The Indus Valley and Easter Island Scripts

Daniel F. Salas

The Indus Valley script glyphs have a visual relationship with the star constellations along the ecliptic. The Indus script has an established visual relationship with the Polynesian Easter Island script. The Polynesians used the stars to navigate, the use of the same pictorial image of the stars points to a very old navigational system. As for the Polynesian script a seasonal date can be found, using the same navigational system it can be said it happens in the Indus valley script. These dates for the Indus Valley script indicate a season of harvest of a particular plant.

In the above comparison, bottom right glyph, the comparison uses the Easter Island glyph of Taurus this visual relationship is visually wrong.,_No._189/The_Easter_Island_script_and_the_Middle-Indus_seals,_p_60-69/p1#

Below the constellation Taurus, top Indus Valley script,

bottom Easter Island.

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The constellation Taurus according to Sergi Rjabchikovi and Georgia Lee.

Georgia Lee; archaeologist, Ph.D. (UCLA); area of expertise: Easter Island and Hawaii; California. Founding member of Easter Island Foundation; editor of Rapa Nui Journal.

Below I believe (a) to be the constellation Pisces (b) Taurus (as above) in the middle and Cassiopeia on the right. Pisces and Cassiopeia are today the first-hour spring equinox and Taurus is our 6th hour which is 90 degrees of the ecliptic.

  The image below identifies the sign for Taurus in the Easter Island script, parts were taken from; The Ancient Astronomy of Easter Island: Aldebaran and the Pleiades, Sergei Rjabchikov1, There is a good cause to assert that the Easter Islanders constantly watched Aldebaran and the Pleiades in the past. The Russian scholar Irina K. Fedorova and the American scholar Georgia Lee were the first who contributed significantly to the archaeoastronomical studies of these celestial bodies.

Bolow (b) the middle is the Sign for Taurus, and 1(Br3), 2(Hv11).

Based on present-day observations, the position of Aldebaran has shifted 7′ in the last 2000 years, roughly a quarter the diameter of the full moon.   Due to the precession of the equinoxes, 5,000 years ago the vernal equinox was close to Aldebaran.

Aldebaran is 5.47 degrees south of the ecliptic and so can be occulted by the Moon. Such occultations occur when the Moon’s ascending node is near the autumnal equinox.  A series of 49 occultations occurred starting on 29 January 2015 and ending on 3 September 2018.  Each event was visible from points in the northern hemisphere or close to the equator.

Aldebaran was originally نير الضبران (Nā᾽ir al Dabarān in Arabic), meaning “the bright one of the follower“. al Dabarān (الدبران) then applied to the whole of the lunar mansion containing the Hyades.  It is assumed that what it was following is the Pleiades.

Mexican culture: For the Seris of northwestern Mexico, this star provides light for the seven women giving birth (Pleiades). It has three names: Hant Caalajc IpápjöQueeto, and Azoj Yeen oo Caap (“star that goes ahead”). The lunar month corresponding to October is called Queeto yaao “Aldebaran’s path”.

The very early hymns have the Krttikas as the start of the year. The night sky is the opposite of the stars behind the sun of a given day, so the Krittikas that we would say is the then spring Equinox becomes the Autumn Equinox, this is the night sky Sanskrit nakSatra and nakta is the night RV. AV.

The seal is a designation for a plant that is a purge, and day time( Embelia Ribes, vidanga), that are harvested four days at the end of the Autumn season. vRSanAzana m. Embelia Ribes L. The first month was autumn the ripening season for those fruits used for Zodhana, both day and night or Emimtic and Purge (explained below).

The glyphs for Pisces the fish and two lines in the Indus script and one doubled line for the Easter Island scripts. Cassiopeia  01h 00m 00s, +60° 00′ 00″  Pisces 01h 00m 00s, +15° 00′ 00

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The Mamari tablet (Ca 6-7) top image below, has the fish of Pisces with the fish line just like the constellation.

Below top The Mamari tablet(Ca 6-7)

Bottom The Great Santiago tablet(Hv 11)

Pisces and Cassiopeia are today the first-hour spring equinox and Taurus is the 6th hour which is 90 degrees of the ecliptic. The declination of the constellation Cassiopeia in a circle around the pole would change through seasonal periods of time. The Easter Island (Above) script (b) – (e) are four nights (moons). From; The Ancient Astronomy of Easter Island: Aldebaran and the Pleiades, Sergei Rjabchikov1 ; 3Hv 11: (a) 3 12 (b) 75 30 75 7-70 24-24 (c) 70 25var (d) 70 14 (e) 70 39 26(f)4-45 4-45 4-45 Marama Ika: ko ana,ko Tuu Pu Ariari,(Tuu)Pu Hua,(Tuu)Pu Haua,(Tuu)Pu Raa maa. Tupu, tupu, tupu. The moons of the Fish (as in the first part of the Manari calendar text): The star Aldebaran shone (on the nights) Ariari (= Ari), Hua, Haua (= Atua), (and) the bright Ra[kau]. The growth, the growth, the growth. In the text, there are names of four nights (moons) of the local lunar calendar. 

Cassiopeia, the Enthroned Queen, is a sitting figure, at times suspended upside-down in the sky in a very undignified position, she is depicted firmly bound to her throne and refrained from falling out of it, in going around the pole head downward (rather like being on a Ferris wheel I imagine).

Cassiopeia  01h 00m 00s, +60° 00′ 00″

Because Cassiopeia is so high in the northern sky at +60 degrees it can be seen revolving around the pole. Cassiopeia is located in the northern sky and from latitudes above 34°N it is visible year-round. In the (sub) tropics it can be seen at its clearest from September to early November.

Sergei Rjabchikov1 calculated the corresponding days for the year 1775 A.D. (Rjabchikov 2014a: 5, table 2; 2015: 2, table 1; 2016a: 1, table 1). Here I have calculated the corresponding days for the year 1775 A.D. (Rjabchikov 2014a: 5, table 2; 2015: 2, table 1; 2016a: 1, table 1).

In low southern, tropical, latitudes of less than 25°S Cassiopeia can be seen, seasonally, low in the North. Easter Island 27°7′S 109°22′W is one of the lowest Polynesian locations.

The calculated dates ( Sergei Rjabchikov1) calculated several solar eclipses have been used for com-posing the chronology of Easter Island from 1771 till 1867 A.D.

Those between September to early November, are shown below. It would appear September 27 was the date of the Easter Island writing above.

September 2 or 3 (277.9°): the star β Centauri [ Nga Vaka] before dawn

September 27 (267.4°); the fourth night: the measure of the visible dimensions of the moon; the waxing crescent was well seen in the sky; one night before the beginning of the first Kokore lunar series;

October 1 (265.9°); the eighth night: the measure of the visible dimensions of the moon; the first quarter of the moon; 

October 3 (264.7°); the gibbous moon (the 10th night); the end of the first Kokore lunar series;

October 22 (256.8°): near the new moon;

Taurus next to Cassiopeia which is 90 degrees of the Ecliptic, today it is the summer solstice and the 6th hour of Taurus and Auriga, while Cassiopeia and Pisces are our first hour.

Below approximation of one revolution of the Procession usually given as 26,000 years. This change in Pisces from it being the Winter Solstice to the Spring Equinox of today, 90 degrees of the Procession 6,480 years or 4278 BC. Due to the Procession of the Equinox, the northern poll moves, today it is easy to find the pole because it is in, or very close to the star Polaris. In the past, you had to count orbits at conjunctions (Transits of planets across the Sun) of the Earth, moon, and planets using sidereal Astronomy.

Just as Ursa Major points to Polaris the second two stars point to Thuban. Thuban, with Bayer designation Alpha Draconis or α Draconis, is a binary star system in the northern constellation of Draco. A relatively inconspicuous star in the night sky of the Northern Hemisphere, it is historically significant as having been the north pole star from the 4th to 2nd millennium BC. Early Harappan c. 3300–2800BC, Pre-Harappan/Early Harappan 5500–3300BC. After the pole left Thuban in 2,830 BC, it moved in the direction of Polaris, thus when finding the pole in the past, it would lie between the first two stars of the Big Dipper and Polaris. To do this it would be too easy, first finding the point all stars circle. Thuban was closest to the pole in 2830 BC when it was less than 10 arcminutes away from the pole. It remained within one degree of celestial north for nearly 200 years afterward, and even 900 years after its closest approach, was just 5° off the pole. Thuban was considered the pole star until about 1800 BC when the much brighter Beta Ursae Minoris (Kochab) began to approach the pole as well.

Based on present-day observations, the position of Aldebaran has shifted 7′ in the last 2000 years, roughly a quarter the diameter of the full moon. 

Taurus and Auriga 06h 00m 00s, +40° 00′ 00″

The first record of Auriga’s stars was in Mesopotamia as a constellation called GAM, representing a scimitar or crook. However, this may have represented just Capella (Alpha Aurigae) or the modern constellation as a whole. The crook of Auriga stood for a goat-herd or shepherd. It was formed from most of the stars of the modern constellation; all of the bright stars were included except for Elanath, traditionally assigned to both Taurus and Auriga. Below the eye of the goat is Capella (Alpha Aurigae) on the sidereal dawn. Like this date of July 21 (292.5°): the star Capella (α Aurigae) before dawn, this is a sidereal date. Nakshatra Mriga-siras also, in general, the 10th arc of 30 degrees in a circle) Su1ryas. VarBr2S. &c.

Below from the constellation, Auriga which ends with the 6th hour, Krttikas is the first, our 4th hour, together 2 hours, and one hour equals 15 degrees, that is 3o degrees. Going the other way (retrograde) from Krttikas it would be 330 degrees to Mriga-siras, the tenth arc of 30 degrees.


The goat below is Auriga with `” the threefold arrow “‘N. of a constellation (perhaps the girdle of Orion) AitBr.

 The second seal below has seven dashes for the seven stars of the Big Dipper. In the earliest Indian astronomy, the Big Dipper was called “the Bear” (Ṛkṣa, ऋक्ष) in the Rigveda but was later more commonly known by the name of Saptarishi, “Seven Sages.” are the seven bright stars of the constellation Ursa Major. Taurus is known for its bright stars Aldebaran, The constellation is also home to the Pleiades (Messier 45), also known as the Seven Sisters. The constellation Taurus is known for its bright stars Aldebaran, Elnath, and Alcyone, as well as for the variable star T Tauri. In Jainism, it is stated that “Once at Mathura situated in Utaar Pradesh Seven Riddhidhari Digamber saints having ‘Aakaashgamini Vidhya’ came during the rainy season for chaturmaas.

The goat below is Auriga with `” the threefold arrow “‘N. of a constellation (perhaps the girdle of Orion) AitBr. Isustrikanda is the first seal below. The Goat is mRga m. (prob. `” ranger “‘, `” rover “‘) a forest animal or wild beast, game of any kind, (esp.) a deer, fawn, gazelle, antelope, stag, musk-deer RV. &c. &c. ; the deer or antelope in the moon (i.e. the spots on the disk supposed to resemble those of an antelope as well as a hare); the disk or antelope in the sky (either the Nakshatra Mriga-siras also, in general, the 10th arc of 30 degrees in a circle) Su1ryas. VarBr2S. &c.  The Mriga-siras is Budha, the Pippali plant, and the planet Mercury. Capella Alpha Aurigae is the eye of Mriga-siras. The seven dashes for the seven stars of the Big Dipper, and the seven vital channels of the body, in medicine. Right side a fish, then seven dashes, then Pleiades glyph, Buha the Beetleguse, then Leo minor? two long strokes and the last glyph of the little Dipper.

saptarSi(%{-ta-RSi}) m. pl. the 7 R2ishis q.v. ; (in astron.) the 7 stars of the constellation Ursa Major (%{-pUtA@dik} , `” the northern quarter of the sky “‘) ; sg. one of the 7 R2ishis MBh. ; %{-kuNDa} n. pl. N. of bathing-places sacred to the 7 R2ishis ib. ; %{-cAra} m. N. of the 13th Adhya1ya of VarBr2S. and of another astron. wk. ; %{-ja} m. the planet Jupiter L. ; %{-tA} f. the condition of the 7 R2ishis Hariv. ; %{-mat} mfn. Pat. ; %{-mata} n. N. of various wks. ; %{-loka} m. the world of the 7 R2ishis Cat. ; %{-stotra} n. %{-smRti} f. %{-smRti-saMgraha} , m. ; %{-SI7zvara-mAhAtmya} n. N. of wks.

The kneeling person is Cassiopeia, the goat’s eye is Capella (Alpha Aurigae) and the seven Ṛkṣa above are associated with both a star constellation of the seven Ṛkṣa, in medicine seven channels of the body.

kaSAyapANa%{As} m. pl. `” drinkers of astringent liquids “‘N. of the Gandharas Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 8-4 , 9.
The Medical meaning for the kneeling person.

Below on the right side of Taurus are twelve dashes, which are a Solar designation. This seal breaks down to four nights (moons) first glyph left side the star, an occultation of Taurus.

From Taurus to Pisces is today six hours or 90 degrees.

From Pisces to Taurus is the half months Revati=Pisces, Asvayujaur, Bharani, Taurus Krttikas (this is left of Taurus, the seal below is right of Taurus). The seal below has Taurus and Cancer that is right side Rohini, Mrigasira, Ardra, Punarvasu, Pusya=Cancer, (the glyph to the left of the Taurus glyph below might be Bharani the last half month or the last half hour of 24). The last glyph ( B 13 first glyph left side) I believe is the little dipper with Polaris the star, which indicates Cassiopeia. Cassiopeia is part of a navigational system that uses the constellations of the ecliptic, and physically represents a “date” associated with occultation within the seasonal changes. For the Polynisiasion script, the use of Cassiopeia can only point to September to early November, a two-month window every year. 9h 00m 00s, +20° 00′ 00″ Cancer is one of the twelve Constellation of the zodiac. Below in B13, there are two Signs or glyphs for Cancer. From the right side, the crab is probable Solar designation and the second a lunar, the two lines at an angle. From Taurus to Cancer (Below) is three hours or 45 degrees, today. From Taurus to Pisces is six hours or 90 degrees today.

vidanga (Embelia ribes) should be collected in pusya nakshatra. (Pusya is Cancer)

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To know when a lunar Eclipse happens, I looked to the Siddhaantas for a system, and I found it, about 10 years ago.

The Siddhaantas (Aryabhatiya, Suryasiddhanta, Narada Purana) used a given number of planetary revolutions. In this study, a Yuga is 4320 years 4320 / 72 = 60, so 72 years per one degree of movement of the pole, and 60 one degree movements in 4320 years. The complete circle of the Axial Precession is 4320 x 6 = 25,920 close to today’s 26,000 years. A Mahayuga or yuga equals 4320.000 revolutions. Siddhaantas gives these numbers for the moon 57753336, and Jupiter 364220.  Ardharatrikapaksa has the same numbers for yoga and the moon, and Jupiter, it gives Saturn 146564, mars 2296824, Venus 7022388, and Mercury 17937020. Due to the precession of the equinox, the shift through a 1-degree arc was 72 orbits today it is 71.6. The time period for the equinoctial shift to go through an astrological house (30 degrees) is and was 72 x 30 = 2160 than two houses were 2160 x 2 = 4320. The ancients multiplied the number by a factor of 1000 at the end of a calculation they would have had to divide by 1000, today this is called in science the precision of three decimal places. The planet Jupiter above was given 364220 orbits, three decimal place precision 4320.000 / 364.220 = 11.86096 here 4320 / 364.2 = 11.86161 the precise measurement of today’s definition of one orbit of Jupiter is 11.86 earth orbits (earth orbit equals 4320/X as a ratio). Saturn takes 10,759 Earth days or 29.5 earth orbits. The Siddhaantas number of 146.564 /4320 = 29.475. 

The Siddhaantas ( Aryabhatiya, Suryasiddhanta, Narada Purana) gave the moon 57753336 and a Yuga 4320000.

Three decimal place precession 57753.336 /4320 = 13.3688 x 27.32167 days per lunar orbit = 365.2587 the Julian calendar is 365.25 days of 86400 SI seconds The Earth rotation is slowing at a rate of 0.002seconds per day per century. As a result of the slowing, there is a Conservation of angular momentum the slowing of the earth’s rotation is accompanied by an increase of the mean Earth-Moon distance of about 3.8 m per century or 3.8 mcm per orbit.

Mars in science orbits the sun in 687 earth days. The Siddhaantas number 2296824 for mars in the equation 4320 / 2296.824 = 1.88 then 1.88 x 365.25636 = 686.9953.  The Martian orbit is equal to 1.8809 Earth orbits, 320 days, and 18.2 hours, the Siddhaantas 4320 / 2296.824 = 1.88085.

Venus in science completes an orbit of the sun in 224.65 days. The Siddhaantas three decimal places 7022.388 / 4320 = 1.6255527 then 365.25636 an orbit divided by the modern number 224.65 = 1.622589.

Mercury takes 88 days to complete an orbit around the sun, the numbers 17937020 , then 17937.02 / 4320 = 4.152 and 365.25636 / 88 = 4.15064.

The term ‘Ayana’ specifically means solstice in later astronomical literature, so we cannot ignore such a meaning in its occurrence here. We find it in the northern and southern courses of the Sun as Uttara-Ayana and Dakshina-Ayana. Moreover, we see Agni, the God of the east, and the vernal equinox, leading the list of the Nakshatras, as Ashvini did in later times.

A very early hymn has the Krttikas as the start of the year. The night sky is the opposite of the stars behind the sun of a given day, so the Krittikas that we would say is the then spring Equinox becomes the Autumn Equinox, this is the night sky Sanskrit nakSatra and nakta is the night RV. AV.

Easy to invoke, oh Agni, may the Krttikas and Rohini be, auspicious Mrigasira and peaceful Ardra. Graceful be Punarvasu, beautiful Pusya, bright Aslesa, with the solstice at Magha for me. Virtuous be Purva Phalguni and Uttara, Hasta and Citra peaceful, and may Svati give me joy. Bounteous Visakha, easy to invoke, Anuradha, the best Nakshatra Jyeshta, I invoke, and Mula. May Purva Asadha provide me nourishment and Divine Uttara Asadha give me strength. May Abhijit provide virtue, as Sravana and Sravista grant beauty. May Satabhisak give me greatness for expansion, and the two Prostapadas give protection. May Revati and Asvayujaur give me a fortune and Bharani grants me wealth (AV XIX.7.2-4).

Sidereal epoch

Before 1200, India had two theories of trepidation, one with a rate and another without a rate, and several related models of precession. Each had minor changes or corrections by various commentators. The dominant of the three was the trepidation described by the most respected Indian astronomical treatise, the Surya Siddhanta(3:9–12), composed c. 400 but revised during the next few centuries. It used a sidereal epoch, or, ayanamsa that is still used by all Indian calendars, varying over the ecliptic longitude of 19°11′ to 23°51′, depending on the group consulted. This epoch causes the roughly 30 Indian calendar years to begin 23–28 days after the modern vernal equinox. The vernal equinox of the Surya Siddhanta librated 27° in both directions from the sidereal epoch. Thus the equinox moved 54° in one direction and then back 54° in the other direction. This cycle took 7200 years to complete at a rate of 54″/year. The equinox coincided with the epoch at the beginning of the Kali Yuga in −3101 and again 3600 years later in 499. The direction changed from prograde to retrograde midway between these years at −1301 when it reached its maximum deviation of 27°, and would have remained retrograde, the same direction as modern precession, for 3600 years until 2299.

Another trepidation was described by Varahamihira (c. 550). His trepidation consisted of an arc of 46°40′ in one direction and a return to the starting point. Half of this arc, 23°20′, was identified with the Sun’s maximum declination on either side of the equator at the solstices. But no period was specified, thus no annual rate can be ascertained.