pain (peedha). Other words like chhardah, chhardana, chhardi, chhardika, etc. are considered synonyms of chhardi. The words chhardi and vamana, both are used in the sense of vomiting but have basic difference. Chhardi is a pathological condition where the sufferer is exposed to particular predisposing factors for vomiting and as a result suffers from the particular condition called chhardi. On the other hand vamana is one of the purification therapies of Panchkarma (five purification procedures in Ayurveda) where the physician intends to induce vomiting to expel out vitiated kapha and pitta. In general, the vitiated doshas accumulate in the stomach and are thrown out from the body through various channels. There are two major channels from which the body generally does such excretory mechanisms. The one is adhomārga (excretion through the downward channel) for which the description of atisara is given in the previous chapter and the other one is urdhvabhaga (excretion through the upward channel) where the description of chhardi is discussed here. Chhardi comes under the category of koshtha rasayani shrita vyadhi (diseases of GI tract) whose roots are in mahasrotas (GI tract) and manovaha (mind) srotasa. The amashaya and rasayani are the involved avayavas (organs) in this disease. The management of this disease is by the pharmacological treatment through various herbs/combinations, dietary modifications and psychological counseling. The preventive aspect includes avoidance of causative factors and enhancement in psychological strength to specific items/factors. The curative treatment focuses on pharmacotherapy depending upon dosha dominance and mild samshodhana (expelling out the vitiated dosha).

  • Chikitsa Sthana 15/29-30] Oral administration of unctuous substance (snehapana)
  • Per rectal administration (sneha basti)
  • Intra nasal administration (nasya)

Below is the Rhino as a Nasya.

The third part of a three-sided artifact, the left side starts with a Nasya, the middle an enema, and the right side bloodletting.
Triangle is the horn of the Rhino.

The term ‘nasya’ denotes ‘being in the nose’ or ‘belonging to nose’. It is one among the five purification procedures . In this procedure, the medicines are instilled through the nostrils. It is indicated in the diseases of head and associated structures.[A.Hr. Sutra Sthana 20/1] Considering the therapeutic efficacy, it is used to treat a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from headache to infertility.

nasya Purificatory (shodhana) medicine

It is indicated in disorders due to aggravation of kapha doshain the head and throat like the heaviness of head, tastelessness, loss of smell, epilepsy, migraine etc. [Su.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 40/36]

One of the last parts of the Kubal first line is the Rhino, part of the beginning as an emetic and purge, then the rhino is part of the end of the line as a nasya.

The word ‘basti’ denotes the therapeutic procedure of an enema. It is one of the five purification procedures (panchakarma). Basti also spelled as vasti, literally means bladder or an injection syringe made of bladder or injection itself. From an anatomical perspective, the urinary bladder is called basti. In ancient times, the bladder of animals (mainly goat or buffalo) was used to administer enema therapy, hence the therapy is known as ‘basti’. [A.S.Sutra Sthana 28/2] It is the best treatment for disorders of vata dosha. [Cha.Sa. Sutra Sthana 25/40]. 

The middle procedure of the Panchakarma is the humped bull, in ancient times, the bladder of animals (mainly goat or buffalo) was used. the apparatus falling down from the humps of the bulls below.

Below a stone artifact with three faces first is Vana, Mrga; wild for an emetic Tiger than a lion. Second gramya domestic two buffalo leading the procession a purge. The third is divided into three parts. The rolled seal with Varuna and Mitra has 7 parts in the copper tablets. B6 instead of B8 shown below for the goat, and B5 for the Rhino, B12 and B13 for the two Tigers, these fall under Dosa the night  urdhvabhaga Rhino/goat arrows pointing up (excretion through the upward channel) and adho-mārga Tiger arrows pointing down (excretion through downward channel). These two channels appear as a Graha or a siezer in the day light, first two bulls of the second procession below B6 with B12 night with water buffolo B3. The other channel is the Rhino B5 above it A11 Guru/Garuda above it the tiger/lion B2 the night Dosa its seizer for the day is the water

buffalo vRSanAzana.

The pyramid or triangle is part of the rhino in the first part of the three-sided artifact above. The last part has the triangle with a plant coming out of the top and two animals smelling it a Nasya.

A 11 above is Guru; Tin,

gurupattran. tin L. ; (%{A}) f. the tamarind tree L.
gurupattrakan. tin Gal.

B2 above has both signs found on tin ingots.

110 Ancient ideas | ancient, indus valley civilization, bronze age  civilization

The Buffalos are a purge and Phyllanthus emblica is a sub-purge.

Indian gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica above two buffalos one is vRSanAzana Embelia Ribes and Gaura Turmeric.

Below the sign of Cancer has two glyphs for the star constellation in the seal B 13. The Zodiac sign the crab the first glyph (right side) and the constellation below as the second to last. The constellation below becomes the goats beard, and the last glyph becomes the tail. One purge has the Pippli both the fruit and root with Embelia ribes (vidanga) the constellation Taurus. The different sign then that of the Rhino horn and square glyphs that are emetic.

The second gylph of B13 from left to right is cancer Pusya,
and the last gylph is also cancer Karkata.
vidanga (Embelia ribes) should be collected in pusya nakshatra.
karkaTa
m. a crab Sus3r. Pan5cat. &c. ; the sign Cancer VarBr2S. VarBr2.

vRSanAzana m. Embelia Ribes L.

vRSanAzanam. Embelia Ribes L.
viDaGgamfn. clever , able , skilful L. ; m. and (%{A}) f. Embelia Ribes L. ; n. the fruit of the above plant (a vermifuge) L.
zleSmavidagdhamfn. = %{-duSTa} Sus3r.
pittavidagdhamfn. burnt or impaired by bile (as sight) Sus3r.
The killing of the bull Vrsa.
jaranta
m. an old man L. ; a buffalo Un2. Sch.
Gruel for krimi (worm infestation)
विडङ्गपिप्पलीमूलशिग्रुभिर्मरिचेन च|
तक्रसिद्धा यवागूः स्यात् क्रिमिघ्नी ससुवर्चिका||२३||
jaramAna m. N. of a man g. %{gargA7di}.

Gruel prepared with Vidanga (Embelia ribes), Pippalimoola (Piper longum), Shigru (Moringa oleifera Lam.), Maricha (Piper nigrum) and Souvarchala lavana (black salt) along with buttermilk is beneficial in treating krimi (worm infestations). 
vRSanAzanam. Embelia Ribes L.
jantughna
mfn. killing worms Sus3r. i , 46 , 4 , 41 ; m. %{-mArin} L. ;
n. = %{-nAzana} L. ; Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{I}) f. id. 
kairAlan. Embelia Ribes (used as a remedy for worms) L. ; (%{I}) f. id. (cf. %{kairalI}.)
kITazatrum. `” enemy of worms “‘ , the plant Embelia Ribes Sus3r. [285,1]
kRmikaNTakan. `” destroying worms “‘ , Ficus glomerata L. ; Embelia Ribes ; another plant (= %{citrA} or %{citrA7Gga}) L.
jantukam. N. of a man pl. his descendants g. %{upakA7di} (%{jat-} and %{jant-} Gan2ar. 28 and 30 , %{jaturaka} , 30) ; (%{A}) f. = %{-ntu-rasa} L. ; = %{jatu-kRt} L.
jantughnamfn. killing worms Sus3r. i , 46 , 4 , 41 ; m. %{-mArin} L. ; n. = %{-nAzana} L. ; Embelia Ribes L. ; (%{I}) f. id. L.
3jantugRhasee %{jatu-g-}.
jantum. a child , offspring RV. Katha1s. iic , 58 ; a creature , living being , man , person (the sg. also used collectively e.g. %{sarva@j-} , everybody “‘ S3ak. v , 5/6 ; %{ayaM@jantuH} , `” the man “‘ Kat2hUp. ii , 20 S3vetUp. iii , 20 Mn. xii , 99) RV. Mn. &c. ; a kinsman , servant RV. i , 81 , 9 and 94 , 5 ; x , 140 , 4 ; any animal of the lowest organisation , worms , insects Mn. vi , 68 f. MBh. xiv , 1136 Sus3r. ; 
jATharamf(%{I})n. being on or in or relating to the stomach or belly or womb (%{jaTha4ra}) MBh. xii , 9661 Ma1rkP.ii , 37 ; with %{agni} , `” stomach fire “‘ , digestive faculty MBh. iii , 149 Sus3r. ; hunger Pan5cat. ii , 6 , 50 (iv , 8 , 3) BhP. iv ; m. `” womboffspring “‘ , a child , iii , 14 , 38 ; N. of one of Skanda’s attendants MBh. ix , 2564.
jatugehan. = %{gRha} q.v.
206jatugRhan. a house plastered with lac 
jatun. lac , gum Kaus3. 13 MBh. i , xii Sus3r. ; (%{U4s}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1 , 71 Pat.) a bat VS. xxiv , 25 and 36 AV. ix , 2 , 22 ; [cf. Lat. {bitumen} ; Germ. {Kitt}.]
janturasam. `” insect-essence “‘ , red lac L.
jantunAzanan. `” destroying worms , Asa foetida L.

vRSanAzana m. Embelia Ribes L.

jatUkarNam. (g. %{gargA7di} v.l. %{jAt-}) , bat-eared “‘N. of a physician (pupil of Bharadva1ja Kapisht2hala) Car. i , 1 , 29 (v.l. %{jAtUkarN}).
gargam. N. of an old sage (descendant of Bharad-va1ja and An3giras , author of the hymn RV. vi , 47) ; of an astronomer AV. Paris3. (called `” the old one “‘ , %{vRddha-}) MBh. ix , 2132 ff. VarBr2S. ; of a physician ; of a teacher of law ; of a son [Hariv. 1732 BrahmaP. ; or of a grandson VP. MatsyaP. BhP. ix , 21 , 1 and 19] of king Vitatha ; a bull L. ; an earth-worm L. 

Embelia Ribes

commonly
distributed in Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and
Mizoram in the altitudinal zone of 500 to 2500 msl. The plant changes as to its altitude, the higher plants are Embelia Ribes .

1. Kills Worms: (Seed; Ayurveda, Unani)
-Roundworm, Threadworm, especially Tapeworm

2. Warms the Stomach, Clears Damp, Benefits Qi:
-Colic, Flatulence; prevents Constipation
-a few of the fruit added to children’s Milk to prevent Colic and Worms

3. Clears Wind-Phlegm and Damp:
-Traditionally as a purgative of Phlegm, Pituitous and Burnt Bile Humors
-Cough, Bronchitis, Wheezing
-Scrofula, swollen glands, Tumors from Melancholy and Phlegm
-Vitiligo and skin pigmentation problems; Leprosy
-Headache
-Rheumatism, Gout; ‘expels the Phlegm from the Joints’. (Avicenna)
-Wind-Damp obstructing the nerves: Hemiplegia, Paralysis, Facial Paralysis, Tremors, Nerve disorders (Unani)

4. Clears Damp, Promotes Urine:
-Edema, Ascites
-Dysuria, cloudy urine, Gravel, Stones
-high Uric acid
-Jaundice

5. Moves the Blood, Promotes Menstruation:
-amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea
-used as a contraceptive

6. Rasayana:
strengthens the Body; tonic to the 7 body constituents (Rasayana); regarded as preventing Old age. (Susruta)
-Diabetes-related to Phlegm

7. Externally:
-applied to Ringworm and fungal infections
-in gargles and mouthwashes for Sore Throat and Mouth Sores
-root-bark is applied to Toothache
used in nasal medications in India

 vRSabha (cf. %{RSabha}) manly, mighty, vigorous, strong (applied like %{vRSan}  zodiacal sign Taurus VarBr2S.; a partic. drug (described as a root brought from the Hima7laya mountains, resembling the horn of a bull, of cooling and tonic properties, and serviceable in catarrh and consumption) Bhpr. ;

bandhura mf(%{A})n. (Un2. i , 42 Sch. ; cf. Va1m. v , 2 , 42) bent, inclined Ka1v. Pan5cat. ; curved, rounded, pleasant, beautiful, charming Inscr. Ka1lid. Caurap. ; (ifc.) adorned with Ka1d. ; undulating, uneven L.; deaf L. (cf. %{badhira}); injurious, mischievous W.; m. (only L.) a bird; a goose; Ardea Nivea; Pentapetes Phoenicea ; Embelia Ribes; a partic. bulbous plant growing on the Hima-vat mountain L.; oil-cake; the vulva L. ; (%{A}) f. a harlot L.; N. of a procuress Ha1sy. ; (pl.) the meal of parched corn L.; n. a diadem, crest
karkaTa
m. a crab Sus3r. Pan5cat. &c. ; the sign Cancer VarBr2S. VarBr2. &c. ; a particular bird L. ; N. of several plants ; the fibrous root of a plant L. ; the curved end of the beam of a balance (to which the strings supporting the scale are attached) , Mit. ; a pair of compasses in a particular position ; a particular position of the hands ; a kind of fever Bhpr. ; a kind of coitus L. ; (%{A}) f. Momordica Mixta L. ; (%{I}) f. a female crab MBh. ; Cucumis Utilissimus , a kind of cucumber Comm. on Ta1n2d2yaBr. ; a small water-jar Pan5cat. ; the fruit of Bombax Heptaphyllum L. ; N. of a Ra1kshasi1 ; [cf. Gk. $ ; Lat. &79738[256 ,1] %{cancer}.]
karkaTaka
m. a crab Sus3r. Pan5cat. &c. ; the sign Cancer VarBr2S. ; a pair of tongs Das3. ; a pair of compasses (cf. %{karkaTa}) ; a kind of plant Sus3r. ; a particular position of the hands; N. of a Na1ga R. ; (%{ikA}) f. a sort of plant Sus3r. ii, 276, 3 Pan5cat. ; a kernel L. ; (%{am}) n. a kind of poisonous root Sus3r. ; a particular fracture of the bones Sus3r. I, 301,
Indian gooseberry Phyllanthus emblica over Embelia Ribes root vRSanAzana purge the twelve grains that can be used.
Karkandhu (Zizyphus nummularia): Virechanopaga
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bhaujaMga
(fr. %{bhujaM-ga}) mf(%{I})n. relating to a snake , serpent-like Ka1m. ; n. (scil. %{bha}) the serpent constellation , the Nakshatra A1s3lesha VarBr2S.
5
bhujaMgabha
n. `” serpent-asterism “‘N. of the Nakshatra A1s3lesha Var.
uraga
m. (fr. %{ura} = %{uras} [Ka1ty. on Pa1n2. 3-2 , 48] and %{ga} , `” breast-going “‘) , a serpent , snake ; a Na1ga (semi-divine serpent usually represented with a human face) Suparn2. viii , 5 Sus3r. Ragh. &c. ; N. of the Nakshatra A1s3lesha (presided over by the Na1gas) 

sarpabandha m. `” snake-fetter “‘, an artifice, subtle device MBh.

The Sarpabhanda images have two Indus Valley glyphs the body and neck.
mAtRkA
f. a mother (also fig. = source, origin) Ka1v. Katha1s. Pur. ; a divine mother (cf. under %{mAtR}) RTL. 188; a nurse L. ; a grandmother Das3. ; N. of 8 veins on both sides of the neck (prob. so-called after the 8 divine mñmother) Sus3r. ; N. of partic. diagrams (written in characters to which magical power is ascribed; also the alphabet so employed; prob. only the 14 vowels with Anusva1ra and Visarga were originally so-called after the 16 divñdivine mñmagical) Ra1matUp. Pan5car. ;
antaHstha
(generally written %{antastha4}) mfn. being in the midst or between S3Br. &c. ; (%{as}, %{A}) mf. a term applied to the semivowels, as standing between the consonants and vowels Pra1t. &c. ; (%{A}) f. interim, meantime PBr.

AzleSa
m. intimate connection, contact; slight contact L.; embracing, embrace; entwining MBh. BhP. Megh. Amar. &c. ; adherence, clinging to Nya1yam. ; (%{A4}) f. and (%{A4s}) f. pl.N. of the seventh Nakshatra AV. TS. Sus3r. MBh. VarBr2S.

azleSAbhava
or m. the Ketu (or descending node) L.

azleSAbhU
m. the Ketu (or descending node) L.

bandhura
1 mf(%{A})n. (Un2. i , 42 Sch. ; cf. Va1m. v , 2 , 42) bent , inclined Ka1v. Pan5cat. ; curved, rounded, pleasant, beautiful, charming Inscr. Ka1lid. Caurap. ; (ifc.) adorned with Ka1d. ; undulating, uneven L.; deaf L. (cf. %{badhira}) ; injurious, mischievous W.; m. (only L.) a bird; a goose; Ardea Nivea ; Pentapetes Phoenicea ; Embelia Ribes ; a partic. bulbous plant growing on the Hima-vat mountain L. 
AbandhP. %{-badhnAti} (impf. %{A74badhnAt} AV. vi , 81 , 3 ; pf. %{-babandha}) A1. (pf. %{-bedhe14} AV. v , 28 , 11 ; Inf. %{A-ba4dhe} AV. v , 28 , 11) to bind or tie on, tie to one’s self AV. S3Br. A1s3vGr2. La1t2y. MBh. Katha1s. &c. ; to join, bind together, combine, resume MBh. Das3. Ka1d. ; to take hold of, seize Mn. ; to adhere closely to, be constant Ka1d. ; to fix one’s eye or mind on Katha1s. Ragh. ;

sarpabandha m. `” snake-fetter “‘, an artifice, subtle device MBh.

caNDAlikAbandhamind. so as to form a particular knot Pa1n2. 3-4 , 42 Sch. (not in Ka1s3.)
granthibandham
ind. (with %{grath}) so as to form a knot (in tying) Ba1lar.
granthibandhana
n. tying a knot W. ; tying together the garments of the bride and bridegroom at the marriage krauJcabandham
ind. so as to make a knot called after the wings of a curlew Pa1n2. 3-4 , 42 Ka1s3.
kokabandhu
m. `” friend of the ruddy goose “‘ , the sun L.
khaDgabandha
m. a kind of artificially-formed verse Sa1h.
mArgabandhana
n. obstruction of a road or way Ka1m.
nibandha
m. binding on, tying, fastening R.; chain, fetter, bondage MBh. BhP.; attachment to, intentness on L.; basis, root, origin MBh. ii. 2532; a grant of property, an assignment of cattle or money Ya1jn5. i. 317 ; fixed property ib. ii. 121; restraint, obstruction L. ; constipation or suppression of urine Sus3r. (v.l. for %{vi-b-}) ; any literary composition or work Cat.
sukhabandhana
mfn. attached to the pleasures or enjoyments of the world Ka1m.
vartmabandha
m. a disease which obstructs the movement of the eyelids L.
vibandh
P. A1. %{-badhnAti}, %{-badhnIte} , to bind or fasten on different sides, stretch out, extend RV. AV. S3rS.; to seize or hold by (instr.) Kaus3. ; to obstruct (feces) Car.
vibandha
m. encircling, encompassing MBh. vii , 5923 ; = %{Akalana} L. ; a circular bandage Sus3r. ; obstruction , constipation ib. ; a remedy for promoting obstrñobstruction Car. ; %{-hRt} mfn. destroying or curing obstrñobstruction Va1gbh.
vibandhana
mfn. obstructing, constipating Sus3r. ; n. the act of fastening or binding on both sides (%{paraspara-v-} , mfn. mutually bound, depending on each other) MW.
pucchabandha
m. a (horse’s) tail-band or crupper Gal.
vAlabandha
m. `” tail-band “‘ , a crupper MBh. ; N. of a partic. performance Cat.
vAlabandhana
n. a crupper (cf. prec.) MBh.
nAgabandha
m. a snake as a chain or fetter Katha1s. ; N. of a metre resembling the coilings of a sñsnake Prata1p. (cf. %{-pAza}).
sarpabandha
m. `” snake-fetter “‘, an artifice, subtle device MBh.

Below the goat’s tail becomes a sign, it is the first sign of B3 and B13 the lion with strips? the second sign of B13 became the goaty or beard of the goat, then the first sign of B9, A3a then twice in A3b with the top one next to the sign for Usna found in B8.

The tail is first glyph left side on B3, B13, B9, A3a, A3b, Above C2, C5a, A4, A5, A9.

vAlabandha `” tail-band “‘, bhanda stands for bhojya a solid eatable, that is eaten after five half days

The goat Makor hoof stomping on a snake then eats it.

baNDamf(%{A})n. (also written %{vaNDa}) maimed, defective, crippled (esp. in the hands or feet or tail) AV. S3rS. (Sch. also = impotent , emasculated ;
Thread by @GemsOfIndology, #ThreadI will not try to prove that the two  languages are different. [...]

 The inscription above of the bhanda stands for bhojya a solid eatable, that is eaten after five half days.

bhojamfn. bestowing enjoyment , bountiful , liberal RV. ; enjoying , leading a life of enjoyment BhP. ; m. a king with uncommon qualities AitBr. ; (pl.) N. of a country (near the Vindhya mountain) or of a people (the descendants of Maha1-bhoja) MBh. Hariv. Pur. &c. ; a king of the Bhojas MBh. 

Bhanda in the inscription above has the goat’s beard on both sides.

Below the goat’s goatee is the written part of the rhino as a Nasya, one of the Panchakarmas. Shirovirechanopa is a Nasya. First and last part of the Panchakarma.

Viḍanga (Embelia ribes): Truptighna, Kushṭhaghna, Krimighna, Shirovirechanopaga

Pippali (Piper longum): Dipaniya, Kanṭhya, Truptighna, Asthapanopaga, Hikkanigrahana, Kasahara, Shulaprashamana, Shirovirechanopaga, Sheeta prashamana

ubhayabhAga

trirAtra n. sg. 3 (nights or) days S3Br. Ka1tyS3r. Kaus3. cf. %{azva-} , %{garga-} , %{baida-} ; (%{am}) ind. for 3 days , during 3 days Ka1tyS3r. A1s3vGr2. Mn. &c. ;

Below the Swastika and the five forked glyphs appear all over India the example below is from southern Tamil coinage. The Rhino’s horn as a hieroglyph appears associated with Purva “the first” it breaks down to the vowel “e” spelling Medha in the small copper tablets above and Deva in both the new nine large copper tablets and the statue of Buddha from Pakistan. The goatsbeard as a hieroglyph? it is the first vowel in the word Buddha “u” – “o”.

samakolam. `” having an even breast “‘ , a serpent , snake L.

The Issyk inscription is a yet undeciphered text, found in 1969 on a silver bowl in Issyk kurgan, in Kazakhstan, dated approximately the 4th century BC. The context of the burial gifts indicates that they may belong to Saka tribes. This is an important artifact as it is prior to the Greeks entering India.

The Statue from Pakistan below reads from right to left “Sukha Booddha Maha Deva” the pleasure of the city of Buddha.

Below the constant “D” from the origin, Sanskrit Dhanu. Below the cave carvings were from 2300BC .

marmabhedana `” piercer of the vitals “‘ , an arrow L.

unmAdana id. Katha1s. ; m. N. of one of Ka1ma’s five arrows Vet.

Below seal # 227111040 sarAdAna taking hold of an arrow L.

sArAdAna picking out the best Kap.

dhanvinmfn. (Va1m. v , 2 , 59) armed with 1 , bow , a bñbow-man MBh. &c. &c. (cf. %{iSu-} , %{driDha-} , %{bahu}.) ; cunning , shrewd L. ; m. the sign of the zodiac Sagittarius Var. ; N. of S3iva MBh. ; of Vishn2u L. ; of Arjuna L. ; Terminalia Arjuna ; Mimusops Elengi ; Alhagi Maurorum L. ; N. of a son of Manu Ta1masa Hariv. ; of a Sch. on Dra1hySr. (also %{-visvAmin}) ; %{-vi-bhASya} n. the Comm. of Dhanvin.

Below Mary Settegast uses the dates 17000-1200 years ago, this is impossible, realistically around 2300 BCE. I believe the formula for Shiva Gutika the Indus seal below has a double meaning in that the formula spells Sivo Raksatu Girvarna-Bhasa-rasa-Svadatat-Paran.

svAdu (%{vI4})n. sweet , savoury , palatable , dainty , delicate , pleasant to the taste , agreeable , chirming (also as compar. `” sweeter than &c. “‘ , with abl.) RV. &c. &c. ; m. sweet flavour , sweetness L. ; sugar , molasses L. ; N. of various plants (= %{jIvaka} , %{gandha-dhUma-ja} &c.) L. ; (%{us} or %{vI}) f. = %{drAkSA} , a grape L. ; (%{u}) n. sweet taste , sweetness Megh. ; pleasantness , charm , beauty Subh. [Cf. Gk. $ ; Lat. {suavis} ; Old Sax. {swo7ti} ; Angl. &386374[1279 ,3] Sax. {swe7ete} ; Eng. {sweet} ; Germ. {su10ss}.]

svAdudhanvan `” having a sweet bow “‘N. of Ka1ma-deva (whose bow is said to be made of sugar-cane) L.

trimadhura n. the 3 sweet substances (sugar, honey, ghee) VarBr2S. S3a1rad. ix ; (%{madhuratraya} Tantras. iv).


triphala
mfn. having 3 fruits Ka1m. viii, 42 ; (%{A}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1 , 64 Va1rtt. 3) the 3 Myrobalans (fru
triphala

mfn. having 3 fruits Ka1m. viii, 42 ; (%{A}) f. (Pa1n2. 4-1 , 64 Va1rtt. 3) the 3 Myrobalans (fruits of Tertminalia Chebula , TñTantras Bellerica , and Phyllanthus Emblica; also %{tRph-} L.) Sus3r. VarBr2S. xvi Katha1s. lxx Ka1tyS3r. Sch. ; the 3 sweet fruits (grape, pomegranate, and date) Npr. ; the 3 fragrant fruits (nutmeg, areca-nut, and cloves) ib. ; (%{I}) f. id. L.its of Tertminalia Chebula , TñTantras Bellerica , and Phyllanthus Emblica; also %{tRph-} L.) Sus3r. VarBr2S. xvi Katha1s. lxx Ka1tyS3r. Sch. ; the 3 sweet fruits (grape, pomegranate, and date) Npr. ; the 3 fragrant fruits (nutmeg, areca-nut, and cloves) ib. ; (%{I}) f. id. L.
The goat’s horns are bowed in the Lapis lazuli seal above (the blue seal above) and the axe and double bowed archer below. The long Indus seal below
(gray seal below I believe to be Sivo-Ghrtsa. ghRtaudana
n. (Pa1n2. 2-1 , 34 Sch.) rice sprinkled with ghee A1s3vGr2. i S3a1n3khGr2. i , 27.

jIrvi m. = %{pazu} or %{parzu} (axe or animal) Un2. iv , 54/55 ; a cart Un2. vr2. ; the body ib.

B1 %{pazu} or C1 %{parzu} both copper tablets with different sizes, same writing, having Bahu the upper part and Danda the staff. Parzu both sides and pazu domestic one side. Below Parzu, with the goat with straight horns, and Dhan the archer holding two bows, both sides. With the Pipplai leaf that is sweet.

svAdudhanvan m. `” having a sweet bow “‘N. of Ka1ma-deva (whose bow is said to be made of sugar-cane) L.

Below are Post Indus Valley symbols on Punch-Marked Coins.

danielyogi7 at yahoo.com DanielS50820257

Sanskrit definitions;

https://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/scans/MWScan/tamil/index.html

https://www.academia.edu/45170959/A_method_of_identifying_allographs_in_undeciphered_scripts_and_its_application_to_the_Indus_Valley_Script


https://www.academia.edu/61529469/Panchakarma_a_new_look_at_the_Indus_valley_script

https://www.academia.edu/45658372/Future_Hope_77_1_pdf

https://www.academia.edu/61418855/Origins_Of_A_World_Mythology