The Origins Of A World Mythology
                                                                                            
  Daniel F. Salas

                   This research paper is on the early history of India and Mesopotamia and how the archaeological
history compares to the religious history of a polytheistic Mesopotamian civilization that mirrors the myths of a
polytheistic Hindu history and how both have their origins in Jainism.  In Hindu mythology, Shraddhadeva Manu
(Sanskrit manuśraddhādeva) is the current Manu and the progenitor of the current humanity (manvantara). The
mythology behind Manu the survivor of a mythical flood is one of the earliest mentions of Ikshu (sugarcane) and
from it a line of kings and the largest issue of a schism between Hinduisim and Jainism. The Jain account of the
first Ikshu was Tirthankara Rishabhanatha (Adinatha) that puts him prior to an actual world flood. The myth travels
to Mesopotamia from India at that time the event of Ikshu is already mythologized, as Manu was said to have three
sons before the flood – Charma, Sharma, and Yapeti, and Noah had three sons – Ham, Shem, and Japheth.
The Semitic Akkadian's change the location of Dilmun the land of Noha from India to Israel (below). At the bottom
of this page is a look at why Alexander the Great burned down the library in the king's palaces at Persepolis after
Greek scholars go through the library, he than burns it down and declares war on India.

    The event that most shaped the earliest Neolithic revolution of South Asia was the 8.2-kiloyear event [2], as in
Bhirrana in Haryana India dated to 7570-6200 BC and Mehrgarh, dated to between 6500 and 5500 BC, in the
Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan.  In climatology, the 8.2-kiloyear event was a sudden decrease in global
temperatures that occurred approximately 8,200 years before the present or 6,200 BC, and which lasted for the
next two to four centuries. The 8.2-kiloyear event effects were a cold snap that was global, most notably were its
changes in sea level. The initial meltwater pulse caused between 0.5 and 4 m (1 ft 8 in and 13 ft 1 in) of sea-level
rise. Because of the event in Mesopotamian irrational agriculture starts a surplus production. The 8.2-kiloyear was
an approximately 100-year abrupt event, as recorded most clearly in the Greenland ice cores (below).

The 8.2-kiloyear event stopped the Bhirrana Neolithic civilization, yet in Mesopotamia, at Tell Sabi Abyad there are
changes through the event, as with Mehrgarh and southern India the Ashmounds. Northern India and Southern
India Neolithic were contemporaneous both survived the event, later both show the same symbolism on coinage
(below).  Mehrgarh is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization, displaying the whole sequence from
earliest settlement and the start of agriculture, to the mature Harappan Civilisation.

   Shraddhadeva Manu king of Dravida that would be Mehrgarh the country that survives an actual flood. Jean-
Francois Jarrige argues for an independent origin of Mehrgarh. Jarrige notes the assumption that farming
economy was introduced full-fledged from Near-East to South Asia, and the similarities between Neolithic sites
from eastern Mesopotamia and the western Indus valley, which are evidence of a cultural continuum between
those sites. But given the originality of Mehrgarh, Jarrige concludes that Mehrgarh has an earlier local
background, and is not a backwater' of the Neolithic culture of the Near East. The cooling of the 8.2-kiloyear event
was a temporary feature but the sea-level rise of the meltwater pulse was permanent.  The coldest period lasted
for about 60 years, and its total duration was about 150 years. In Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria, significant cultural
changes are observed at c. 6200 BC; the settlement was not abandoned at the time. Mehrgarh, dated to between
6500 and 5500 BC, in the Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan; the site has evidence of farming (wheat and
barley) and herding (cattle, sheep, and goats).In South India, the Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until
around 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. South Indian Neolithic is characterized by
Ashmounds since 2500 BC in Karnataka region, expanded later to Tamil Nadu.

A global flood accompanied the 8.2 kilo-year event, this happened at the start of a organized neolithic revolution. This is
reminiscent of the accounts of Noah and Manu who survived a flood. It is written in the Matsya Purana that “Manu then
went to the foothills of Mount Malaya and started to perform tapasya (meditation). In the Vishnu Purana, Vaivasvata,
also known as Sraddhadeva or Satyavrata, was the king of Dravida before the great flood. He was warned of the flood
by the Matsya (fish) avatar of Vishnu, and built a boat that carried the Vedas, Manu's family and the seven sages to
safety, helped by Matsya. The myth is repeated with variations in other texts, including the Mahabharata and a few other
Puranas. It is similar to other flood myths such as that of Gilgamesh and Noah. Jain mythology mentions the 14th
patriarch named Nabhiraja, mentioning him also as Manu.  This, state scholars, links ancient Jain tradition to Hindu
mythologies, because the 14 patriarchs in Jain myths are similar to the 14 Manus in Hindu myths.  The Manu of Jainism
is the father of 1st Tirthankara Rishabhanatha (Adinatha).

The Akkadian change the location of Dilmun from India to Israel.
Dilmun the name of the land of Ziusudra in the direction of the raising sun east and you had to pass a forest of ten
thousand leagues span. Ten thousand Leagues where A league is a unit of length. It was common in Europe and Latin
America, but is no longer an official unit in any nation. The word originally meant the distance a person could walk in an
hour. Since the Middle Ages, many values have been specified in several countries. Distance from India to Iraq is 3,751
kilometers. This air travel distance is equal to 2,331 miles. On land, the league is most commonly defined as three miles,
though the length of a mile could vary from place to place and depending on the era. At sea, a league is three nautical
miles (3.452 miles; 5.556 kilometres). 10,000 / 2331 = 4.3 miles is a league.
Dilmun, or Telmun
According to a long-known Sumerian “Flood” -story, Dilmun, the land to which Ziusudra, the Sumerian Noah, was
transported to live as an immortal among the gods, is “the place where the sun rises,” and was therefore located
somewhere to the east of Sumer. In another Sumerian text, Dilmun is described as a blessed, prosperous land dotted
with “great dwellings,” to which the countries of the entire civilized world known to the Sumerians, brought their goods
and wares.
There was a king of Dilmun by the name of Uperi who paid tribute to Sargon II of Assyria. There is another king by the
name of Hundaru in whose days booty taken from Dilmun consisted of objects made of copper and bronze,
sticks of
precious wood
, and large quantities of kohl, used as an eye-paint. The tree of paradise may have been Santalum for
Tilmun.   Dilmun, or Telmun, mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards, here common sense says the first time  
Dilmun is mentioned predates the ruins of Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the eastern portion regions of Saudi Arabia, who
were middle men between the Indus and Summer. Common sense says that the weight's used for Dilmun by the
Summerians is the same weight system used by the Indus valley thus Dimun is the Indus Valley.  The great commercial
and trading connections between Mesopotamia and Dilmun were strong and profound to the point where Dilmun was a
central figure to the Sumerian creation myth.   Dilmun was described in the saga of Enki and Ninhursag as pre-existing
in paradisiacal state, where
(Ahimsa is also referred to as nonviolence, and it applies to all living beings—
including all animals—in ancient Indian religions. ... Most popularly, Mahatma Gandhi strongly believed in
the principle of ahimsa. Ahimsa's precept of 'cause no injury' includes one's deeds, words, and thoughts.)

pain and diseases are absent, and people don't get old. Dilmun was an important trading centre. At the height of its
power, it controlled the Persian Gulf trading routes.

Dilmun was mentioned by the Mesopotamians as a trade partner, a source of copper, and a trade entrepôt. The Dilmun
civilization is mentioned first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the late third millennium BC, found in the temple
of goddess Inanna, in the city of Uruk thus Dilmun predates the Saudia cost  and no mention of it being an island  Sar,
Bahrain. One of the earliest inscriptions mentioning Dilmun is that of king Ur-Nanshe of Lagash (c. 2300 BC) found in a
door-socket: "The ships of Dilmun brought him
wood as tribute from foreign lands."   The "Persian Gulf" types of
circular, stamped (rather than rolled) seals known from Dilmun, that appear at Lothal in Gujarat, India, and Failaka, as
well as in Mesopotamia, are convincing corroboration of the long-distance sea trade. What the commerce consisted of is
less known: timber and precious
woods, ivory, lapis lazuli, gold, and luxury goods such as carnelian ( It is most
commonly found in Brazil, India, Russia (Siberia), and Germany)
and glazed stone beads, pearls from the Persian
Gulf, shell and bone inlays, were among the goods sent to Mesopotamia in exchange for silver, tin, woolen textiles, olive
oil and grains. Copper ingots from Oman and bitumen which occurred naturally in Mesopotamia may have been
exchanged for
cotton textiles and domestic fowl, major products of the Indus region that are not native to Mesopotamia.

"Farmers in the Indus valley were the first to spin and weave cotton. In 1929 archaeologists recovered fragments of
cotton tetiles at Mohenjo-Daro, in what is now Pakistan, dating to between 3250 and 2750 BCE. Cottonseeds founds at
nearby Mehrgarh have been dated to 5000 BCE. Literary references further point to the ancient nature of the
subcontinent's cotton industry. The Vedic scriptures, composed between 1500 and 1200 BCE allude to cotton spinning
and weaving . . .." So goes a remarkable new book, Empire of Cotton A Global History by Sven Beckert, which traces the
development of the cotton industry in depth. Shown above are the fragments of cotton fibers so identified by Marshall,
Mohenjo-daro and the Indus Civilization, p. 585), and examples of weaves whose imprints have been found since at
Harappa.
Aratta was a part of Dilmun and Noha's Ark lands on Ararat.
After the flood, Noah’s Ark is said to have rested on mountains of Ararat.
In the early epic Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, the main events, which center on Enmerkar's construction of the
ziggurats in Uruk and Eridu, are described as taking place at a time "before Dilmun had yet been settled".
AraTTa        %{As} m. pl.N. of a people and country in Pan5ca-nada or the Pan5jab MBh. ; m. the ancestor of this
people ib.
paJcanada        n. the Pan5ja1b or country of 5 rivers (viz. the S3ata-dru , Vipa1s3a1 , Ira1vati , Candra-bha1ga1 , and
Vitasta1 , i.e. the Sutlej , Bea1s , Ra1vi1 , Chena1b , and Jhelum or Behut) MBh. R. Ra1jat. (also %{I} f. Hcat.) ;
The rivers of the Indus valley civilization.

Dilmun, sometimes described as "the place where the sun rises" and "the Land of the Living", is the scene of some
versions of the Sumerian creation myth, and the place where the deified Sumerian hero of the flood, Utnapishtim
(Ziusudra), was taken by the gods to live forever. Thorkild Jacobsen's translation of the Eridu Genesis calls it "Mount
Dilmun" which he locates as a "faraway, half-mythical place".

Dilmun is also described in the epic story of Enki and Ninhursag as the site at which the Creation occurred. The later
Babylonian Enuma Elish, speaks of the creation site as the place where the mixture of salt water, personified as Tiamat
met and mingled with the fresh water of Abzu. The promise of Enki to Ninhursag, the Earth Mother:
For Dilmun, the land of my lady's heart, I will create long waterways, rivers and canals, whereby water will flow to quench
the thirst of all beings and bring abundance to all that lives.Ninlil, the Sumerian goddess of air and south wind had her
home in Dilmun.

However, it is also speculated that Gilgamesh had to pass through Mount Mashu to reach Dilmun in the Epic of
Gilgamesh, which is usually identified with the whole of the parallel Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges, with the narrow
gap between these mountains constituting the tunnel.  The corresponding location in reality has been the topic of
speculation, as no confirming evidence has been found. Jeffrey H. Tigay suggests that in the Sumerian version, through
its association with the sun god Utu, "the Cedar Mountain is implicitly located in the east, whereas in the Akkadian
versions, Gilgamesh's destination (is) removed from the east" and "explicitly located in the north west, in or near
Lebanon"

The Akkadian versions, Gilgamesh's destination (is) removed from the east" and "explicitly located in the north west, in
or near Lebanon".   Here Dilmun is associated with Amorites, the In general terms, Mesopotamian civilization survived
the arrival of Amorites, as the indigenous Babylonian civilisation had survived the short period of Gutian dynasty of
Sumer's domination of the south during the restless period after the fall of the Akkadian Empire that had preceded the
rise of the Third Dynasty of Ur (the "Neo-Sumerian Empire").After the flood, Noah’s Ark is said to have rested on
mountains of Ararat.  Mashu, as described in the Epic of Gilgamesh of Mesopotamian mythology, is a great cedar
mountain through which the hero-king Gilgamesh passes via a tunnel on his journey to Dilmun after leaving the Cedar
Forest, a forest of ten thousand leagues span.  Siduri, the Alewife, lived on the shore, associated with "the Waters of
Death" that Gilgamesh had to cross to reach Utnapishtim, the far-away. The Sumerian tale of the garden paradise of
Dilmun may have been an inspiration for the Garden of Eden story.

Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum the Indian sandalwood Santalum album. Album is a
threatened species indigenous to South India, and grows in the Western Ghats and a few other mountain ranges such
as the Kalrayan and Shevaroy Hills.
malaya
m. (Un2. iv , 99) N. of a mountain range on the west of Malabar , the western Gha1ts (abounding in sandal trees) MBh.
Ka1v. &c.
zrIkhaNDa
m. or n. (?) the sandal-tree , sandal Ka1v. Katha1s. &c. ; %{-pRthvI-dhara} m. `" sandal-mountain "' , the Malaya range
Vcar.  ;
malayodbhava
n. sandal wood L. (cf. %{malaya-ja}).
dakSinAcala
m. `" southern mountain "' , the Malaya range L.
kalyANa
; N. of Da1ksha1yan2i1 in Malaya ; N. of the eleventh of the fourteen Pu1rvas or most ancient writings of the Jainas
L. ; a form of salutation (`" Hail! "' `" May luck attend you! "') , S3a1ntis3.
(otl)
akattiyam
01* tamil grammar by agastya, of which little is extant
akattiyan
* 1. name of a sage, author of several ve1dic hymns, said to have founded a Bra1hman colony in south India, written on
medicine, and composed the first Tamil grammar; 2. the star Canopus, of which agastya is the regent
akattiyarkuzampu
* a famous cathartic compund ascribed to agastya
akattiyartEvArattiraTTu
a collection of 25 hymns from the te1va1ram, attributed to sage agastya (TLS)
malayamuni
sage agastya, as living in mt. malaya
akattIcaraRuku
* species of grass, as short in stature like agastya
Tamil Lexicon
agk
Akamam        one of the three classes of jaina scriptures
agkakaNitam        * arithmetic
agkALakai        sugar-cane (TLS)
agkicakam        * kind of asceticism -> hamsam
AkamagkaLOtin2On2        Siva, as the originator of the Agamas (TLS)
AkAyakagkai        * the celestial ganges
agkam        01* 1. limb, member, organ, as of the body; 2. body; 3. bone; 4. sciences auxiliary to the ve1das; 5. medical science, as one of ve1ta1n3kam ; 6. a class of
jaina scriptures -> agkAkamam;
agkanUl        * 1. sciences auxiliary to the ve1das; 2. a class of jaina scriptures ->

AgAmika        mf(%{A})n. relating to the future Jain.
agArin        mfn. possessing a house , (%{I}) m. a house holder, layman (cf %{an-agArin}) Jain.

aGga        2 n. ( %{am} Un2.) , a limb of the body ; a limb , member ; the body ; a subordinate division or department , especially of a science , as the six Veda1n3gas ;
hence the number six ; N. of the chief sacred texts of the Jainas
aGkuza        %{as} , %{am} m. n. a hook , especially an elephant-driver's hook ; (%{A}) or (%{I}) f. one of the twenty-four Jaina goddesses L. [cf. Gk. $ ; Germ.
&1909[7,2] {Angel}]
akalaGka        mfn. without stains or spots ; N. of a Jaina.
AkAzAstikAya        m. the ontologic category of space Jain.

Pundarika muladhara original ganadhara and elephant of
south-east same as Agni is Agga.  


After the flood, Noah’s Ark is said to have rested on mountains of Ararat. Similarly, Manu’s boat was described as being perched on the top of a
range of mountains (the Malaya Mountains in this case) when the waters had subsided. Both Noah and Manu were then said to repopulate the
earth, and all human beings could trace their ancestry to either one of these flood survivors. In Mesopotamia the word Manu became boat,
ship, Ark.

The Malabar Coast, in historical contexts, refers to India's southwest coast, lying on the narrow coastal plain of Karnataka and Kerala states
between the Western Ghats range and the Arabian Sea. The coast runs from south of Goa to Kanyakumari on India's southern tip. In ancient
times the term Malabar was used to denote the entire south-western coast of the Indian peninsula. The region formed part of the ancient
kingdom of Chera until the early 12th century.

The Malaya Mountains were a range of mountains that were mentioned in the Hindu sacred texts like Matsya Purana, the Kurma Purana, the
Vishnu Purana,  and the epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

The Pothigai Hills, also known as the Shiva Jothi Parvath, Agasthiyar Mountain, Southern Kailash  is a 1,866-metre (6,122 ft)-tall peak within
Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu is in the southern part of the Western Ghats of South India. However peak lies in the border
of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.  . Ancient tradition holds the mountains of Pothigai to be where the sage Agastiyar (Akattiyan) provided the first
grammar for the Tamil language. This grammar was further fine tuned by one of his disciples in the Tolkāppiyam.

Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum the Indian sandalwood Santalum album. Album is a threatened species
indigenous to South India, and grows in the Western Ghats and a few other mountain ranges such as the Kalrayan and Shevaroy Hills.
malaya   m. (Un2. iv , 99) N. of a mountain range on the west of Malabar , the western Gha1ts (abounding in sandal trees) MBh. Ka1v. &c.
(mwd)
zrIkhaNDa   m. or n. (?) the sandal-tree , sandal Ka1v. Katha1s. &c. ; %{-pRthvI-dhara} m. `" sandal-mountain "' , the Malaya range Vcar.
malayodbhava  n. sandal wood L. (cf. %{malaya-ja}).
dakSinAcala  m. `" southern mountain "' , the Malaya range L.
kalyANa     ; N. of Da1ksha1yan2i1 in Malaya ; N. of the eleventh of the fourteen Pu1rvas or most ancient writings of the Jainas L. ; a form of
salutation (`" Hail! "' `" May luck attend you! "') , S3a1ntis3.
(
Tamil)
akattiyam
01* tamil grammar by agastya, of which little is extant

akattiyan   * 1. name of a sage, author of several ve1dic hymns, said to have founded a Bra1hman colony in south India, written on medicine,
and composed the first Tamil grammar; 2. the star Canopus, of which agastya is the regent
akattiyarkuzampu   * a famous cathartic compund ascribed to agastya
akattiyartEvArattiraTTu       a collection of 25 hymns from the te1va1ram, attributed to sage agastya (TLS)
malayamuni    sage agastya, as living in mt. malaya
akattIcaraRuku    * species of grass, as short in stature like agastya

The Vishnu Purana specifically mentions it amongst the seven main chains of mountains in Bharata (ancient name of India), namely Mahendra,
Malaya, Sahya, Śuktimat, Riksha, Vindhya, and Páripátra.  According to the Matsya Purana, during the Great flood, the giant boat of King
Manu was perched after the deluge on the top of the Malaya Mountains.
These mountains are believed to have formed the southernmost part (Southwards starting from the Mangalore region) of the Western Ghats,
modern day Kerala while the Northern part of the same was called the Sahya Mountains. . The peaks of these Malaya mountains were said to
be higher than those of the Sahya Mountariod of recorded history, it might have been the junction of the Chera and Pandya Kingdoms.
Sangam Literature calls these mountains Pothigai.

A Buddhist text, Tarasukkam, refers to Avalokitesvara as "Potalagirinivasini". The author of the Silappatikaram, utilizing the word "Potiyil" for the
hills, hails the southern breeze that emanates from the hills that blows over the kingdom of the Pandyans of Madurai and Korkai that own it.
Chithalai Chathanar's Manimekhalai describes a river flowing on the slope of Potiyil mountain where the Buddhist monks observed meditation.
The author utilized the word "Potiyil" for Buddhist pallis. In fellow Sangam work Kuṟuntokai of the Eṭṭuttokai anthology, a Buddhist vihara under a
Banyan tree is described at the top of the mountain.


The earliest Neolithic sites in South Asia are Bhirrana in Haryana dated to 7570-6200 BC, and Mehrgarh, dated to between 6500 and 5500 BC,
in the Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan; the site has evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats).
In South India, the Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC
V
-rishabha-svamin is Rshabha who starts (fathers) a social systems within the two different language
groups of India one Indoeuropean (Mehrgarh 6500 BC and Southern India 6500 BC) the other Dravidian.
VRSabhasvAmin N. of a king (founder of the family of Ikshva1ku and father of Dravida) S3atr.  

DraviDa m. N. of a people (regarded as degraded Kshatriyas and said to be "' descendants of Dravid2a ,
sons of Vr2ishabha-sva1min S3atr.)and of a district on the east coast of the Deccan Mn. Var. MBh. &c. ; collect. N. for 5 peoples , viz. the
A1ndhras , Karn2a1t2akas , Gurjaras ,Tailan3gas , and Maha1ra1sht2ras (cf. %{dAviDa} below)  m. pl. the DñDra1vida people MBh. R. Pur. ;
also collect. N. for the above 5
peoples ,

drAviDa mf(%{I})n. Dravidian , a Dravida MBh. Ra1jat. &c. ; m. pl. the Dra1vida people MBh. R. Pur. ; also collect. N. for the above 5 peoples ,
and of the 5 chief Dra1vida languages , Tamil , Telugu , Kanarese , Malaya1lam and Tulu ; m. sg. a patr. fr. Dravida S3atr. ;

At the end of the Neolithic sites in Bhirrana in Haryana dated to 7570-6200 BC coincides with the 8.2 kilo-year event, while another event
started earlier 6500 BCE with Mehrgarh, dated to between 6500 and 5500 BC for the north (Indoeuropean) same as the south (Dravidian)
6500 BC Southern India, the Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC. Manu's boat lands within the historical Dravidian
county, the Malabar Coast, in historical contexts, refers to India's southwest coast, lying on the narrow coastal plain of Karnataka and Kerala
states between the Western Ghats range and the Arabian Sea.  
Tamil
agkam
01* 1. limb, member, organ, as of the body; 2. body; 3. bone; 4. sciences auxiliary to the ve1das; 5. medical science, as one of ve1ta1n3kam ;
6. a class of jaina scriptures -> agkAkamam;
agkanUl
* 1. sciences auxiliary to the ve1das; 2. a class of jaina scriptures -> agkAkamam
aTTAgkam
the eight limbs of the body, viz., feet, hands shoulders, breast and forehead (TLS)
utilized the word "Potiyil" for Buddhist pallis
paLLi
1. place; 2. hamlet, small village; 3. herdsmen's village; 4. town; 5. hermitage, cell of a recluse; 6. temple, place of worship, especially of jains
and buddhists;

Mehrgarh is the precurser to The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC)  a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1600 BCE).
From Mehrgarh's start to the end of the Indus Valley Civilization equates to the Southern Neolithic evolution of 6500 to 1600 BC.


O kind-hearted man, you have care in your heart, listen now. Soon the world will be submerged by a great flood, and everything will perish. You
must build strong ark, and take along rope on board. you must also take with you the Seven Sages, who have existed since the beginning of
time, and seeds of all things and pair of each animal, when you are ready, I will come to you as Fish and I will have horns on my head. Do not
forget my words, without me you cannot escape from the flood. In the flood myth from the Old Testament, God who saves Noah by instructing
him to build an Ark.


Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan,
Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh, in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site, was
a small farming village which was inhabited from circa 6500 BCE.  It is one of the earliest sites with evidence of farming and herding in South
Asia.  The site was discovered in 1974 by an archaeological team led by French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and Catherine Jarrige,
and was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986, and again from 1997 to 2000. Archaeological material has been found in six
mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected.
Mehrgarh is now seen as a precursor to the Indus Valley Civilization, displaying the whole sequence from earliest settlement and the start of
agriculture, to the mature Harappan Civilization.

The earliest farming in the area was developed by semi-nomadic people using plants such as wheat and barley and animals such as sheep,
goats and cattle. The settlement was established with simple mud buildings and most of them had four internal subdivisions. Numerous burials
have been found, many with elaborate goods such as baskets, stone and bone tools, beads, bangles, pendants and occasionally animal
sacrifices, with more goods left with burials of males. Ornaments of sea shell, limestone, turquoise, lapis lazuli and sandstone have been found,
along with simple figurines of women and animals. Sea shells from far sea shore and lapis lazuli found as far away as present-day Badakshan,
Afghanistan shows good contact with those areas. A single ground stone axe was discovered in a burial, and several more were obtained from
the surface. These ground stone axes are the earliest to come from a stratified context in South Asia. Periods I, II and III are contemporaneous
with another site called Kili Gul Mohammed.

Rishabhanatha is said to have taught the men six main professions. These were: (1) As (swordsmanship for protection), (2) Masi (writing skills),
(3) Krishi (agriculture), (4) Vidya (knowledge), (5) Vanijya (trade and commerce) and (6) Shilp (crafts).  In other words, he is credited with
introducing  karma-bhumi (the age of action) by founding arts and professions to enable householders to sustain themselves.

Shatrunjaya("place of victory against inner enemies") originally Pundarikgiri) is the location of the first Samgha also spelt Shetrunjaya are hills
located by the city of Palitana, in Bhavnagar district, Gujarat, India.  The Jain's sacred site of Shatrunjaya contains hundreds of Palitana
temples.  The hills were sanctified when Rishabha, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, gave his first sermon in the temple on the hill top.  The
ancient history of the hills is also traced to Pundarika Swami, a chief Ganadhara and grandson of Rishabha, who attained salvation here. His
shrine located opposite to the main Adinath temple, built by his son Bharata, is also worshiped by pilgrims.

The proximity of the to two Shatrunjaya and Oriyo Timbo suggest both have a common origin.
Oriyo Timbo is an archeological site belonging to Indus Valley Civilisation located in Bhavnagar District, Gujarat State, India. The site is
measuring 4 hectares, located at a distance of 70 km from Rojdi, another IVC site.  Gregory Possehl states that "Oriyo Timbo also produced
some radio carbon dates for the micro lithic occupation (Rissman and Chitawala 1990) which indicate that this can be dated to the entire third
millennium, possibly extending as far back in time as c.3700 BC." and hunting and gathering people of this area were there at the time when
Lothal was occupied.
Ikshu divides his kingdom to his hundred sons, of whom Bharata got the city of Vinita (Ayodhya) and Bahubali got the city of Podanapur
(Taxila). The region around Taxila was settled by the neolithic era, with some ruins at Taxila dating to 3360 BCE. Ruins dating from the Early
Harappan period around 2900 BCE have also been discovered in the Taxila area, though the area was eventually abandoned after the
collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Taxila was in ancient times known in Pali as Takkasila,  and in Sanskrit as Takshashila (Takṣaśilā). The
city's Sanskrit name means "City of Cut Stone". The city's ancient Sanskrit name alternately means "Rock of Taksha" – in reference to the
Ramayana story that states the city was founded by Bharata, younger brother of the central Hindu deity Rama, and named in honor of
Bharata's son, Taksha. The Greeks encountered the gymnosophists in the third century BCE at the town of ancient
Taxila in Ancient India,
which was an ancient centre of Indian learning. The naked saints, whom Alexander met, are sometimes considered to be Digambara Jain
monks, who have continued to practise nudity.   According to recent paper by Halkias, the gymnosophists could not have been Jains.]
Gymnosophists (Greek γυμνοσοφισταί, gymnosophistai, i.e. "naked philosophers" or "naked wise men"
The Parkers Tissa coin below found in Ceylon thus Dravidian bears a striking similarity to the
coins of the Kuninda (golden coin below Parkers coin) located along the Jamuna, Beas, Sultaj,
the prior Indus Valley. The common denominator here as with the Sangha coins above is
Jainism.
Above the Sanskrit diz * for cardinal points of direction, this word became the Sumerian word for sky and
God the Sanskrit word diz-ambara or dig-ambara the sky is your clothing.
Sanskrit
diz    *    2 f. Quarter or region pointed at , direction , cardinal point RV. AV. S3Br. &c. (four in number ,
viz. %{prAcI} , east ;%{dakSiNA} , south ; %{pratici} , west ; and %{udIcI} , north AV. xv , 2 , 1
A1s3vGr2. iv , 8 &c. ; Sometimes a 5th , %{dhruvA} AV. iii , 9 , 15 S3Br. ix , 4 , 3 , 10 ;
Sumerian
Dig-ambara
Dingir *, usually transliterated DIĜIR Sumerian pronunciation: [diŋir]) is a Sumerian word for "god." Its
cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for religious names and related
concepts, in which case it is not pronounced and is conventionally transliterated as a superscript "D" as in
e.g. DInanna. The cuneiform sign by itself was originally an ideogram for the Sumerian word an ("sky" or
"heaven"); its use was then extended to a logogram for the word diĝir ("god" or goddess)
Five Swastika's in a row, same as the Indus seal. The Buddhist got their symbols from Jainism,
Buddhism 600 BC, Indus ends 1200 BC.

I believe Rishabha to be Manjusri.

Scholars have identified Mañjuśrī as the oldest and most significant bodhisattva in Mahāyāna literature
prajñā (transcendent wisdom). The Lotus Sutra assigns him a pure land called Vimala, which according to
the Avatamsaka Sutra is located in the East.  His consort in some traditions is Saraswati.The
Mañjusrimulakalpa, which later came to classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Saiva,
Garuda and Vaisnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught originally by
Manjushri.

pUrvajina        m. `" ancient sage "'N. of Manju-sri L.
daNDA-jinika        mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{daNDA7jina}) carrying a staff and skin (as mere outward signs of
religion) m. cheat , rogue , hypocrite Pa1n2. 5-2 , 76.
zArdUlavAhana        m. `" riding on a tiger "'N. of Manju-sri1 L.
daNDin        mfn. (Pa1n2. 5-2 , 115 Ka1s3.) carrying a stick S3Br. xiii Ka1tyS3r. S3a1n3khS3r. Mn. &c. ;
m. a Bra1hman in the 4th stage of his life (= %{Tri-}) Ka1lid. ; N. of an order of ascetics founded by
S3am2kara7ca1rya W. ; a door-keeper , policeman Nal. iv , 25 Ka1d. i , 225 ; an oarsman W. ; Yama
Ka1m. ii , 36 ;
Manju-sri1 L. ; (g. %{naDA7di}) N. of a son of Dhr2itit-ra1sht2ra MBh. i , 2738 ; of a door-
keeper of the Sun R. vii , 23 , 2 , 9 and 11 ;
sthiracakra        m. N. of Manju-sri1 ib.
garteza        m. `" master of a cave "'N. of Manju-sri1 Buddh.
vAdirAj        m. `" king among disputants , an excellent disputant Pan5cat. ; a Bauddha sage (also N. of
Man5ju-ghosha or
Man5ju-s3ri1) L.

V-rishabha-svamin is Rshabha who starts (fathers) a social systems within the two deferent language
groups of India one Indoeuropean the other Dravidian with Tibet that is three.
VRSabhasvAmin N. of a king (founder of the family of Ikshva1ku and father of Dravid2a) S3atr.  

draviDa m. N. of a people (regarded as degraded Kshatriyas and said to be "' descendants of Dravid2a ,
sons of Vr2ishabha-sva1min S3atr.)and of a district on the east coast of the Deccan Mn. Var. MBh. &c. ;
collect. N. for 5 peoples , viz. the A1ndhras , Karn2a1t2akas , Gurjaras ,Tailan3gas , and Maha1ra1sht2ras
(cf. %{dAviDa} below)  m. pl. the DñDra1vida people MBh. R. Pur. ; also collect. N. for the above 5
peoples ,

drAviDa mf(%{I})n. Dra1vidian , a Dra1vida MBh. Ra1jat. &c. ; m. pl. the DñDra1vida people MBh. R. Pur.
; also collect. N. for the above 5 peoples , and of the 5 chief DñDra1vida languages , Tamil , Telugu ,
Kanarese , Malaya1lam and Tulu ; m. sg. a patr. fr. Dravid2a S3atr. ;

Dravida is an Indoeuropean word, the prefix Dra is common in Sanskrit and does not exist in the Drividian
lexicon.
Dravidian
dRSTivAda m. N. of the 12th An3ga of the Jainas.
dRSTa mfn. seen , looked at , beheld ,perceived , noticed Mn. MBh. Ka1v.&c.  
dRSTArtha mfn. having the aim or object apparent ,

The first tirthankara Rishabhanatha codifies writing "Masi", within the broad subject matter of writing is
Agga and Agamas, they are the sacred text of Jainism. The founder of Jainism Rishabhanatha is also
credited with having invented and taught fire, cooking, and all skills needed for human beings to live. The
association of fire suggests Rishabha is the founder of Agni "fire" of the Veda. Agni is considered as the
mouth of the gods and goddesses Agam/Agni.  The word Agni is used in many contexts, ranging from the
fire in stomach, the cooking fire in a home, the sacrificial fire in an altar, the fire of cremation, the fire of
rebirth, the fire in the energetic saps concealed within plants, the atmospheric fire in lightning and the
celestial fire in the sun
Agamas are texts of Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara. Agamas exist in Hinduism as well.
'Agama' is a Sanskrit word. The discourse delivered in a samavasarana (divine preaching hall) is called
Śhrut Jnāna and comprises eleven angas and fourteen purvas. The discourse is recorded by Ganadharas
(chief disciples), and is composed of twelve angas (departments). It is generally represented by a tree with
twelve branches. This forms the basis of the Jaina Agamas or canons. These are believed to have
originated from Rishabhanatha, the first tirthankara. Some of the early Tamil classics such as Valayapathi,
Silappatikaram and Civaka Chintamani are Jain or Jain-affiliated works.

Agama        mf(%{A})n. coming near , approaching AV. vi , 81 , 2 ; xix , 35 , 3 ; m. (ifc. f. %{A}) arrival ,
coming , approach R. &c. ; origin Mn. viii , 401 R. &c. ; appearance or reappearance MBh. ii , 547
income
, lawful acquisition (of property , %{artha} , %{dhana} , %{vitta} , %{draviNa}) Mn. MBh. &c.
; reading ,
studying Pat. ; acquisition of knowledge , science MBh. Ya1jn5. &c. ; a traditional doctrine or precept ,
collection of such doctrines , sacred work , Bra1hmana Mn. xii , 105    
Samghajjana
Ajjanavati female elephant of
north-east
Pundarika muladhara original ganadhara and elephant of
south-east same as Agni is Agga.     
gamAgama        m. going and coming , going to and fro Katha1s. lxxvii ; m. sg. and pl. negotiation Ka1d.
Ra1jat. vii , 1274 (cf. %{gatA7gata}) ; %{-kArin} m. a negotiator , messenger VarBr2S. x , 10 Sch.
gamaka        mfn. causing to understand , making clear or intelligible , explanatory , leading to clearness or
conviction (e.g. %{hetu} , `" a convincing reason "') Sarvad. i , 35 ;MBh. &c.

Thus "causing to understand" gama equates to graha "seizing understaning".
ghamb        cl. 1. A1. %{-bate} , to go , move Dha1tup. xi , 35 (Vop.).
mátsya-saṃghāta = Samgha
matsyasaMghAta m. a shoal of young fry or small fish cf. L.

Schooling and shoaling is a kind of collective animal behaviour by fish. Any group of fish that stay together
for social reasons is said to be shoaling, and if the shoal is swimming in the same direction together, it is
schooling.
ghaTa        mfn. intently occupied or busy with (loc.) Pa1n2. 5-2 , 35 ; = %{ghaTA@yasyA7sti} g. %{arza-
Adi} ; m. a jar , pitcher , jug , large earthen water-jar , watering-pot Mn. viii , xi Ya1jn5. iii , 144 Amr2itUp.
MBh. &c. ; the
sign Aquarius VarBr2S. ;; a troop (of elephants) assembled for martial purposes
Ma1lati1m. v , 19 VarBr2S. xliii S3is3. i , 64 Katha1s. Ra1jat. mfn.(%{ghaT}) `" working on "' see %{danta-}
;; n. management of an elephant Gal. ;
ratnatraya        n. `" jñjewels-triad "' , the three jewels or excellent things (with Buddhists , viz. %{buddha} , %
{dharma} and %{saMgha} ; or with Jainas , viz. %{samyag-darzana} , %{sñsaMgha-jJAna} and %{samyak-
cAritra}.
ratnasaMghAta        m. a number or collection of jewels ; %{-maya} mf(%{I})n. made or consisting of a
number of jńjewels MBh.
saMghAta ; (in gram.) a compound as a compact whole (opp. to its single parts) Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 2-3 , 56
;
a vowel with its consonant (opp. to %{varNa} , `" a letter "') , Ka1t2y. ; N. of a division of the infernal
regions (cf. %{saMhAta}) Ya1jn5. Buddh. ;
ghaMS        (and %{ghaMs}) cl. 1. A1. %{-Sate} (and %{-sate}) , to diffuse lustre or splendour Dha1tup. xvi
, 50 ;
to flow , stream ib.
saMghaT        A1. %{-ghaTate} , to assemble together , meet Ra1jat. ; to meet , encounter Sin6ha7s.:
Caus. %{-ghA8Tayati} , to cause to assemble , collect Katha1s. ; to join or fasten together Sarvad. ; to
strike (a musical instrument) R.
saMgha        " close contact or combination "' , any collection or assemblage , heap , multitude , quantity ,
crowd , host , number (generally with gen. pl. or ifc. , e.g. %{muni-s-} , `" a multitude of sages "' BhP. ; %
{zatru-s-} , a host of enemies Ra1jat.) MBh. Ka1v. &c. ; any number of people living together for a certain
purpose , a society , association , company , community ; a clerical community , congregation , church Mn.
Sa1h. &c. ; (esp.) the whole community or collective body or brotherhood of monks (with Buddhists
; also
applied to a monkish fraternity or sect among Jainas) Buddh. Sarvad. MWB. 176.

Rishabhanatha is then said to have taught mankind six main professions. These were: (1) Asi
(swordsmanship for protection), (2) Masi (writing skills), (3) Krishi (agriculture), (4) Vidya (knowledge), (5)
Vanijya (trade and commerce) and (6) Shilp (crafts). In other words, he is credited with introducing karma-
bhumi (the age of action) by founding arts and professions to enable householders to sustain themselves.
He is, in the Jain belief, the one who organized a social system that created the varna based on
professions.
varna  Kshatriyas Asi (swordsmanship for protection) , Vaisyas  (3) Krishi (agriculture), (5) Vanijya (trade
and commerce) and (6) Shilp (crafts), Brahmans Samghajjana.
saMghAta; (in gram.) a compound as a compact whole (opp. to its single parts) Ka1s3. on Pa1n2. 2-3 , 56
;
a vowel with its consonant (opp. to %{varNa} , `" a letter "') , Ka1t2y.consonant (opp. to %{varNa} , `"
a letter).
Rishabhanatha codifed Masi (writing skills), "') , Ka1t2y. as samghata is a vowel with its consonant (opp. to
%{varNa} , `" a letter "') as with samghata/samgha of anchorites defferent from the comunity of house
holders.

In the Jains thirteenth Purvas: Kriya Visala Purva: Skills, 64 arts of women, 84 arts of men, then there are
64 Hindhu Kalas meaning any practical art , any mechanical or fine art (sixty-four are enumerated in the
S3aivatantra .  Those persons would have become house holders. The possessing of a house was from
the Agga/Agamas name of the chief sacred texts of the Jainas.
catuHSaSTi 64 AitBr. i , 5 , 8 Mn. viii , 338 Hariv. R. ; the 64 Kala1s MBh. ii , 2068 ; N. of RV.    
(consisting of 64 Adhya1yas) L; %{-STy-
aGga} mfn. having 64 subdivisions (the Jyotih2-s3a1stra) Mudr. i ,
5/6.
agArin        mfn. possessing a house , (%{I}) m. a house holder, layman (cf %{an-agArin}) Jain.
agnicitvat        mfn. possessing house holders that have prepared a sacred fire-place Pa1n2. 8-2 , 10 Sch.
grAha        (Pa1n2. 3-1 , 143) mf(%{I})n. ifc. seizing , holding , catching , receiving Ya1jn5. ii , 51 R. iv , 41 ,
38 ; crocodile
graha     seizing , laying hold of , holding BhP. iii , 15 , 35; crocodile  ; with Jainas they constitute one of the
5 classes of the
Jyotishkas.
Graha and the crocodile below is a representation of the rebus  principle an allusional device that uses
pictures to represent words or parts of words. I believe the Indus script to be both a logographic system
based on rebus and an alphabetic/syllabaries system where individual written characters represent sounds
rather than concepts. Explaining Samgha the fish sign with two bars "sam" and "gha" gana fish and
Graha/Grha sieze/house holder. I believe the "gha" from samgha to have it's roots somewhere in the gloss
of words gana, guna, graha, grha that were connected. Today Guṇa is both a root and a word in Sanskrit
and guNa is rooted with grah not gana that changed where originally the concept of quality and quantity
were related.
In verse VI.36 of Nirukta by Yāska, a 1st millennium BC text on Sanskrit grammar and language that
preceded Panini,
Guṇa is declared to be derived from another root Gaṇa.
The house holder is represented on an Indus Valley artifact (below) that had three sides.  The three sided
Indus Valley artifact, with two sides showing processions of domestic animals then wild animals, both have a
flying crocodile for graha Householder. In the two seals below there is no writing purely symbolic, the flying
crocodile represents graha/grha.

The top seal is part of a three sided seal below that the user could chose one of three meanings, this
artifact brings together the crocodile/fish and the common motif of a tiger looking back. I interpret the
backwards looking tigers meaning as symbolic for the leader of the anchorites that are represented by wild
animals, the tiger looking back at his/her life as house holder graha.
matsya        m. (cf. %{matsa} and %{maccha}) a fish RV. &c. &c. a partic. species of fish L. ; (in astron.) the figure of a figure (=
%{timi}) Su1ryas.  (du.) the 12th sign of the zodiac
(Pisces) Jyot. ; a partic. figure (= %{svastikamadhyA7kRti}) Hcat. ; (pl.) N. of a
people and country (which accord. to Mn. ii , 19 forms part of
Brahmarshi) RV. &c.&c. ; a king of the Matsyas (cf. %{matsa}) ;
matsyasaMghAta        m. a shoal of young fry or small fish L.

The first samgha as the time of Rshabhanatha winter solstice was in Pisces, the start of the year, that is 7,560 years ago.
bharata-RSabha        m. =
%{bharata-
rSabha}N. of
Visva-mitra AitBr. (cf. RV. iii
, 53 , 24).
Pandya Kingdom, Sangam period,
Anonymous bronze unit, c. 3rd - 1st
century BCE
Weight: 7.82 gm., Dim: 29 x 22 mm.
Elephant right, barred trident and altar
before, various symbols above /
Stylized fish (Pandya dynastic symbol)
pANDaradanta        mfn. having white
teeth or tusks (elephant) R.
pANDu        mfn. (%{paND}?) yellowish
white , white , pale S3Br. MBh. Ka1v. &c. ;
jaundiced Car. ; m. jaundice Car. ; pale or
yellowish white colour W. ;
a white
elephant
L.
pANDarabhikSu        m. `" a white-robed
mendicant "' , N. of a partic. sect L.
pANDuravAsin        mfn. white-robed
MBh.
pANDuraya        Nom. P. %{yati} , to
colour white , Va1sav.
pANDurIka-raNa        n. colouring white
Vcar.
pANDurIka-raNakR        to colour white
Ka1d.
pANDaradanta        mfn. having white
teeth or tusks (elephant) R.
pANDu-nAga
       m. a white elephant
W. ;
puNyatRNa        n. a sacred grass (N. of
the white variety of Kus3a grass) L.
puNDra ; a white lotus-flower L.
puNDarIka
     ; fever in an elephant L. ;
white (the colour) L. ; N. of a Na1ga MBh.
; of the
elephant of the south-east
quarter Ragh. ; ifc. expressive of beauty
cf. g. %{
vyAghrA7di}) RV. &c.&c

Tamil
pUN        02 1. ornament, jewel; 2. ring,
ferrule, cap; 3. ornamental knob of an
elephant's tusk; 4. armour

puNTarikam        1. lotus; 2. male
elephant of the south-east, one of
as2t2a-tik-kajam , q.v.; 3. tiger; 4. beetle;
pan2n2Irccempu      2. jewel piece in a
necklace,  
paNati       ; 4. jewels, ornament; 5. fancy,
delusion
paNi      ; 4. bowing, reverencing; 5.8.
jewel; ornament; 9. decoration with flowers;
paNiti        01 1. work, structure; 2. jewel,
ornament; 3. adorning, decoration; 4.
perh. pan2ita a praiseworthy thing; 5.
insolence of wealth
pANTiRkAcu        a piece of jewelry,
known as vatta-k-ka1cu

Although Mehrgarh predates BMAC the amount of interaction between two suggests they were the same
people that settled in the Pakistan, already having roots in the north they occupied BMAC in the north for tin
copper and Lapis. Mehrgarh with hundreds of BMAC artifacts, BMAC where Steppe wares are found on thier
site, then BMAC artifacts are found in Iran, Afghanistan,
Nepal, India and Pakistan. BMAC 2300–1700 BC
Crested axes like those of the BMAC appeared at Shadad and other sites in eastern and Central Iran. A
cemetery at Mehrgarh VIII in Baluchistan, on the border between the Harappan and Elamite civilizations,
contained so many BMAC artfacts that it "Suggests" an actual movement of BMAC people into
Baluchistan.


Pottery is one of the oldest human inventions, originating before the Neolithic period, with ceramic objects like the Gravettian culture Venus of Dolní Věstonice figurine
discovered in the Czech Republic dating back to 29,000–25,000 BC.   Despite an extensive prehistoric record of pottery, including painted wares, little "fine" or luxury
pottery was made in the subcontinent in historic times. Hinduism discourages eating off pottery, which probably largely accounts for this. Most traditional Indian pottery
vessels are large pots or jars for storage, or small cups or lamps, often treated as disposable.  In contrast there are long traditions of sculpted figures, often rather
large, in terracotta.     Mostly those figurines were female, which were regarded as depictions of “mother goddess”. After the introduction of potter’s wheels in later
period (5500BC), the figurines exemplified more intricate designs and sophistication.
Tamil
Sangam period,
.
Tell Asmar Cylinder seal
University of Chicago Press,
no. 642. Museum Number:
IM14674 3.4 cm. high. Glazed
steatite. ca. 2250 - 2200 BCE.
Panchala Kingdom, Bhumimitra,
Copper double karshapana, c. 1st
century BCE
Weight: 15.52 gm., Diam: 25 mm.
Deity (Bhumi?) on a pedestal /
Three Panchala symbols, Brahmi
legend below: Bhumimitrasa
Ref: MAC 4545
h182A,
h182B
Indus/Mesopatamia seal
UR (upenn; U.16747)
M308 seal
The first Sangha was at Shatrunjaya originally Pundarikgiri and Oriyo Timbo is right next to a very
important Jain site.
The word Sangam in the Dravidian language is their word for their most ancient writings, the word
was not used once in all of the Sangam writings. Sangam is an Indoeuropean loan word from Jainism
and Buddhism, for congregation or assembly of monks.  Some of the early Tamil classics such as
Valayapathi, Silappatikaram and Civaka Chintamani are Jain or Jain-affiliated works. Below the Indus
fish and two bars is used by the Pandya kingdom of the Sangam period. This sign in later coinage is
the modified fish and bars, that are very similar to the Sanskrit Devanagariśa script for both Syllable
compounds "Sam" and "gana" Samgha. The associated elephant I believe to be Pundarika son or
grandson of the first Tirthankara of Jainism Rishabhanatha. Pundarika Ganadhara the elephant of the
south-east quarter and son of Nabha or Nabhas.   While the word  NAbheya is of Rishabha (first
Arhat of the Jainas), Nabha was father of Rishabhanatha.  Pundarika was the original or first Gana-
dhara of the first Arhat Rishabhanatha. The syllable compound "sam" falls on the Matra; Muladhara,
mula means root or original, Pundarika was the original Ganadhara or Mula-Dhara at the first
Samgha.
M296A
M1186
M309a
Gha

Devanagari
(/ˌdeɪvəˈnɑːɡəri/
DAY-və-
NAH-gə-ree;
देवनागरी, IAST:
Devanāgarī, a
compound of
"deva" देव and
"nāgarī"
नागरी; Hindi
pronunciation:
[d̪eːʋˈnaːɡri]), also
called
Nagari (Nāgarī,
नागरी),

ग        ga

Kobashi, T.; et al. (2007). "Precise timing and characterization of abrupt climate change 8,200
years ago from air trapped in polar ice". Quaternary Science Reviews. 26: 1212–1222. Bibcode:
2007QSRv...26.1212K. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.01.009.



[9]           RESEARCH ARTICLE MARCH 01, 2010
Timing and magnitude of the sea-level jump preluding the 8200 yr event
Marc P. Hijma
Kim M. Cohen
Geology (2010) 38 (3): 275-278.
https://doi.org/10.1130/G30439.1
In the beginning, there was water
everywhere and the Brahman slept on
this water in the form of Vishnu. Since
water is called nara and since ayana
means a bed, Vishnu is known as
Narayana. In the water there emerged
a golden egg. Brahma was born inside
this egg. Since he created himself, he
is called Svayambhu, born (bhu) by
himself (svayam). For one whole year,
Brahma lived inside the egg. He then
split the egg into two and created
heaven and the earth from the two
parts of the egg. Skies, directions,
time, language and senses were
created in both heaven and earth.
From the powers of his mind, Brahma
gave birth to seven great sages. Their
names were Marichi, Atri, Angira,
Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and
Vashishtha. Brahma also created the
god Rudra and the sage Sanatkumara.
Sanskrit
[7]   Empire of Cotton
https://www.harappa.com/blog/empire-cotton
By some accounts, the University of
Ancient Taxila was considered to be one of
the earliest (or the earliest) universities in
the world.
"Taxila, besides being a provincial seat,
was also a centre of learning. It was not a
university town with lecture halls and
residential quarters, such as have been
found at Nalanda in the Indian state of
Bihar."


In the 2nd century BCE, Taxila was
annexed by the Indo-Greek kingdom of
Bactria. Indo-Greeks built a new capital,
Sirkap, on the opposite bank of the river
from Taxila.[43] During this new period of
Bactrian Greek rule, several dynasties
(like Antialcidas) likely ruled from the city
as their capital.
Taxila had great influence on Hindu culture
and the Sanskrit language. It is perhaps
best known for its association with
Chanakya, also known as Kautilya, the
strategist who guided Chandragupta
Maurya and assisted in the founding of the
Mauryan empire. Chanakya's Arthashastra
(The knowledge of Economics) is said to
have been composed in Taxila.  not in
citation given  The Ayurvedic healer
Charaka also studied at Taxila.  He also
started teaching at Taxila in the later
period.   Pāṇini, the grammarian who
codified the rules that would define
Classical Sanskrit, has also been part of
the community at Taxila.
Archaeologists in India claim to have uncovered the remains of 4,000-year-old horse-drawn chariots,
which they say provides the first evidence of a "warrior class" on par with other ancient civilisations.
Archaeological Survey of India says remains point to sophisticated craftsmanship and lifestyle
Researchers also unearthed swords and weapons, indicating a "warrior class" lived in the area
Archaeologists say the find puts India on par with other ancient civilisations
The remains were discovered at an Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) excavation site at the
village of Sinauli, about 70 kilometres north of New Delhi, where eight burial sites and artifacts
including swords and daggers were also found.
The researchers said they unearthed three chariots in
burial chambers which date to between
2000 and 1800 BC in the Bronze Age, leading to a suggestion of
"royal burials", according to the Times of India.

Like a magicians sleight of hand history looks at the
painted gray ware culture as the Aryan Invasion of
India.
The facts are the BMAC was associated with the Iranian Aryan Invasion of the Elamite nation prior
to
the gray ware culture.

As James P. Mallory
It has become increasingly clear that if one wishes
to argue for Indo-Iranian migrations from the steppe
lands south into the historical seats of the Iranians
and Indo-Aryans that these steppe cultures were
transformed as they passed through a membrane
of Central Asian urbanism. The fact that typical
steppe wares are found on BMAC sites and that
intrusive BMAC material is subsequently found
further to the south in Iran, Afghanistan, Nepal,
India and Pakistan, may suggest then the
subsequent movement of Indo-Iranian-speakers
after they had adopted the culture of the BMAC.

BMAC 2300–1700 BC
Crested axes like those of the BMAC appeared at Shadad and other sites in eastern and Central Iran. A
cemetery at Mehrgarh VIII in Baluchistan, on the border between the Harappan and Elamite civilizations,
contained so many BMAC artfacts that it "Suggests" an actual movement of BMAC people into
Baluchistan. Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; Pashto: مهرګړ‎; Urdu: مہرگڑھ‎;), sometimes anglicized as
Mehergarh or Mehrgar, near the capital of the Kachi District Dadhar, is one of the most important
Neolithic
(6500 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology. Mehrgarh was prior to the Indus culture.

Although Mehrgarh predates BMAC the amount of interaction between two suggests they were
the same people that settled in the Indus valley around 6500, already having roots north they
occupied BMAC in the north for tin copper and Lapis.

Pururavas  moved with Urvasi to Uttarakuru a land were the river Bhadra flows north to the northern
ocean.
Pururavas conquered the seven continents. The Veda states the home land of the Aryan people
was
Uttarakuru. The chariot making Sintashta culture (2100–1800BC), formerly included within the
Andronovo
culture (2300-1000BC) with it's horizon including the Afanasevo culture (3500-2500BC).
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) (3300–1300 BC), mature period (2600–1900 BC) extending from

whattoday is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan to Deli in India.

The hundred year war starts with both sides claiming decent from the moon. The first battle is Naram-sin
2300 BC.attacking the Indus Valley. At Mohenjo-daro the grain silo's are damaged and a
complete change in staple diet starts. The later writing about this time from Mesopotamia blame Naram-
sin for plundering those that had already payed tribute. This act brought the Gutian's down from the north,
Gutian equals "qutu" Qu being "standard" and in one insciption Qutu-Manu the Standard of Manu.
Pururavas moves north to Uttara-kuru. The Brahmanda Purana and Vayu Purana state that the Pururavas,
the ancestors of the Puru race once lived with Urvasi in Uttarakuru.

Radiocarbon dates for chariot graves in the southern Ural steppes chariots.

Lab number     BP date           Site, Kurgan, grave        68% confidence

Ki-657           3760 +/- 120      Sintashta    Sm g28        2334-2014 B.C.
AA-9874b      3360 +/- 50       Krivoe Ozero k9;g1         2198-2097 B.C.
AA-9875a      3700 +/- 60                   " "                        2142-2013 B.C.
AA-9874a      3580+/- 50                    " "                        1977-1875 B.C.
AA-9875b      3525+/- 50                    " "                        1890-1759 B.C.
Ki-862            3360+/-70        Sintashta SM g5               1688-1591B.C.


Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC).[The Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (or
BMAC, also
known as the Oxus civilization) is the modern archaeological designation for a Bronze Age
civilisation of Central
Asia, dated to ca. 2300–1700 BCE, located in present day northern Afghanistan,
eastern Turkmenistan, southern
Uzbekistan and western Tajikistan, centered on the upper Amu Darya
(Oxus River).

The inhabitants of the BMAC were sedentary people who practised irrigation farming of wheat and
barley. With their
impressive material culture including monumental architecture, bronze tools, ceramics,
and jewellery
of semiprecious stones, the complex exhibits many of the hallmarks of civilization. The
complex can be compared to
proto-urban settlements in the Helmand basin at Mundigak in western
Afghanistan and Shahr-i Shōkhta in eastern
Iran, or at Harappa and Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley.



In
my decipherment of the Indus Valley script I found the hieroglyphic sign for the chariot,
this made me look for the words use in the early Indo-European language.  If the word chariot
was used as a technical word for an object. This would determine when the language group
started. Technical words place a marker in time thru the artifacts archaeological date.  Examples
are the Indo-European languages familiarity with wheeled vehicles, such as wagons and carts.
This could not have happened before 4000BCE, because of the dates of their invention in
archaeology. These technical terms include two words for the wheel, a word for the axle, a word
for the thill or harness-pole and a verb meaning 'to ride in a vehicle'. The chariot first appears in
history around 2300BCE.  I looked for an association around the Indic word for chariot. The
Indic or Sanskrit word for chariot is 'Ratha'.  This word would have preceded the division of the
Indo-Europeans.  The Old Persian word for chariot 'ratha' and the old Persian warrior 'rathestar'
and in the Avesta the oldest Persian religious text 'ratho' means vehicle and chariot. In Europe,
the Old Church Slavonic word 'rati' means war or battle. The Serbian word for war 'rat' and the
Old Irish word for vehicle 'roth', the Irish word to attack 'ruathar'  are associated.  The Lithuanian
word to uproot 'rautereti', the Greek word to ride 'a-rith-mos' with the Greek word to destroy
'rhaio' are connected. The Latin word to rage 'e-rotos' the English 'riot' and the Latin wheel and
chariot 'rota', thus the Latin word to cast down 'rutus' are connected.  Latin's 'rota' and the close
association to 'ratha' follows Latin's staunch conservativism towards change. The German word
for chivalry 'ritter-linchkeit' and the German word for Knight 'ritter' the German word to destroy
'aus-rotten' with the German word for savoir 'retten' are connected.  The Celtic chariot 'ca-rros'
an amalgamation of the Sanskrit 'ca' meaning both (as in the english prefix co-dependent) and
ratha that became the wheel (both wheels cha-riot). The English Cha-riot is a loan word, with the
Old Briton 'car'.  These associations can then be grouped with the military word to 'route' an
enemy; French 'deroute', Spanish 'rota' and the German 'ronde'. The first time historically the
word Ratha is used as chariot is around 1650BCE with the Hurrians of the Middle East. These
Hurrian's had hundreds of Vedic Sanskrit loan words. These associations and the established
associations of the Indo-European groups are similar; Sanskrit 'Ayas' meaning metal shifts to
bronze in Latin's 'Aes' and becomes 'Iron' in the German 'Eisen';. The Sanskrit 'father'; is 'pater'
German 'vater' and Latin 'pater' this word was best saved jumping to the word 'pater-nal' in
English. The Sanskrit word 'satem' means one hundred, the Latin word is 'centum' it jumps but
stays within the same subject matter in the English words 'century' and 'centennial'. Many times
these associations are loan words of a later date, but they can point to the Sanskrit word being
saved better in a sister language.   

The Hittite's were the first Indo-Europeans recorded in history. The second Indo-Europeans
recorded were the Indic branch (Sanskrit). Within the recorded history of Mesopotamia and
Egypt, Sanskrit words and names start appearing around 1700BCE. These Sanskrit words were
found in such numbers that they became a historical fact: the two main groups associated were the
non Indo-European Hurrian's and Mitanni. The Hurrian's learned new technologies and Indic
names from these Indo-Europeans, thus receiving Sanskrit loan words. One of those Hurrian
words was the chariot recorded as "ratta".  The main area of the Middle-East of these Vedic
words was Israel and that is where a spear-head was found at Geyer in Palestine dated to the
eighteenth dynasty that exactly matches ones found in Chandole and Navdatoli of India. The
Hurrian word for chivalry was called "mariyanna", the parallel Indic word "Maryana" was called
young warrior. This words endless use in battles of the Middle East has been taken up in depth by
modern history. The chariot historically appears around 2300BCE, same time as the destruction
layer of Early Bronze Age 2 and 3, this destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river ( possible
original Indo-Europeans). This happened 300 years prior to the appearance of the organized
Hittite nation in 2000BCE.  Just like the wheel the chariot puts a marker in time.

The names of the kings of the Mitanni state were of Indo-Aryan origin, and a number of Indo-Aryan
gods (Mitra, Varuza, Indra, Nāsatya) are mentioned in the Mitanni texts, alongside the indigenous gods
(cf. Burrow 1973:27—30). The Hittite archives of Àattušašhave revealed the oldest
known horse-training manual. This work, written ca. 1345 BCE by a Mitanni horse-trainer named  Kikkuli
4, contains 1080 lines on four tablets. It begins with the words: ‘Thus speaks Kikkuli, master horse-trainer
of the land of Mitanni’. Several Indo-Aryantechnical terms for horse training are
mentioned in this manual: aikawartanna‘one turn (of the course)’ (cf. Sanskrit eka-vartana-),
terawartanna ‘three turns’ (cf. Sanskrittri-)  panzawartanna ‘five turns’ (cf. Sanskrit pañca-),
sattawartanna ‘seven turns’ (cf. Sanskrit sapta-), and nawartanna (for *nawa-wartanna) ‘nine
turns’ (cf. Sanskrit nava-).

Mitanni  1500–1300 BCE;  The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC)  (3300–1300 BCE; mature
period 2600–1900 BCE)3300-1300=2000 years of occupation not counting the Mehrgarh,
(7000–5500 BCE), on the Kachi Plain of Balochistan, is an important Neolithic site
discovered in 1974, with early evidence of farming and herding, and dentistry.
The Matanni kingdom and related loan words suggests their success
was do to the horses relationship to war.

I believe the Early Andronovo were the Gutian's that sacked Mesopotamia around
2300BCE, this destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river (Early Bronze Age 2 and 3).  I
believe the Andronovo were prior to the Indo-European's of the Indus, this would explain the
Hittite's large substrate interference. Berossus reports the same that the Indo-European presence
in Mesopotamia came in the attack on Naram-sin, Using ancient Babylonian records and texts that
are lost to us, Berossus published the Babyloniaca (hereafter, History of Babylonia) in three books
sometime around 290-278 BC, by the patronage of the Macedonian/Seleucid king, Antiochus I Soter
(during the third year of Antiochus I, according to Diodorus Siculus). In his King list Berossos has the
Medes for Gutains.
Most linguists believe that the Guti spoke an Indo-European language. The fact that
the Guti
belonged to the Indo-Iranians, is confirmed by their language, which is attested mainly by
personal
names and king list. According to them the Guti spoke an Indo-European language, which was
close
to the Tokharian languages. In 2100 BCE there was a united empire that extended from the
Danube River to the east of India .
The chariot historically appears around 2300BCE, same time as the destruction layer of Early Bronze
Age 2 and 3, this destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river.
Kurum 2121-2120BC was the name of a king of the Gutains and the undisputed origins of the Hindu
people is Kuru the people and land and famous king, the land said to be north of the Himalaya's where
the river “Bhadra” runs north to the northern ocean. Kuru was also a land or region of the Indus Valley,
the  hundred Indus city's close to present day Kurukshitra. The two were called upper and lower Kuru.

The older Sintashta culture (2100–1800), formerly included within the Andronovo culture, is now
considered separately, but regarded as its predecessor, and accepted as part of the wider Andronovo
horizon The Andronovo culture is strongly associated with the Indo-Iranians and is often credited with the
invention of the spoke-wheeled chariot around 2000 BCE.  Andronovo culture is also notable for regional

advances in metallurgy. Sintashta is a site on the upper Ural River . It is famed for its grave-offerings,
particularly "chariot" burials.
These inhumations were in kurgans and included all or parts of animals
(horse and dog) deposited into the barrow.
Sintashta is often pointed to as the premier proto-Indo-
Iranian site, and it is conjectured that the language spoken
was still in the Proto-Indo-Iranian stage.
There are similar sites "in the Volga-Ural steppe".

Naram-Sin 2300 BC traded with Meluhha (possibly corresponding to the Indus Valley civilization), and
controlled a large
portion of land along the Persian Gulf . He expanded his empire by defeating the King
of Magan at the southern
end of the Persian Gulf, and conquering the hill tribes to the north in the Taurus
Mountains . Magan was Makran
is a semi-desert coastal strip in the south of Sindh and Balochistan, in
Pakistan and Iran, along the coast of the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman.
Sanskrit Lexicon;
makara m. a kind of sea-monster, the crocodile
The southern part of Balochistan is called Kech Makran on Pakistani side and Makran on the Iranian side
which is also the name of a former Iranian province. Prior to that, in Achaemenid times, the name Maka
was used for the region. The Sumerian trading partners of Magan are identified with Makran.
In
Varahamihira's Brihat Samhita, there is a mention of a tribe called Makara inhabiting the lands west of
India. Arrian used the term Ichthyophagi (Ancient Greek for "fish eaters") for inhabitants of coastal areas,
which has led to a suggestion to derive Makran from the Modern Persian term māhī khorān, meaning
"fish eaters", but this derivation is considered "erroneous".

Maka was an important early eastern satrapy of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Babylonians had made voyages using Maka to communicate with India. After Cyrus' death, Darius I
of Persia succeeded his throne, and, according to Greek historian Herodotus, wanted to know more
about Asia. He wished to know where the "Indus (which is the only river save one that produces
crocodiles) emptied itself into the sea"


The territory of the Indus Valley overlaps Andronovo territory in Afghanistan, with a similar
metallurgy.  
Where-as the Indo-European languages of Europe and again the Middle East I
believe is the result of an unknown disaster that hits the Indus Valley civilization some time before
1800BCE, causing a total abandonment of the site. The central authority or people that organized
the Indus leave and the bead makers take over the palaces.  Here I would like to say that when a
site is not totally abandoned it will never be known the true time of the central authority's
abandonment.

Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. Enmerkar is also known from a few other Sumerian legends, most
notably Enmerkar
and the Lord of Aratta, where a previous confusion of the languages of mankind is
mentioned. In this account, it is
Enmerkar himself who is called 'the son of Utu' (the Sumerian sun god).  
The name of the Indus Valley culture to the
Mesopotamians was Aratta,  Enmerkar from the story above
needed Lapis for the temple he wanted to build for the
goddess Inanna.  Inanna lived in Dilium (Dilipa)
the goddess lived or came from the Indus Valley so Lapis was used for
the traditional temple.

Tamil
makArATTiram        1. the mah-ratta country; 2. the mah-ratta language
marATTam        02 1. the mah-ratta country; 2. place
mAraTTam        the maha-ratta country
ariccantiran2        * king of the solar race who is said to have given up his country, his wife, his son and
himself as a martyr to truth
arikkajncampA        a kind of paddy, as originally from the arakkan country (TLS)
AriyAvarttam        * the tract of country in India lying between the Hima1layas and the Vindhya
mountains, the sacred land of the a1ryas
Saskrit
mahArtha   

Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. Enmerkar is also known from a few other Sumerian legends, most
notably Enmerkar
and the Lord of Aratta, where a previous confusion of the languages of mankind is
mentioned. In this account, it is
Enmerkar himself who is called 'the son of Utu' (the Sumerian sun god).  
The name of the Indus Valley culture to the
Mesopotamians was Aratta,  Enmerkar from the story above
needed Lapis for the temple he wanted to build for the
goddess Inanna.  Inanna lived in Dilmun the
goddess lived or came from the Indus Valley so Lapis was used for
the traditional temple.

vRSabha        mfn. (cf. %{RSabha}) manly , mighty , vigorous , strong (applied like %{vRSan}
to animate and inanimate objects) RV. AV. ; m. (ifc. f. %{A}) a bull (in Veda epithet of various
gods , as of Indra , Br2ihas-pati , Parjanya &c. ; according to Sa1y. = %{varSayitR} , `" a
showerer of bounties , benefactor "') RV. &c. ; ; (with Jainas) of the first Arhat of the
present Avasarpin2i1 Col. ; of a mountain in Giri-vraja MBh. Hariv. &c. ; (in astron.) of the
28th Muhu1rta ; (%{A}) f. N. of the three lunar mansions (viz. of Magha1 , Pu1rva-phalguni1 ,
and Uttaraphalguni1) VP. (cf. %{vIthi} ; of a river MBh. (%{I}). f. a widow L. ;
asuraguru m. `" teacher of the Asuras "' , the planet
Venus (or Sukra) Ka1d.
Inanna was associated with the planet Venus, which at that time was regarded as two
stars, the "morning star" and the "evening star"This is the Mountain Musha as both
morning mountain and evening. There are hymns to Inanna as her astral manifestation. It
also is believed that in many myths about Inanna, including Inanna's Descent to the
Underworld and Inanna and Shukaletuda, her movements correspond with the movements
of Venus in the sky.
vRSabhA-suravidhvaMsin  m. `" slayer of the Asura Vr2ishabha "'N. of Vishn2u Pan5car.
AbhAsura        mfn. (Pa1n2. 3-2 , 161) shining , bright L. ; m. N. of a class of deities L.
bhAsura        mfn. shining , radiant , bright , splendid Ka1v. Ra1jat. &c. ; (ifc.) excellent in , distinguished
by Cat. ; terrible (?) L. ; m. a crystal L. ; a hero L. ; n. Costus Speciosus or Arabicus L
Asura        1 mf(%{I})n. (fr. %{asura}) , spiritual , divine RV. VS. AV. ; belonging or devoted to evil spirits
; belonging or relating to the Asuras RV. AV. VS. Ka1tyS3r. Prab. Das3. &c. ; infernal , demoniacal ; m.
an Asura or demon AV. AitBr. Pa1n2.
asuraguru        m. `" teacher of the Asuras "' , the planet Venus (or S3ukra) Ka1d. (cf. %{amarA7ri-
pUjya}.)


Why does the Sumerain mythology let there goddes Inanna get raped?  
One story is Inanna and Enlil lived in Dilmun there Enlil rapes her and she gives birth
the the Moon.     In another rape story of Inanna the narrator first goes on to introduce the
reader to Shukaletuda(Sukra), a gardener who is terrible at his job and partially blind
(ekekSaNa m. `" one-eyed "'N. of S3ukra or Venus (the teacher of the Asuras) All of his
plants die, with the exception of one poplar tree. Shukaletuda rapes Inanna under the
poplar tree.

Why does Inanna destroy a mountain in Iran?
This myth depicts Inanna's confrontation with and ultimate destruction of Mount Ebih (Jebel
Makhul, near modern-day Shaikh Ibrahim, Iraq),[28] which has refused to recognize her
superiority.
Why do they have to get resources from Aratta (Indus Valley)for Inanna's temple?
Inanna has a central role in the myth of Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta.  A major
theme in the narrative is the rivalry between the rulers of Aratta and Uruk for the heart of
Inanna. Ultimately, this rivalry results in natural resources coming to Uruk and the invention
of writing.
Gilgamesh had to pass through Mount Mashu to reach Dilmun in the Epic of
Gilgamesh, which is usually identified with the whole of the parallel Lebanon and Anti-
Lebanon ranges, with the narrow gap between these mountains constituting the tunnel.
Others believe Mount Mashu was one of two ("twin") mountains that held up the sky at the
eastern and western extremities of the world. The Sumerian versions of the Gilgamesh
epic demonstrate that the earlier versions of the myth sited the Cedar Mountain to the
east, in the direction of the rising of Utu, the Sumerian sun god.[9]
In the Epic, overcome with the death of his friend Enkidu, the hero Gilgamesh sets out on a
series of journeys to search for his ancestor Utanapishtim (Manu) who lives at the mouth of
the rivers and has been given eternal life.

The word "Mashu" itself may translate as "two mountains", from the Babylonian for twins.
The "twins", in Semitic mythology, were also often seen as two mountains, one at the
eastern edge of the world (in the lower Zagros), the other at the western edge of the world
(in the Taurus), and one of these seem to have had an Iranian location. Mashu, today, is a
village in the Elburz mountains of Iran. Siduri, the Alewife, lived on the shore, associated
with "the Waters of Death" that Gilgamesh had to cross to reach Utnapishtim.

Gilgamesh is counseled by Manu and is told by him to go to Dilmun.  Ziusudra  "found long
life" or "life of long days") of Shuruppak (legend has Shuruppak as a bunch of
drunks 'sura') is listed in the WB-62 Sumerian king list recension as the last king of Sumer
prior to the deluge. He is subsequently recorded as the hero of the Sumerian flood epic.
He is also mentioned in other ancient literature, including The Death of Gilgamesh and
The Poem of Early Rulers, and a late version of The Instructions of Shuruppak
 refers
to Ziusudra
. Akkadian Atrahasis ("extremely wise") and Utnapishtim ("he found life"), as
well as biblical Noah ("rest") are similar heroes of flood legends of the ancient Near East.

Tvastar is mentioned in the Matanni treaty, Wikipedia says this establishes Tvastar as
a Proto-Indo-Iranian divinity,  if so then this Rathakara is son of Sukracarya of the Bhrgus
that created nadIvRt mfn. stream-obstructing (Vritra) RV. Tvastar creates Vritra
and creates the weapon that kills him. Tvastar creates Nabu that later became one of the
principal gods in Assyria and Assyrians. Nabu was the god of writing and scribes and was
the keeper of the Tablets of Destiny, in which the fate of humankind was recorded. He was
also sometimes worshiped as a fertility god and as a god of water. Naba-nedathsha
Scythian Iranian ,*Danu apara "river afar" and *Danu nazdya "river near", respectively. In
Vedic religion, Vritra is the first born creator of the universe. He is the visible form of
creativity emerged from the navel (Nabha)of the invisible Viswakarma In Yajurveda purusha
Suktha and in the 10th mandala of the Rigveda his character and attributes are merged
with the concept of Hiranyagharbha/Prajapathy or Brahma . The term, also transliterated
as Tvastr, nominative Tvasta, is the heavenly builder, the maker of divine implements,
especially Indra's Vajra and the guardian of Soma. Tvastar is mentioned 65 times in the
Rgveda and is the former of the bodies of men and animals,' and invoked when desiring
offspring, called garbha-pati or the lord of the womb.Tvastar is also referred to as
Rathakra or the chariot maker and sometimes as Taksa in Rgveda. Surprisingly he is also
inferred to as Indra's father.


Name of Sukra , the planet Venus VarBr2S.
asuraguru m. `" teacher of the Asuras "' , the planet Venus (or Sukra) Ka1d.
Inanna was associated with the planet Venus, which at that time was regarded as two
stars, the "morning star" and the "evening star"This is the Mountain Musha as both
morning mountain and evening. There are hymns to Inanna as her astral manifestation. It
also is believed that in many myths about Inanna, including Inanna's Descent to the
Underworld and Inanna and Shukaletuda, her movements correspond with the movements
of Venus in the sky.



Nabu (in Biblical Hebrew Nebo נבו) is the Assyrian and Babylonian god of wisdom and
writing, worshipped by Babylonians as the son of Marduk and his consort, Sarpanitum,
and as the grandson of Ea. Nabu's consort was Tashmetum.
sarpaRSi m. `" serpent-R2ishi "'N. of Arbuda AitBr.

Sarpanit (alternately Sarpanitu, Zarpanit, Zarpandit, Zerpanitum, Zerbanitu, or Zirbanit) is a
mother goddess and the consort of the chief god, Marduk. Her name means "the shining
one", and she is sometimes associated with the planet Venus.Assyrian called Enanna
Mulliltu Mula the original.
Manasa is the sister of Vasuki, king of Nāgas (snakes) and wife of sage Jagatkāru
(Jaratkāru).[1] She is also known as Vishahara (the destroyer of poison), Jagadgaurī,
Nityā (eternal) and Padmavati.Her myths emphasize her bad temper and unhappiness,
due to rejection by her father Shiva and her husband, and the hatred of her stepmotherShe
is often called "the one-eyed goddess", as one of her eyes was burnt by her stepmother
Chandi.
ekekSaNa m. `" one-eyed "'N. of S3ukra or Venus (the teacher of the Asuras)
Jagatkaru of the Bhrgu family from Varuna god of the ocean the Matsaya or Manu family.


The next line reads: After the flood swept over, kingship descended from heaven; the
kingship was in Kish. The city of Kish flourished in the Early Dynastic period soon after an
archaeologically attested river flood in Shuruppak (modern Tell Fara, Iraq) and various
other Sumerian cities.
Enlil (Indra) the god of weather or storm god. According to the Sumerian's,
Enlil helped create the humans, but then got tired of their noise and tried to kill
them by sending a flood. A mortal known as Utnapishtim (Manu) survived the
flood through the help of another god, Ea (Vishnu), and he was made immortal
by Enlil after Enlil's initial fury had subsided. In the Sumerian religion, Ninlil (
indrANI)( DNIN.LÍL"lady of the open field" or "Lady of the Wind"), also called
Sud, in Assyrian called Mulliltu, is the consort goddess of Enlil.

In the Sumerian religion Enlil and Ninlil lived in Dilmun or Indra and indrANI his
wife  
jayanta is the name of a daughter of Indra L.m. the moon L.  ; of Rishabha's
wife (received from Indra) BhP. v , 4 , 8 MatsyaP. vl , 26


The fourth Cakravartin in Jainism is Shantinath same story as Sibi the sixth
Hindu Cakravartin the
inference made that the pigion represents the Jains
and the hawk is the Hindu from the subject matter of
both historys, in his renunciation he fasted and gave his flesh. On the Earth, King Meghrath was sitting in
his court surrounded by his
courtiers. At that time a pigeon flew in through an open window and started
circling inside
the hall. To the king's surprise, it landed on his lap. The king realized
that the pigeon had come there out of fear.
At that very instant, a hawk flew into the king’s court too. He
said to the
king, "This pigeon is my prey." The king was struck with a wonder to hear
a bird speak.
However, he replied, "It is true that this pigeon is your prey, but I can give
you some other food."
Later on, the soul of King Meghrath became the sixteenth Tirthankar,  Shäntinäth.

Shibi: The son of the Chandravanshi King Ushinara, the grandson of
King Yayati and the Aila King of the
Bhojas. His mother was the beautiful
princess Madhavi, the daughter of Yayati. Shibi conquered the
world by military force,
performed many Ashwamedha Yagnas, performed charity and upheld Dharma.
He was most
famous for sacrificing his own flesh to save a pigeon from a hawk, who
turned out to be the gods. The gods restored Shibi to his original form.
Shibi later used his
power to force Yayati back to heavens when the latter exhausted his
religious merit.
The timing of Rama going down to southern India recruiting the monkey
god Hanuman who extinguishes
the Jain’s
framing torches of Kuntha and changing the origins of Bharata. This is the timing of Vishnu who
must first go back in time to change
history. All of this happened with the blessings of the Jains who too
changed their history.
This is the timing of Dravidian Loan words appearing in late Vedic
Age text. Jainism first establishes
itself in the south India with Rishabha’s dividing the people into
different occupations after years these divisions are adapted
into the native southern cult of the
Macque monkey with the same cast system.

Mallinatha was the last straw, she was way ahead of her time. This “Little” fearless girl becomes
enlightened, her
first sermon is the first hard core stoic philosophy sermon. This would have empowered
women in any society.
Society just was not ready for it.


Hanuman Dravidian for female to Male monkey or both genders as a caste.
Anjana mother of Hanuman
and her husband Kesari prayed Shiva for a child.
By Shiva's direction, Vayu transferred his male energy
to Anjana's womb.
Accordingly, Hanuman is identified as the son of the Vayu. The orientalist F. E.
Pargiter (1852-1927) theorized that Hanuman was a
proto-Dravidian deity, and the name "Hanuman" was
a Sanskritization of
the Old Tamilword Aan-mandhi or An-manti ("male monkey"). linguist
Murray Emeneau, specializing in Dravidian languages, pointing out that
the word mandi, as attested in
Sangam literature can refer only to a female monkey. Anuman (Tamil),
Hanumanthudu (Telugu), Anoman
(Indonesian), Andoman (Malay) and
Hunlaman (Lao).
.The origins of a caste system Macaques have a very intricate social structure
and hierarchy. If a
macaque of a lower level in the social chain has eaten berries
and none are left for a higher-level
macaque, then the one higher in status can,
within this social organization, remove the berries from the
other monkey's mouth.

In Jain texts, Hanuman is depicted as the 17th of 24 Kamadevas.
Kamadevas
Sanatkumara,   is the 7th            15th Sanatkumar Arhat
Vatsaraja,         is the 8th
Kanakaprabha, is the 9th                 Three Kamadevas between
Meghaprabha, is the 10th
Shantinatha, is the 11th               16th Sibi    Arhat
Kunthunatha, is the 12th             17. Kuntha Arhat
Arahanatha,   is the 13th                     18. Aara        Arhat
                            
Three Kamadevas  between        19. Mallinaatha                              
     
Hanuman,  is the 17th                 20. Munisuvrata

Malli ; Name of the 19th Arhat of the present Avasarpini L. ; f. (= %{mallikA}) Jasminum Zambac (also %
{I}) Prasannar. ;
earthenware L. ; a seat L. having,holding, possessing
Padma; Name of the mother of Muni-suvrata the 20th Arhat of the present
Avasarpin2i L. ;
Padma; A female serpent-demon / goddess Manasa , wife of the sage Jarat-ka1ru
Padma; the 6 divisions of the upper part of the body called Cakras, Tantrikas q.v.
Muladhara is the lowest Cakra Pundarika and Kundalini

Padma; A lotus (esp. the flower of the lotus-plant Nelumbium Speciosum which closes towards evening ;
often confounded
with the water-lily or Nymphaea Alba) MBh. Ka1v. &c. (ifc. f. %{A}) ; the form or figure
of a lotus R. Ma1rkP.
The time of Rama as an Avatar was because of Mallinatha, the next Arhat is Muni-
suvrata time of Rama according the Jains.
Nandi Purushpundarik Bali happened between Armat and
Mallinath
  Nandimitra Datta Prahlad between Arnath and Mallinath Tirthankar Ram , Laxman, Ravan
between Munisuvrat and Naminath Tirthanka



    A step towards this loss of knowledge in western history happened in May 330 B.C., a little over a
month before Alexander the Great went after the escaped, last, Great King of the Achaemenid Persians
(Darius III), he burned the king's palaces at Persepolis for reasons we will never know for sure.
Especially since Alexander later regretted it, scholars and others have puzzled over what motivated such
vandalism. The reasons suggested generally boil down to intoxication, policy, or revenge.
Here is another possible reason; Alexander prided himself on his intellectual prowess, with philosophy
masters as his teachers why did he burn down that library? After the taking Persepolis Greek scholars
who would have been very interested to go through the library of Persepolis that legend has it contained
the complete history of three prior empires. I want to point out Alexander had those scholars with him.
When Alexander gets word of their finding that Greek origins are East he gets drunk, burns down the
library and plans an attack of India. This was not a part of the original plan so he has to convince his men
of the importance of this new mission.
What those Greek scholars found Berossus reports the same that the Indo-European presence in
Mesopotamia came in the attack on Naram-sin, Using ancient Babylonian records and texts that are lost
to us, Berossus published the Babyloniaca (hereafter, History of Babylonia) in three books sometime
around 290-278 BC, by the patronage of the Macedonian/Seleucid king, Antiochus I Soter (during the
third year of Antiochus I, according to Diodorus Siculus). In his King list Berossos has the Medes for
Gutains.
Most linguists believe that the Guti spoke an Indo-European language. The fact that the Guti belonged to
the Indo-Iranians, is confirmed by their language, which is attested mainly by personal names and king
list. According to them the Guti spoke an Indo-European language, which was close to the Tokharian
languages.
In 2100 BCE there was a united empire that extended from the Danube River to the east of India . The
chariot historically appears around 2300BCE, same time as the destruction layer of Early Bronze Age 2
and 3, this destruction ran from Syria to the Danube river.
Kurum 2121-2120BC was the name of a king of the Gutains and the undisputed origins of the Hindu
people is Kuru the people and land and famous king, the land said to be north of the Himalaya's where
the river “Bhadra” runs north to the northern ocean. Kuru was also a land or region of the Indus Valley,
the  hundred Indus city's close to present day Kurukshitra. The two were called upper and lower Kuru.
The gymnosophists
Diogenes Laërtius (fl. 3rd century AD) (ix. 61 and 63) refers to them, and reports that Pyrrho of Elis was
influenced by the Gymnosophists while in India with Alexander the Great, and on his return to Elis,
imitated their habits of life and caused him to found the Hellenistic philosophy of Pyrrhonism,

The Greeks encountered the gymnosophists in the third century BCE at the town of ancient
Taxila in
Ancient India, which was an ancient centre of Indian learning. The naked saints, whom Alexander met,
are sometimes considered to be Digambara Jain monks, who have continued to practise nudity.  
According to recent paper by Halkias, the gymnosophists could not have been Jains.

One such noted gymnosophist was Calanus. Before immolation, he is said to have prophesied the death
of Alexander at Babylon.

Another noted gymnosophist by Greeks was Dandamis, who was the teacher of Calanus. Alexander
later learned Indian philosophy from him.

“        For the polity of the Indians being distributed into many parts, there is one tribe among them of
men divinely wise, whom the Greeks are accustomed to call Gymnosophists. But of these there are two
sects, over one of which the Bramins preside, but over the other the Samanaeans. The race of the
Bramins, however, receive divine wisdom of this kind by succession, in the same manner as the
priesthood. But the Samanaeans are elected, and consist of those who wish to possess divine
knowledge.        ”
— Porphyry, On Abstinence from Animal Food
The Brachmanes or Bragmanes, who are identified with Brahmanas of Vedic religion who remained
unclothed, and whom even Porphyry (c. 234 – c. 305 AD) mentions having lived on milk and fruit, have
been identified as gymnosophists.

Similarly, the ancient Shramanas, which included the Digambar sect of Jain monks, also remain
unclothed. They too have been identified as gymnosophists by researchers.


The term was used by Plutarch (c. CE 46 – CE 120) in the 1st century CE, when describing an
encounter by Alexander the Great with ten gymnosophists near the banks of the Indus river in what is
now Pakistan.

He (Alexander) captured ten of the Gymnosophists who had done most to get Sabbas to revolt, and had
made the most trouble for the Macedonians. These philosophers were reputed to be clever and concise
in answering questions, and Alexander therefore put difficult questions to them, declaring that he would
put to death him who first made an incorrect answer, and then the rest, in an order determined in like
manner; and he commanded one of them, the oldest, to be the judge in the contest. The first one,
accordingly, being asked which, in his opinion, were more numerous, the living or the dead, said that the
living were, since the dead no longer existed. The second, being asked whether the earth or the sea
produced larger animals, said the earth did, since the sea was but a part of the earth. The third, being
asked what animal was the most cunning, said: "That which up to this time man has not discovered." The
fourth, when asked why he had induced Sabbas to revolt, replied: "Because I wished him either to live
nobly or to die nobly." The fifth, being asked which, in his opinion, was older, day or night, replied: "Day,
by one day"; and he added, upon the king expressing amazement, that hard questions must have hard
answers. Passing on, then, to the sixth, Alexander asked how a man could be most loved; "If," said the
philosopher, "he is most powerful, and yet does not inspire fear." Of the three remaining, he who was
asked how one might become a god instead of man, replied: "By doing something which a man cannot
do"; the one who was asked which was the stronger, life or death, answered: "Life, since it supports so
many ills." And the last, asked how long it were well for a man to live, answered: "Until he does not
regard death as better than life." So, then, turning to the judge, Alexander bade him give his opinion. The
judge declared that they had answered one worse than another. "Well, then," said Alexander, "thou shalt
die first for giving such a verdict." "That cannot be, O King," said the judge, "unless thou falsely saidst
that thou wouldst put to death first him who answered worst." These philosophers, then, he dismissed
with gifts...

— Plutarch, Life of Alexander, "The parallel lives", 64-65.[6]
[2]   Kobashi, T.; et al. (2007). "Precise
timing and characterization of abrupt
climate change 8,200 years ago from
air trapped in polar ice". Quaternary
Science Reviews. 26: 1212–1222.
Bibcode:2007QSRv...26.1212K. doi:
10.1016/j.quascirev.2007.01.009.

RESEARCH ARTICLE MARCH 01, 2010
Timing and magnitude of the sea-level
jump preluding the 8200 yr event
Marc P. Hijma
Kim M. Cohen
Geology (2010) 38 (3): 275-278.
https://doi.org/10.1130/G30439.1
"There was a great sage
[rishi] Manu, son of Vivasvat,
majestic, in lustre equal to
Prajâpati. In energy, fiery
vigour, prosperity, and
austere fervour he
surpassed both his father
and his grandfather.
Standing with uplifted arm,
on one foot, on the spacious
Badari, he practised intense
austere fervour. This direful
exercise he performed, with
his head downwards, and
with unwinking eyes, for ten
thousand years. Once,
when, clad in dripping rags,
with matted hair, he was so
engaged, a fish came to him
on the banks of the Chîrinî,
and spake: 'Lord, I am a
small fish ; I dread the
stronger ones, and from
them you must save me. For
the stronger fish devour the
weaker ; this has been
immemorially ordained as
our means of subsistence.
Deliver me from this flood of
apprehension in which I am
sinking, and I will requite the
deed.' Hearing this, Manu,
filled with compassion, took
the fish in his hand, and
bringing him to the water
threw him into a jar bright as
a moonbeam. In it the fish,
being excellently tended,
grew ; for Manu treated him
like a son. After a long time
he became very large, and
could not be contained in the
jar.
By Mr. Bal Patil

Like Buddha who founded
Buddhism, Mahaveer was not
the Arch-founder of Jainism.
According to the Jaina Scriptural
Tradition, there have been
twenty three
tirthankars before Mahaveer
who propounded Jainism from
time to time. Dr. S.
Radhakrishnan says that "The
Bhagvata Purana endorses the
view that Rishabha
was the founder of Jainism.
There is evidence to show that
so far back as the first century
B. C. there was people who were
worshipped Rishabhadeva, the
first
tirthankara. There is no doubt
that Jainism prevailed even
before Vardhamana Mahaveer
or Parsvanatha. the Yajurveda
mentions the names of three
tirthankaras -Rishabha,
Adinatha, and Arishtamemi."
The idea of Rishabha
tirtankaras being an
epoch-making man is found
deep rooted in the Jaina
Scriptures.
He was the son of fourteen
Kalukara or manu, known as
Nabhi. He is also known as
Adinatha. Rishabha inaugurated
the Karmabhoomi and
pioneered human
civilisation and culture.
Rishabha was the first preacher
of the ahimsa dharma, the first
tirthankara or ford- maker to
moksha according to Jaina path
of
purification and liberation. He
attained Nirvana on the summit
of Mount Kailasa in Tibet. The
point to be noted is that there is
a consistent tradition found in the
Jaina religious literature and
also in Hindu puranas from
earliest times in invoking
Rishabha Deva as Rudra or
Shiva. The following stanza in
Shiva Puranas
brings out clearly this association
meaning : Rishabhadeva,Jaineshwara,
the emniscient and the all pervasive
incarnated himself on the magnificent
Kailasa,
Asthapada mountain.

It is the definite opinion of Sir
John Marshall that the Vedic
Aryans adopted Shiva worship
(Shiva Pashupati-Rudra ) from
Indus Valley culture. It is
significant as
suggested by various scholar
that the nude standing images in
the Indus Valley in a typical
Jaina ascetic yogic pose -
Kayotsarga -abandonment of
the body in
meditation - beat a striking
resemblance to the oldest Jaina
Sculpture and further that there
is a link between the Indus bull
-seals and the bull insignia,
lanchhana of Rishabha. From
the Vedic times to the present
Rudra or Shiva and Rishabha
have been considered usually
as alternative names or
designations
which are : Digambara, Digvasa,
Tapomaya, Charukesha,
Shanta, Akshobhya, Ahimsa,
Jnani, Kapardi, Jati. These are
such attributes as become
perfectly
applicable in their meaning to
Rishabha Tirthankara. His
nudity, matted hair is
well-known. The characteristic
mark of Shankara is found in
Jaina creations and
images known as Triratna, which
is found clearly marked in the
cave of Saratakharavela at
Udaigiri in Orissa. It is found
marked on the palms of the
ancient
images of Rishabha and other
Tirthankaras.

The arch - form of this mark is
found in the form of tri-horn on
the Indus Valley seal images. It
should not be surprising if the
same mark evolved later as a
phase
of moon, Om ,svastika and the
cross of Christianity as well as
the moon and star of Islam, as
noted by the eminent Jaina
scholar Dr. Hiralal Jain. The
disciples of
Shiva are collectively called
Gana, whose leader is called
Ganapati and Ganesh. The
group of munis established by
Rishabha is also called Gana
and its
leader, his chief disciple, is
called Ganandhara. The
tradition of Gana and
Ganadhara is found unbroken
till the last tirthankara Mahaveer.
Rishabha occupies a
very important place in the Shiva
sect. In Linga Purana he is
described as a king revered all
the kshatriyas and in Vayu
Purana he is described as the
ancestor
of all the Kshatriyas Kings -
Sarva - kshatrasya purvajah.
Such parallels and spiritual
affinities since prehistoric times
between Rishabha and Shiva
show
unmistakably that new Jainism
and its first propounder have
been the precursor of the later
Shiva doctrine.

The most notable example of the
fusion and synthesis of not only
the Jaina, Shiva, but also the
Brahmanic, vedic, Buddhist and
other Indian philosophies is
found in the great Himalayan
centre of pilgrimage, Badrinatha
or Badri Vishala. In the Badri
Vishala temple in the daily
worship the following stotra is
recited :
"One who is ordered as Shiva by
the Shivas, as Brahma by the
Vedatins, as Buddha by the
Buddhists, as the cause by the
Naiyayikas, Arahan by the
Jainas,
Karma by the Mimansakas, such
god of the three worlds may
grant as our longed for fruits.
This illustrates how the
Badrinath embodies the true
secular
synthesis of the India.

The Rig Veda and Yajur Veda,  mention Rishabhadeva and Aristanemi.  Neminatha was Aristanemi.  The Rig Veda and YajurVeda are prior to
Krishna. The Jain tradition refers to Rishabhadeva as Maha-Vratya, to suggest he was the great leader of the Vratyas.Yet
according to the Jain tradition  Rishabhadeva is the first Tirthankara of the present age (avasarpini); and,Aristanemi is the twenty-second
Tirthankara.  According to Atharva Veda, Vratya is a srotriya, a student of the scriptures, (of at least one recession), and a learned person
faithful to his vows (vratas). Insummary, the passages ask:
Here the vratya in the Atharva Veda is from a post movement or turning of the wheel of time of Jainism that started with King (below)
Rishabhadeva it does not say student but vow and vratya or vow and homeless person.

” Let the king , to whose house the Vratya who possesses such knowledge comes as a guest , honor him as superior to himself, disregarding his
princely rank or his kingdom.

Let him, to whose house the Vratya possessing such knowledge comes as a guest, rise up of his own accord to meet him, and say “Vratya, where
didst thou pass the night? Vratya, here is water; let it refresh thee .Vratya let it be as thou pleasest. Vratya, as thy wish is so let be it done.”

[From Hymns of the Atharva Veda, by
Ralph T.H. Griffith…Hymn x and xi of
Book 15]
http://www.sacred-texts.
com/hin/av/av15011.htm
Jesper Eidema, Flemming Højlundb
(1993). "Trade or diplomacy? Assyria
and Dilmun in the eighteenth century
BC". World Archaeology. 24 (3): 441–
448. doi:10.1080/00438243.
1993.9980218.
The former is the reconstructed
Sumerian pronunciation; the latter is
the reconstructed Semitic.
Smith, Sylvia (2013-05-21). "Bahrain
digs unveil one of oldest civilizations".
BBC News. BBC.
"Qal'at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour
and Capital of Dilmun". UNESCO.
Retrieved 17 August 2011.
"Dilmun and Its Gulf Neighbors".
Harriet E. W. Crawford. 1998. p. 9.
The 4.2-kiloyear BP aridification
event was one of the most
severe climatic events of the
Holocene epoch.   It defines the
beginning of the current
Meghalayan age in the
Holocene epoch. Starting in
about 2200 BC, it probably
lasted the entire 22nd century
BC. It has been hypothesised to
have caused the collapse of the
Old Kingdom in Egypt as well as
the Akkadian Empire in
Mesopotamia, and the Liangzhu
culture in the lower Yangtze
River area. The drought may
also have initiated the collapse
of the Indus Valley Civilisation,
with some of its population
moving southeastward to follow
the movement of their desired
habitat into Gujarat area legend
of family of Krishna. Gutains
destroy the Akkadian's.
Tamil
Sangam
period,